Special Issue "Advances in Hydrometallurgy"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Alexandre Chagnes

University of Lorraine, GeoRessources Lab, UMR CNRS 7359, 2 Rue Doyen Marcel Roubault,TSA 70605, F-54518 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrometallurgy; solution chemistry; nuclear chemistry; separation science; thermodynamic; electrochemistry; lithium batteries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of new technologies and the increasing demand of mineral resources from emerging countries are responsible for significant tensions in the price of non-ferrous metals. Some metals have become strategic and critical because they are used in many technological applications and their availability remains limited. In addition to energetic raw materials, such as oil or gas, the industry uses about fifty different metals. For many of them, the worldwide annual consumption ranges from a few tens of tons to several hundred thousand tons. Some of them, the so-called strategic metals, are crucial for achieving high performances. They are found in high-tech products, such as flat panel TVs (indium), solar panel cells (indium), lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (lithium), magnets (rare earths, such as neodymium and dysprosium), scintillators (rare earths), and aviation and medical applications (titanium). The secured supply of these metals is crucial to continue producing and exporting these technologies, and because specific properties of these metals make them essential and difficult to substitute for a given industrial application.

Hydrometallurgical processes have the advantages of being able to process low-grade ores, to allow better control of co-products and to have a lower environmental impact. With the depletion of deposits and the growing interest in low-grade elements (e.g., rare earth elements), the metallurgical industry has shown a growing interest in the development of hydrometallurgical processes more adapted to current challenges over the last fifteen years. The need to develop more efficient, economical and environmentally-friendly processes, capable of extracting metals from increasingly complex and poorly polymetallic matrices, is real. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight recent advances related to hydrometallurgy to face new challenges in metal production.

Prof. Alexandre Chagnes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Raw material
  • Extractive metallurgy
  • Hydrometallurgy
  • Process
  • Strategic metals
  • Critical metals
  • Recycling
  • Physicochemistry

