Special Issue "Spark Plasma Sintering-A Key Technology towards the Development of New Materials"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Massimo Pellizzari

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9 38123 Trento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: spark plasma sintering; mechanical milling; tool steel; copper; metal matrix composite; heat treatment; surface engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and field-assisted consolidation technologies are representing a great opportunity for the production of new materials. Nevertheless, the challenge to achieve properties that cannot be obtained by other conventional methods is strictly related to know-how of this fast sintering process, which permits the production of near full dense materials, using lower temperatures and shorter time. The combination of SPS with severe plastic deformation processes like mechanical milling has been proved to be a suitable route for the development of nano- and ultrafine grained materials. Mechanical alloying with ceramic reinforcement has extended the benefits of SPS to the fabrication of composite materials. Moreover, SPS has also been successfully used for the development of functionally graded materials (FGM) and materials for many other applications.

Aim of this Special Issue is to collect full papers, communications, and reviews reporting original and novel results about SPS and field-assisted consolidation technologies of metals, alloys, and composite materials.

I cordially invite you to send your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Massimo Pellizzari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • spark plasma
  • sintering
  • mechanical milling
  • powder
  • metals
  • metal matrix composites

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Efficient Powder Metallurgy Processing Route to Prepare High-Performance β-Ti–Nb Alloys Using Pure Titanium and Titanium Hydride Powders
Metals 2018, 8(7), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070516
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Toward designing a cost-effective advanced powder metallurgy approach, we present a new insight into the efficient utilization of titanium hydride powder, together with pure Ti powder, to prepare high-strength β-titanium alloys. In the present work, Ti–40 mass% Nb alloy was prepared by mechanical
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Toward designing a cost-effective advanced powder metallurgy approach, we present a new insight into the efficient utilization of titanium hydride powder, together with pure Ti powder, to prepare high-strength β-titanium alloys. In the present work, Ti–40 mass% Nb alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying of a mixture of pure Ti, titanium hydride, and Nb elemental powders, followed by a carefully designed two-step spark plasma sintering. The role of relative amounts of titanium hydride and pure Ti powders during mechanical alloying, and their effect on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the Ti–40Nb alloy, have been discussed and elaborated. An increasing amount of titanium hydride results in higher powder yield and smaller resultant powder particle size. Subsequent two-step spark plasma sintering resulted in equiaxed microstructure with primarily β phase, wherein the grain size decreased with increasing amounts of titanium hydride powder. The specimen corresponding to alloys prepared using equal amounts of pure Ti and titanium hydride powders resulted in fine-grained structure, exhibiting the best combination of mechanical properties, that is, a combination of highest hardness, high strength, and high ductility. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterization of In-Situ TiB/TiC Particle-Reinforced Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr Matrix Composites Synthesized by Solid-State Reaction with B4C and Graphite through SPS
Metals 2018, 8(6), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060377
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
In-situ TiB/TiC particle-reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) based on a near-β Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr alloy (Ti-5553) were synthesized by solid-state reaction with B4C and graphite particles during spark plasma sintering (SPS). In this study, investigations were focused on the influence of the molar
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In-situ TiB/TiC particle-reinforced titanium matrix composites (TMCs) based on a near-β Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr alloy (Ti-5553) were synthesized by solid-state reaction with B4C and graphite particles during spark plasma sintering (SPS). In this study, investigations were focused on the influence of the molar TiB:TiC ratio on the mechanical properties of the composites. With respect to the adjustment of the molar TiB:TiC ratio, the formation of stoichiometric TiC or nonstoichiometric TiCy was considered as the literature provides conflicting information in this respect. Furthermore, the solid-state reaction behavior influenced by the matrix alloying elements is discussed in comparison to a pure titanium matrix. The hardness, compressive strength and bending strength of the TMCs were improved successfully due to the TiB and TiC particles maintaining acceptable levels of ductility. However, X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that for the adjustment of the molar TiB:TiC ratio, the stoichiometry of the TiCy particles formed must be considered as nonstoichiometric TiC0.5 resulted from the solid-state reaction of carbon and titanium. Compared to TMCs with pure titanium matrices, more sluggish solid-state reaction kinetics were observed. This was attributed to the matrix alloying elements molybdenum, vanadium and chromium, which formed solid solutions within the reinforcing particles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of TiFe Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying and SPS Treatment
Metals 2018, 8(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040264
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (50240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to clarify the influence of the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method on structural morphology, mechanical properties and also functional characteristics, such as hydrogen absorbing properties, for titanium-iron intermetallic compounds. We could synthesize B2-TiFe phase using mechanical alloying (MA) during
[...] Read more.
This study aims to clarify the influence of the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method on structural morphology, mechanical properties and also functional characteristics, such as hydrogen absorbing properties, for titanium-iron intermetallic compounds. We could synthesize B2-TiFe phase using mechanical alloying (MA) during 3 h and SPS treatment of 5 min at 500–1000 °C, which was confirmed by XRD and Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) measurements. In addition, the synthesized TiFe intermetallic compound has been found to absorb hydrogen with high kinetics in both high pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) measurements. Therefore, we have successfully developed TiFe alloy in bulk form from initial raw powders by using a combination of short period mechanical alloying and SPS heat treatment. This combined route enhances the potential of the SPS method to synthesize new materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of TiB2-(Supra-Nano-Dual-Phase) High-Entropy Alloy Cermet by Spark Plasma Sintering
Metals 2018, 8(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010058
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper introduces the preparation method and characterization results of TiB2 ceramics with CoCrFeNiAl high-entropy alloy (HEA) as a sintering aid by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Good wettability between HEA and TiB2 was proved by the sessile drop method, indicating promising
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This paper introduces the preparation method and characterization results of TiB2 ceramics with CoCrFeNiAl high-entropy alloy (HEA) as a sintering aid by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Good wettability between HEA and TiB2 was proved by the sessile drop method, indicating promising prospects for this composite. The sintering results showed that the addition of HEA could dramatically promote the sinterability of TiB2. TiB2-5 wt. % HEA dense ceramics prepared at the optimal temperature of 1650 °C showed fine morphology without formation of brittle phases. The liquid phase in the ceramics was highly consistent with the so-called “supra-nano-dual-phase materials (SNDPM)”, with near-ideal strength. This study represents the first time that a ceramic-SNDPM composite has been fabricated since the invention of such structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Corrosion Properties of Mg Matrix In Situ Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Metals 2017, 7(9), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7090358
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
Mg matrix in situ composites were fabricated from Mg and ZnO powder by a spark plasma sintering method. The composition and microstructure of the sintered samples were characterized. Corrosion properties of fabricated composites were evaluated by immersion and by electrochemical tests using Hanks’
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Mg matrix in situ composites were fabricated from Mg and ZnO powder by a spark plasma sintering method. The composition and microstructure of the sintered samples were characterized. Corrosion properties of fabricated composites were evaluated by immersion and by electrochemical tests using Hanks’ solution. The results showed that the formation of in situ products improved significantly the corrosion resistance of the fabricated composites compared with pure Mg; Mg-10 wt % ZnO composites especially exhibited the lowest corrosion rate. In addition, an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that calcium phosphate formed as a corrosion product on the surface of Mg-10 wt % ZnO composites, while Mg(OH)2 appeared as a corrosion product on the surface of Mg-20 wt % ZnO composite. The findings suggested Mg-10 wt % ZnO composite as a potential candidate for temporary implant application. Full article
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