Special Issue "Metals Machining – Recent Advances in Experimental and Modeling of the Cutting Process"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Badis HADDAG

Institut Mines-Telecom (IMT) – Lorraine University Laboratory for the study of Microstructures and Mechanics of Materials, LEM3 -UMR CNRS 7239 InSIC, 27 Rue d'Hellieule, 88100 Saint-Dié-des-Vosges - France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Materials forming; Machining processes, Modeling/experimental aspects; Material behavior; Tribological behavior; Tool Wear; Surface integrity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metals machining involves severe loading at the cutting zone. Work-material behavior, cutting tool characteristics, cutting conditions and configuration, all have effects on cutting process performance, machined part quality, and cutting cost. In the last few years, several research works have been conducted to understand the physical phenomena occurring when machining metal-based materials. However, a great deal remains to be studied, because new high-performance metals are being developed and their machinability is not well controlled (excessive wear, built-up edge formation, surface integrity degradation, chip fragmentation difficulty, etc.). For instance, mechanisms of microstructure evolution when machining metals having a complex microstructure are not clearly explained (e.g., is there recrystallization or not?). Thus, the study of cutting phenomena in metals machining remains open.

This Special Issue invites the submission of high quality research articles related to the machining of metal-based materials. It covers a large topic and may include these main aspects:

  • Metal machinability (e.g., cutting power, hardness, ductility, chemical reaction, etc.)
  • Work-material behavior (e.g., work-hardening, ductility, heat generation, etc.)
  • Tribological behavior, e.g., related to cutting conditions (dry or wet)
  • Microstructure evolution (e.g., recrystallization, grain size, etc.)
  • Chip formation mechanisms (e.g., segmentation, fragmentation, etc.)
  • Surface integrity, e.g., related to the surface roughness and induced residual stresses, etc.
  • Tools wear, related to the machined metal and tool characteristics
  • Tools design based on work-material characteristics (e.g., chip breaker, edge preparation)

High quality research works on metals machining, related to experiments (e.g., instrumented cutting tests), characterization (e.g., hardness, fracture, microstructure), and modeling (e.g., analytical, numerical) are expected.

Assoc. Prof. Badis HADDAG
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Machining processes
  • Metals machining
  • Metals machinability
  • Work-material behavior
  • Tribological behavior
  • Microstructure evolution
  • Chip formation mechanisms
  • Surface integrity
  • Tools wear
  • Experiment/Characterization/Modeling