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Recovery of Metals from Secondary Raw Materials by Coupled Electroleaching and Electrodeposition in Aqueous or Ionic Liquid Media
Metals 2018, 8(7), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070556
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents recent views on a hybrid process for beneficiation of secondary raw materials by combined electroleaching of targeted metals and electrodeposition. On the basis of several case studies with aqueous solutions or in ionic liquid media, the paper describes the potential
[...] Read more.
This paper presents recent views on a hybrid process for beneficiation of secondary raw materials by combined electroleaching of targeted metals and electrodeposition. On the basis of several case studies with aqueous solutions or in ionic liquid media, the paper describes the potential and the limits of the novel, hybrid technique, together with the methodology employed, combining determination of speciation, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. On one hand, the case of electroleaching/electrodeposition (E/E) process in aqueous media, although often investigated at the bench scale, appears nevertheless relatively mature, because of the developed methodology, and the appreciable current density allowed, and so it can be used to successfully treat electrode materials of spent Zn/MnO2 batteries or Ni/Cd accumulators and Waelz oxide. On the other hand, the use of ionic liquids as promising media for the recovery of various metals can be considered for other types of wastes, as shown here for the case of electrodes of aged fuel cells. The combined (E/E) technique could be successfully used for the above waste, in particular by the tricky selection of ionic liquid media. Nevertheless, further investigations in physical chemistry and chemical engineering appear necessary for possible developments of larger-scale processes for the recovery of these strategic resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Task Specific Ionic Liquids to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Effluents
Metals 2018, 8(6), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060412
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Task Specific Ionic Liquids (ILs) were generated by association between a cationic ester derivative of betaine and coordinating inorganic anions such as dicyanamide (Dca), chlorosalycilate (ClSal) and saccharinate (sac). Extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co.(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water was performed
[...] Read more.
Task Specific Ionic Liquids (ILs) were generated by association between a cationic ester derivative of betaine and coordinating inorganic anions such as dicyanamide (Dca), chlorosalycilate (ClSal) and saccharinate (sac). Extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co.(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water was performed with these ILs at room temperature. Our results show that ionic liquid with Clsal anions have a high extraction efficiency towards Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), whereas dicyanamide ionic liquid may extract efficiently Cu(II), Ni(II) Co.(II) and Cd(II). Ionic liquids with saccharinate anions are selective of Cd(II) ions. The extraction mechanism has been studied by the determination of the coextraction of the counter ion of the metal salt. Our results show that the extraction mechanism proceeds via a mixed process involving both cation exchange and ion-pairing. The proportion of which depends on the nature of the cation. The coordination of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co.(II) in ionic liquid phase was followed by UV-vis spectroscopies. The metal could be back-extracted from the ionic liquid phase with aqueous EDTA solutions. The metal extractability of the ionic liquid after the back-extraction is equivalent to that of the fresh mixture showing that ionic liquid can be reused for several extraction and back-extraction cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Aqueous Media on the Recovery of Scandium by Selective Precipitation
Metals 2018, 8(5), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050314
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
This research presents a novel precipitation method for scandium (Sc) concentrate refining from bauxite residue leachates and the effect of aqueous media on this triple-stage successive precipitation process. The precipitation pattern and the precipitation behavior of the constituent elements was investigated using different
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This research presents a novel precipitation method for scandium (Sc) concentrate refining from bauxite residue leachates and the effect of aqueous media on this triple-stage successive precipitation process. The precipitation pattern and the precipitation behavior of the constituent elements was investigated using different precipitation agents in three major mineral acid media, namely, H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl in a comparative manner. Experimental investigations showed behavioral similarities between HNO3 and HCl media, while H2SO4 media was different from them because of the nature of the formed complexes. NH4OH was found to be the best precipitation agent in every leaching media to remove Fe(III) with low Sc co-precipitation. To limit Sc loss from the system, Fe(III) removal was divided into two steps, leading to more than 90% of Fe(III) removal at the end of the process. Phosphate concentrates were produced in the final step of the precipitation process with dibasic phosphates which have a strong affinity towards Sc. Concentrates containing more than 50% of ScPO4 were produced in each case from the solutions after Fe(III) removal, as described. A flow diagram of the selective precipitation process is proposed for these three mineral acid media with their characteristic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching
Metals 2018, 8(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010080
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
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Abstract
Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two
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Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN), and Au(OH)x, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Degradation of a Mixture of tri-n-Octylamine and 1-Tridecanol in the Presence of Chromium(VI) in Acidic Sulfate Media
Metals 2018, 8(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010057
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
The chemical degradation of an extraction solvent composed of a mixture of tri-n-octylamine (extractant) and 1-tridecanol (phase modifier) in n-dodecane in contact with an acidic aqueous sulfate solution containing chromium(VI) has been investigated. The kinetics of degradation and the degradation
[...] Read more.
The chemical degradation of an extraction solvent composed of a mixture of tri-n-octylamine (extractant) and 1-tridecanol (phase modifier) in n-dodecane in contact with an acidic aqueous sulfate solution containing chromium(VI) has been investigated. The kinetics of degradation and the degradation products have been determined. GC-MS analyses evidenced the formation of 1-tridecanal, di-n-octylamine, N,N,N-octen-1-yl-dioctylamine, and an unidentified degradation compound, which may have contained a double bond and a carboxylic acid function. The mechanisms of degradation have been discussed on the basis of these identified degradation compounds. The study of the degradation kinetics showed that an increase of tri-n-octylamine concentration in the organic phase is responsible for a decrease of the degradation rate, while an increase in sulfuric acid concentration in the aqueous phase leads to a strong increase in the degradation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrometallurgical Approach for Leaching of Metals from Copper Rich Side Stream Originating from Base Metal Production
Metals 2018, 8(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010040
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 1 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
Pyrometallurgical metal production results in side streams, such as dusts and slags, which are carriers of metals, though commonly containing lower metal concentrations compared to the main process stream. In order to improve the circular economy of metals, selective leaching of copper from
[...] Read more.
Pyrometallurgical metal production results in side streams, such as dusts and slags, which are carriers of metals, though commonly containing lower metal concentrations compared to the main process stream. In order to improve the circular economy of metals, selective leaching of copper from an intermediate raw material originating from primary base metal production plant was investigated. The raw material investigated was rich in Cu (12.5%), Ni (2.6%), Zn (1.6%), and Fe (23.6%) with the particle size D80 of 124 µm. The main compounds present were nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), cuprite (Cu2O), and metallic copper. Leaching was studied in 16 different solutions. The results revealed that copper phases could be dissolved with high yield (>90%) and selectivity towards nickel (Cu/Ni > 7) already at room temperature with the following solutions: 0.5 M HCl, 1.5 M HCl, 4 M NaOH, and 2 M HNO3. A concentration of 4 M NaOH provided a superior selectivity between Cu/Ni (340) and Cu/Zn (51). In addition, 1–2 M HNO3 and 0.5 M HCl solutions were shown to result in high Pb dissolution (>98%). Consequently, 0.5 M HCl leaching is suggested to provide a low temperature, low chemical consumption method for selective copper removal from the investigated side stream, resulting in PLS (pregnant leach solution) which is a rich in Cu and lead free residue, also rich in Ni and Fe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessArticle A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery
Metals 2017, 7(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7110458
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red
[...] Read more.
Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2) with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Refining Approaches in the Platinum Group Metal Processing Value Chain—A Review
Metals 2018, 8(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040203
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Mineable platinum group metal (PGM) deposits are rare and found in relatively few areas of the world. At the same time, the use of PGM is predicted to expand in green technology and energy applications, and PGMs are consequently currently listed as European
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Mineable platinum group metal (PGM) deposits are rare and found in relatively few areas of the world. At the same time, the use of PGM is predicted to expand in green technology and energy applications, and PGMs are consequently currently listed as European Union critical metals. Increased mineralogical complexity, lower grade ores, and recent PGM production expansions give rise to the evaluation of the value chain of the capital-intensive conventional matte smelting treatment and other processing possibilities of the ore. This article will review the processes and value chain developed to treat ores for PGM recovery, highlighting hydrometallurgical refining approaches. It groups processes according to their rationale and discusses the special features of each group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Open AccessReview Recovery of Gold from Pregnant Thiosulfate Solutions by the Resin Adsorption Technique
Metals 2017, 7(12), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7120555
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
This review is devoted to an integrated evaluation of the current use and future development of the resin adsorption technique in gold recovery from pregnant thiosulfate solutions. Comparisons are firstly made with other recovery techniques, including precipitation, activated carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, electrowinning
[...] Read more.
This review is devoted to an integrated evaluation of the current use and future development of the resin adsorption technique in gold recovery from pregnant thiosulfate solutions. Comparisons are firstly made with other recovery techniques, including precipitation, activated carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, electrowinning and mesoporous silica adsorption. A detailed discussion about the recent advances of the technique in gold recovery from pregnant thiosulfate solutions is then presented from the aspects of gold adsorption on the resins and gold-loaded resin elution, respectively. On the basis of summarizing the present research, the major limitations of the resin adsorption technique are eventually pointed out and future development will also be prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrometallurgy)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


