Special Issue "Fatigue and Wear for Steels"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Weiß

Lehrstuhl Metallkunde und Werkstofftechnik, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials characterization; electron microscopy; tribological behavior of biomedical steels; monotonic and cyclic deformation of oligocrystalline structures; high temperature stable intermetallic titanium aluminides; development of wear resistant coatings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Steel is well known for its diversity. Depending on the alloying elements tensile strengths between 300 MPa and more than 1000 MPa can be reached. Steels can be very brittle or extremely ductile, some of them are corrosion-, fatigue- or wear resistant, others not. This broad range of properties and applications of steels, combined with comparably low productions costs, qualify them to be, perhaps, the most important industrial alloys used by man.

In this Special Issue, we would like to provide a wide set of articles on various aspects of fatigue and/or wear resistance of steels, possibly with respect to the similarities between these two natures of load. Experimental results, as well as numerical and analytical models, can describe the complexity of microstructure characteristics and mechanical phenomena interacting during load and influencing fatigue or tribological properties of steels.

For this purpose, the Special Issue covers all articles on the fatigue and/or tribological behavior, microstructure, defect structure, and performance in final products of all types of steels.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Weiß
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Steel

  • High Cycle Fatigue

  • Low Cycle Fatigue

  • Tribology

  • Wear

  • Microstructure

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Tempering Temperatures on Tensile Properties and Rotary Bending Fatigue Behaviors of 17Cr2Ni2MoVNb Steel
Metals 2018, 8(7), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070507
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
With the rapid development of the automotive industry in China, the common gear steels no longer meet the high speed and heavy load requirements of the automotive industry. 17Cr2Ni2MoVNb steel is a new type of gear steel in the automotive industry, but the
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With the rapid development of the automotive industry in China, the common gear steels no longer meet the high speed and heavy load requirements of the automotive industry. 17Cr2Ni2MoVNb steel is a new type of gear steel in the automotive industry, but the mechanical properties of 17Cr2Ni2MoVNb are not well documented. In this study, the tensile properties and rotary bending fatigue behaviors of 17Cr2Ni2MoVNb were investigated, (quenched at 860 °C and tempered at 180, 400, 620 °C); the microstructures and fracture surface were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that at higher tempering temperatures, the tissue was denser, and the residual austenite transformed into lower bainite or tempered martensite. Dislocation density reduced while tempering temperature increased. Moreover, the samples with a tempering temperature of 180 °C exhibited the highest tensile strength of 1456 MPa, in addition to fatigue limits of 730, 700 and 600 MPa at temperatures of 180, 400, and 620 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Behavior of Cold-Worked High-Interstitial Steels
Metals 2018, 8(6), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060442
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
The austenitic high-nitrogen (AHNS) and high-interstitial steels (AHIS) with more than 0.6 weight-% N allow for a yield strength above 1.1 GPa and a tensile strength above 1.5 GPa by maintaining an elongation to fracture markedly above 30%. These steels gain their prominent
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The austenitic high-nitrogen (AHNS) and high-interstitial steels (AHIS) with more than 0.6 weight-% N allow for a yield strength above 1.1 GPa and a tensile strength above 1.5 GPa by maintaining an elongation to fracture markedly above 30%. These steels gain their prominent mechanical properties from the fact that at the chosen sum of C+N and C/N-ratios, the concentration of free electrons is higher compared to that of other steels. Thus, the capacity to dissipate plastic work under monotonic tensile loading is unique. Now, the fatigue limit of austenitic steels in general is mainly governed by the sum of interstitials and should be further improved by cold working. Unfortunately, this is not the case for the AHNS and AHIS and is in contrast to the classical CrNiC- or CrMnC-steels. Thus, tensile and fatigue tests of cold-worked samples were conducted and analyzed by scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy. This paper tries to elucidate the metallurgical reasons, as well as the material engineering aspects, of such peculiar behavior of AHNS and AHIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanism in Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic and Martensitic Stainless Steels
Metals 2018, 8(5), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050339
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
In the present study, the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue behavior of the high strength martensitic stainless steel X3CrNiMo13-4 and the metastable austenitic stainless steels X2Crni19-11 with various nickel contents was examined in the low and high cycle fatigue regime. The focus