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Machinability Study of Developed Composite AA6061-ZrO2 and Analysis of Influence of MQL
Metals 2018, 8(7), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070472
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Aluminium metal matrix replaces high melting point and high density conventional materials, thus minimizing the usage of energy and supporting the environment. This work develops a low-weight, high-strength composite material with the help of AA 6061 and ZrO2 through a stir casting
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Aluminium metal matrix replaces high melting point and high density conventional materials, thus minimizing the usage of energy and supporting the environment. This work develops a low-weight, high-strength composite material with the help of AA 6061 and ZrO2 through a stir casting route incorporated with a squeeze casting setup. Machining and machining tools create impacts on clean environments, as they deal with lubricants and power consumption. Having taken this issue into consideration, this research studies the effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, tool wear, and cutting force, while turning the developed metal matrix composite in dry and minimum quantity lubrication conditions. The turning experiment was performed by designing parameters using an L27 orthogonal array. The turning condition was dry and with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). The responses obtained in the turning process were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique to find the most influential factor and its percentage contribution. Optimal machining parameters were investigated and tabulated with the help of main effect plots and S/N ratio graphs. Studies prove that there is a linear relationship between MQL versus surface roughness and tool wear, and there was no substantial effect on cutting force. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Artificial Intelligence Monitoring of Hardening Methods and Cutting Conditions and Their Effects on Surface Roughness, Performance, and Finish Turning Costs of Solid-State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Сhips
Metals 2018, 8(6), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8060394
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Aluminum Alloy 6061 components are frequently manufactured for various industries—aeronautics, yachting, and optical instruments—due to their excellent physical and mechanical properties, including corrosion resistance. There is little research on the mechanical tooling of AA6061 and none on its structure and properties and their
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Aluminum Alloy 6061 components are frequently manufactured for various industries—aeronautics, yachting, and optical instruments—due to their excellent physical and mechanical properties, including corrosion resistance. There is little research on the mechanical tooling of AA6061 and none on its structure and properties and their effects on surface roughness after finish turning. The objective of this comprehensive study is, therefore, to ascertain the effects of both the modern method of hardening AA6061 shafts and the finish turning conditions on surface roughness, Ra, and the minimum machining time for unit-volume removal, Tm, while also establishing the cost price of processing one part, C. The hardening methods improved both the physical and the mechanical material properties processed with 2, 4, and 6 passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature, using an ECAP-matrix with a channel angle of 90°. The reference workpiece sample was a hot extruded chip under an extrusion ratio (ER) of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature of 500 °С (ET = 500 °C). The following results were obtained: grain size in ECAP-6 decreased from 15.9 to 2.46 μm, increasing both microhardness from 41 Vickers hardness value (HV) to 110 HV and ultimate tensile strength from 132.4 to 403 MPa. The largest decrease in surface roughness, Ra—70%, was obtained turning a workpiece treated with ECAP-6. The multicriteria optimization was computed in a multilayer perceptron-based artificial neural network that yielded the following optimum values: the minimal length of the three-dimensional estimates vector with the coordinates Ra = 0.800 μm, Tm = 0.341 min/cm3, and С = 6.955 $ corresponded to the optimal finish turning conditions: cutting speed vc = 200 m/min, depth of cut ap = 0.2 mm, and feed per revolution fr = 0.103 mm/rev (ET-500 extrusion without hardening). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Machinability of Eco-Friendly Lead-Free Brass Alloys: Cutting-Force and Surface-Roughness Optimization
Metals 2018, 8(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8040250
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
The machinability in turning mode of three lead-free brass alloys, CuZn42 (CW510L), CuZn38As (CW511L) and CuZn36 (C27450) was evaluated in comparison with a reference free-cutting leaded brass CuZn39Pb3 (CW614N), as far as the quality characteristics, i.e., cutting force and surface roughness, were concerned.
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The machinability in turning mode of three lead-free brass alloys, CuZn42 (CW510L), CuZn38As (CW511L) and CuZn36 (C27450) was evaluated in comparison with a reference free-cutting leaded brass CuZn39Pb3 (CW614N), as far as the quality characteristics, i.e., cutting force and surface roughness, were concerned. A design of experiments (DOE) technique, according to the Taguchi L16 orthogonal array (OA) methodology, as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed in order to identify the critical-to-machinability parameters and to obtain their optimum values for high-performance machining. The experimental design consisted of four factors (cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate and alloy) with four levels for each factor using the “smaller-the-better” criterion for quality characteristics’ optimization. The data means and signal-to-noise (S/N) responses indicated that the depth of cut and the feed rate were the most influential factors for the cutting force and surface roughness, respectively. The optimized machining parameters for cutting force (34.59 N) and surface roughness (1.22 μm) minimization were determined. Confirmation experiments (cutting force: 39.37 N and surface roughness: 1.71 μm) seem to show that they are in close agreement to the main conclusions, thereby validating the findings of the statistical evaluation performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CO2 Laser Cutting of Hot Stamping Boron Steel Sheets
Metals 2017, 7(11), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7110456
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser
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This study investigates the quality of CO2 laser cutting of hot stamping boron steel sheets that are employed in the fabrication of automotive body-in-white. For this purpose, experimental laser cutting tests were conducted on 1.2 mm sheets at varying levels of laser power, cutting speed, and oxygen pressure. The resulting quality of cut edges was evaluated in terms of perpendicularity tolerance, surface irregularity, kerf width, heat affected zone, and dross extension. Experimental tests were based on a L9(34) orthogonal array design, with the effects of the process parameters on the quality responses being determined by means of a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quadratic mathematical models were developed to determine the relationships between the cutting parameters and the quality responses. Finally, a routine based on an optimization criterion was employed to predict the optimal setting of cutting factors and its effect on the quality responses. A confirmation experiment was conducted to verify the appropriateness of the optimization routine. The results show that all of the examined process parameters have a key role in determining the cut quality of hot stamping boron steel sheets, with cutting speed and their interactions having the most influencing effects. Particularly, interactions can have an opposite behavior for different levels of the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Increasing Feed Rate on Tool Deterioration and Cutting Force during End Milling of 718Plus Superalloy Using Cemented Tungsten Carbide Tool
Metals 2017, 7(10), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7100441
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Understanding how feed rate (ft) affects tool deterioration during milling of Ni-based superalloys is practically important, but this understanding is currently insufficient. In the present study using a 718Plus Ni-based alloy and cemented tungsten carbide tool inserts, milling experiments were
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Understanding how feed rate (ft) affects tool deterioration during milling of Ni-based superalloys is practically important, but this understanding is currently insufficient. In the present study using a 718Plus Ni-based alloy and cemented tungsten carbide tool inserts, milling experiments were conducted with ft = 0.10 mm/tooth under either dry or wet (with coolant) conditions. The results are compared to those based on using ft = 0.05 mm/tooth from previous studies. The milling force (F) was monitored, the cutting tool edge was examined and the flank wear (VBmax) was measured. As would be expected, an increase in ft increased F. It was found that F correlated well with VBmax for the high ft (0.1 mm/tooth) experiments, as opposed to the previously observed poor F-VBmax relationship for the lower ft (0.05 mm/tooth) value. This is explained, supported by detailed failure analysis of the cutting tool edges, by the deterioration mode to be dominantly edge chipping with a low occurrence of fracturing along the flank face when the high ft was used. This dominancy of the deterioration mode means that the tool edge and workpiece contact was consistent and thus resulted in a clear F-VBmax relationship. A clear F-VBmax relationship should then mean monitoring VBmax through monitoring F is possible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Tool Path Strategy and Cooling Condition Effects on the Cutting Force and Surface Quality in Micromilling Operations
Metals 2017, 7(10), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7100426
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to milling on a macro scale, the micromilling process has several cumbersome points that need to be addressed. Rapid tool wear and fracture, severe burr formation, and poor surface quality are the major problems encountered in the micromilling process. This study aimed
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Compared to milling on a macro scale, the micromilling process has several cumbersome points that need to be addressed. Rapid tool wear and fracture, severe burr formation, and poor surface quality are the major problems encountered in the micromilling process. This study aimed to reveal the effect of cutting path strategies on the cutting force and surface quality in the micromilling of a pocket. The hatch zigzag tool path strategy and the contour climb tool path strategy under different cooling conditions (e.g., dry, air blow, and flood coolant) at fixed cutting parameters. The micromilling tests revealed that better results were obtained with the use of the contour tool path strategy in terms of cutting forces (by up to ~43% compared to the dry condition) and surface quality (by up to ~44% compared to the air blow condition) when compared to the hatch tool path strategy. In addition, the flood coolant reduces the cutting temperature and eliminates chips to significantly enhance the quality of the micro milled surface. Full article
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