  1. Removal of Metals Oxyanions (As, Cr, Mo, Se) on Innovative Hybrid Ionosilicas (FP)

Benedicte Prelot 1,2, Peter Hesemann 1 and Ut Dong Thach 1

1   Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR-5253 CNRS-UM-ENSCM, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5, FRANCE

2   Promethee (GDR 3749), 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

  1. From Industrial Wastes to Valuable Metals By An Electrochemical Process Based on Intercalation Reactions (FP)

Elodie Guyot 1, José Barbosa 1 and Clotilde Boulanger 1,2

1  Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, 1 bd Arago, BP 95823, 57078 Metz cedex 1

2   Promethee (GDR 3749), 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

  1. Electroassisted Leaching: An Alternative to Classical Chemical Leaching for Metal Recovery from Primary and Secondary Resources?
P. Minois 1,2, A. Chagnes 3,4,L. Svecova 2,4,5, M.-O. Lupsea 4 and P.-X. Thivel 2,4,5

1   Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (Chimie Paristech) - Laboratoire d'Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l’Energie (LECIME, UMR CNRS 7575), 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France

2   Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France

3   GeoRessources-UMR CNRS 7359-CREGU-Universit ́e de Lorraine, 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault, 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

4   Promethee (GDR 3749), 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

5   UNIV. GRENOBLE ALPES, CNRS, LEPMI, Grenoble, 1130 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d’Heres, France

7. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Phosphoric acid by Ion Exchange Resins: A Critical Review

Hères 1,3, F. Cuer 1,3, P. Di Natale 1,3, A. Ouaattou 2, H. Mazouz 2 and D. Dhiba 2

1   French Nuclear and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), Nuclear Energy Division – CEA Marcoule, Research Department of Mining and Fuel Recycling ProCesses (DMRC), BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, France

2   Research & Development Direction, Office Chérifien des Phosphates (OCP), BP 118, Jorf Lasfar El Jadida, Morocco

3   Promethee (GDR 3749), 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

8. Chemical Degradation of the mixture of Trioctylamine (Extractant) and 1-Tridecanol (Phase Modifier) in Acidic Sulfate Media in the Presence of Chromium (VI)

Alexandre Chagnes 1,* and Gérard Cote 2

1   GéoRessources - UMR CNRS 7359-CREGU-Université de Lorraine, 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

2   Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (Chimie Paristech) - Laboratoire d'Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l’Energie (LECIME, UMR CNRS 7575), 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

9. Removal of Metals Oxyanions (As, Cr, Mo, Se) on Innovative Hybrid Ionosilicas

Benedicte PRELOT *, Peter HESEMANN and UtDong THACH

Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR-5253 CNRS-UM-ENSCM, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5, FRANCE 

10. From Industrial Wastes to Valuable Metals by an Electrochemical Process Based on Intercalation Reactions

Elodie Guyot, José Barbosa and Clotilde Boulanger *

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, 1 bd Arago, BP 95823, 57078 Metz cedex 1

11. Electroassisted Leaching: an Alterna've to Classical Chemical Leaching for Metal Recovery from Primary and Secondary Resources?

Minois 1, A. Chagnes 3, Lenka. Svecova 1,2,*, M.-O. Lupsea 2 and P.-X. Thivel 1,2

1   Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France

2   UNIV. GRENOBLE ALPES, CNRS, LEPMI, Grenoble, 1130 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d’Heres, France; , e-mail: lenka.svecova@lepmi.grenoble-inp.fr, tel: +33 476826691

3   GeoRessources-UMR CNRS 7359-CREGU-Universit ́e de Lorraine, 2 Rue du Doyen Roubault, 54518 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France

12. Biohydrometallurgy: From Laboratory Scale to Industrial Applications

Patrick d’Hugues *(BRGM D3E/DMP), Anne Gwenaelle Guezennec (BRGM D3E/DMP) and Cathy Joulian (BRGM D3E/GME)

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