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In the present study, the influence of hydrogen on the fatigue behavior of the high strength martensitic stainless steel X3CrNiMo13-4 and the metastable austenitic stainless steels X2Crni19-11 with various nickel contents was examined in the low and high cycle fatigue regime. The focus of the investigations were the changes in the mechanisms of short crack propagation. Experiments in laboratory air with uncharged and precharged specimen and uncharged specimen in pressurized hydrogen were carried out. The aim of the ongoing investigation was to determine and quantitatively describe the predominant processes of hydrogen embrittlement and their influence on the short fatigue crack morphology and crack growth rate. In addition, simulations were carried out on the short fatigue crack growth, in order to develop a detailed insight into the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms relevant for cyclic loading conditions. It was found that a lower nickel content and a higher martensite content of the samples led to a higher susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, crack propagation and crack path could be simulated well with the simulation model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Strength Assessment of Welded Mild Steel Joints Containing Bulk Imperfections
Metals 2018, 8(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050306
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
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Abstract
This work investigates the effect of gas pores, as bulk imperfections, on the fatigue strength of welded mild steel joints. Two test series containing different butt joint geometries and weld process parameters are included in order to achieve two variable types of pore
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This work investigates the effect of gas pores, as bulk imperfections, on the fatigue strength of welded mild steel joints. Two test series containing different butt joint geometries and weld process parameters are included in order to achieve two variable types of pore sizes. Based on the √area-parameter by Murakami, the test series can be grouped into imperfections exhibiting √area < 1000 µm and √area > 1000 µm. Fatigue tests at a load stress ratio of R = 0.1 are performed, which act as comparison for the subsequent fatigue estimation. To assess the fatigue resistance, the approaches by Murakami, De Kazinczy, and Mitchell are utilized, which highlight certain differences in the applicability depending on the imperfection size. It is found that, on one hand, Murakami’s approach is well suitable for both small and large gas pores depending on the applied model parameters. On the other hand, the fatigue concepts by De Kazinczy and Mitchell are preferably practicable for large defects with √area > 1000 µm. In addition, the method by Mitchell incorporates the stress concentration factor of the imperfection, which can be numerically computed considering the size, shape, and location of the gas pore, as presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Angular Distortion on the Fatigue Performance of High-Strength Steel T-Joints in as-Welded and High Frequency Mechanical Impact-Treated Condition
Metals 2018, 8(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050302
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
In general, distortion has significant effects on the assembly process of welded structures and remarkable influences on the strength of the welds. Therefore, this work focuses on the effect of angular welding distortion on fatigue strength to improve transferability of specimen results to
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In general, distortion has significant effects on the assembly process of welded structures and remarkable influences on the strength of the welds. Therefore, this work focuses on the effect of angular welding distortion on fatigue strength to improve transferability of specimen results to components. Experimental investigations cover manufacturing and fatigue testing of three single-sided transversal stiffeners series exhibiting different angular distortions. The fatigue test results of as-welded specimen show a distinct link between fatigue performance and initial angular distortion. However, in case of a high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI)-treated weld toe, the fatigue strength increases up to base material level and is independent of the distortion. A comprehensive numerical analysis reveals a complex interaction between the applied nominal load, initial specimen distortion and the local stress field. In this context, an engineering-feasible assessment is derived to estimate the local effective stresses featuring the acting local stress range as well as the stress ratio. The application of this distortion factor enables the set-up of a uniform S/N-curve with a significantly reduced scatter band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Shot Blasting on Fatigue Strength of Q345B Steel Plate with a Central Hole
Metals 2017, 7(12), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7120517
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The fatigue strength of Q345B steel plate with a central hole after shot blasting is studied herein. The improvement of fatigue strength related to the failure behavior is highlighted with due analysis of fatigue cracks initiation at the defect below the condensed surface
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The fatigue strength of Q345B steel plate with a central hole after shot blasting is studied herein. The improvement of fatigue strength related to the failure behavior is highlighted with due analysis of fatigue cracks initiation at the defect below the condensed surface induced by shot blasting. The effect of stress concentration is shown to be non-ignorable in the fatigue strength analysis. Codified fatigue categories in accordance with EN 1993-1-9 are used in drawing a comparison of studied fatigue behavior. Finally, an analytical model based on a modified reference model is proposed for the evaluation of the test fatigue strength results. It is demonstrated that the predicted results agree well with test data, since the stress ratio and the size of the defect as well as the stress concentration are appropriately considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Thermally-Induced Crack Evaluation in H13 Tool Steel
Metals 2017, 7(11), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7110475
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
This study reported the effect of thermal wear on cylindrical tool steel (AISI H13) under aluminum die-casting conditions. The AISIH13 steels were immersed in the molten aluminum alloy at 700 °C before water-quenching at room temperature. The process involved an alternating heating and
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This study reported the effect of thermal wear on cylindrical tool steel (AISI H13) under aluminum die-casting conditions. The AISIH13 steels were immersed in the molten aluminum alloy at 700 °C before water-quenching at room temperature. The process involved an alternating heating and cooling of each sample for a period of 24 s. The design of the immersion test apparatus stylistically simulated aluminum alloy dies casting conditions. The testing phase was performed at 1850, 3000, and 5000 cycles. The samples were subjected to visual inspection after each phase of testing, before being examined for metallographic studies, surface crack measurement, and hardness characteristics. Furthermore, the samples were segmented and examined under optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The areas around the crack zones were additionally examined under Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). The crack’s maximum length and Vickers hardness profiles were obtained; and from the metallographic study, an increase in the number of cycles during the testing phase resulted in an increase in the surface crack formation; suggesting an increase in the thermal stress at higher cycle numbers. The crack length of Region I (spherically shaped) was about 47 to 127 µm, with a high oxygen content that was analyzed within 140 µm from the surface of the sample. At 700 °C, there is a formation of aluminum oxides, which was in contact with the surface of the H13 sample. These stresses propagate the thermal wear crack length into the tool material of spherically shaped Region I and cylindrically shape Region II, while hardness parameters presented a different observation. The crack length of Region I was about 32% higher than the crack length of Region II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Gear Performance by Alloy Modification of Carburizing Steels
Metals 2017, 7(10), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7100415
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both the tooth root and tooth flank load carrying capacity are characteristic parameters that decisively influence gear size, as well as gearbox design. The principal requirements towards all modern gearboxes are to comply with the steadily-increasing power density and to simultaneously offer a
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Both the tooth root and tooth flank load carrying capacity are characteristic parameters that decisively influence gear size, as well as gearbox design. The principal requirements towards all modern gearboxes are to comply with the steadily-increasing power density and to simultaneously offer a high reliability of their components. With increasing gear size, the load stresses at greater material depth increase. Thus, the material and particularly the strength properties also at greater material depth gain more importance. The present paper initially gives an overview of the main failure modes of case carburized gears resulting from material fatigue. Furthermore, the underlying load and stress mechanisms, under particular contemplation of the gear size, will be discussed, as these considerations principally define the required material properties. Subsequently, the principles of newly developed, as well as modified alloy concepts for optimized gear steels with high load carrying capacity are presented. In the experimental work, the load carrying capacity of the tooth root and tooth flank was determined using a pulsator, as well as an FZG back-to-back test rig. The results demonstrate the suitability of these innovative alloy concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Fatigue of Thin, Oligo-Crystalline Wires Made of X2 CrNiMo 18-15-3
Metals 2018, 8(5), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050333
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
For a variety of applications, such as in miniaturized machines, tools for minimal invasive surgery, or coronary stents, microscale components are used. For all these components, their dimensions are far below the size of conventional test specimens, and thus the grain size can
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For a variety of applications, such as in miniaturized machines, tools for minimal invasive surgery, or coronary stents, microscale components are used. For all these components, their dimensions are far below the size of conventional test specimens, and thus the grain size can approach the dimension of the cross section in these microscale components. According to experimental results, large differences in the mechanical behavior of the material occur between single- and polycrystalline test specimens. Therefore, oligo-crystalline microstructures are defined as a transition between single- and polycrystal. To investigate and understand the fundamental impact of oligo-crystalline microstructures on the mechanical behavior of the material, thin wires made of the austenitic CrNiMo steel 316LVM were fatigued. The choice of the material is justified, because it is one of the most frequently-used materials for coronary stents, and only a small amount of research has been done on oligo-crystalline microstructures of this material. Solution were annealed and 10% cold drawn oligo-crystalline wires were compared. The cold drawn wires exhibit an endurance limit of 450 MPa, which is significantly higher compared to solution annealed oligo-crystalline wires (250 MPa). Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements of the fatigued wires show massive grain rotations, which lead to orientation changes within the grains. Sometimes, the deformation of a whole structure is concentrated on just one or only very few grains, with a particularly high Schmid factor (>0.44). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Wear for Steels)
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