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Special Issue "Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kenneth J.D. MacKenzie

MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
E-Mail
Fax: +64 4 463 5237
Interests: inorganic materials, ceramics, minerals, cements, geopolymers, environmental protection materials, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of inorganic materials

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Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

 



Related Special Issue

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3108-3127; doi:10.3390/ma6083108
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was
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Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)
Open AccessArticle Application-Oriented Chemical Optimization of a Metakaolin Based Geopolymer
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1920-1939; doi:10.3390/ma6051920
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2175 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study the development of a metakaolin based geopolymeric mortar to be used as bonding matrix for external strengthening of reinforced concrete beams is reported. Four geopolymer formulations have been obtained by varying the composition of the activating solution in terms of
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In this study the development of a metakaolin based geopolymeric mortar to be used as bonding matrix for external strengthening of reinforced concrete beams is reported. Four geopolymer formulations have been obtained by varying the composition of the activating solution in terms of SiO2/Na2O ratio. The obtained samples have been characterized from a structural, microstructural and mechanical point of view. The differences in structure and microstructure have been correlated to the mechanical properties. A major issue of drying shrinkage has been encountered in the high Si/Al ratio samples. In the light of the characterization results, the optimal geopolymer composition was then applied to fasten steel fibers to reinforced concrete beams. The mechanical behavior of the strengthened reinforced beams was evaluated by four-points bending tests, which were performed also on reinforced concrete beams as they are for comparison. The preliminary results of the bending tests point out an excellent behavior of the geopolymeric mixture tested, with the failure load of the reinforced beams roughly twice that of the control beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1767-1778; doi:10.3390/ma6051767
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer
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Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite). The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)
Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Class C Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste and Mortar
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1485-1495; doi:10.3390/ma6041485
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents workability, compressive strength and microstructure for geopolymer pastes and mortars made of class C fly ash at mass ratios of water-to-fly ash from 0.30 to 0.35. Fluidity was in the range of 145–173 mm for pastes and 131–136 mm for
[...] Read more.
This paper presents workability, compressive strength and microstructure for geopolymer pastes and mortars made of class C fly ash at mass ratios of water-to-fly ash from 0.30 to 0.35. Fluidity was in the range of 145–173 mm for pastes and 131–136 mm for mortars. The highest strengths of paste and mortar were 58 MPa and 85 MPa when they were cured at 70 °C for 24 h. In XRD patterns, unreacted quartz and some reacted product were observed. SEM examination indicated that reacted product has formed and covered the unreacted particles in the paste and mortar that were consistent with their high strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)
Open AccessArticle Impact of High Concentration Solutions on Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Materials
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2326-2341; doi:10.3390/ma5112326
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focuses on the impact of landfill high concentration solutions erosion on geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) materials permeability. The permeation tests on the GCL, submerged using different kinds of solutions with different concentrations, were carried out systematically by taking these chemical solutions
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This study focuses on the impact of landfill high concentration solutions erosion on geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) materials permeability. The permeation tests on the GCL, submerged using different kinds of solutions with different concentrations, were carried out systematically by taking these chemical solutions as permeant liquids. Based on seasonal variations of ion concentrations in Chenjiachong landfill leachate (Wuhan Province), CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, and KCl were selected as chemical attack solutions to carry out experimental investigations under three concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 200 mM) and soak times (5, 10, and 20 days). The variation law of the GCL hydraulic conductivity under different operating conditions was analyzed. The relationship between GCL hydraulic conductivity, chemical solutions categories, concentrations, and soak times were further discussed. The GCL hydraulic conductivity, when soaked and permeated with high concentration chemical solutions, increases several times or exceeds two orders of magnitude, as compared with the permeation test under normal conditions that used water as the permeant liquid. This reveals that GCL is very susceptible to chemical attack. For four chemical solutions, the chemical attack effect on GCL hydraulic conductivity is CaCl2 > MgCl2 > KCl > NaCl. The impact of soak times on GCL hydraulic conductivity is the cooperative contribution of the liner chemical attack reaction and hydration swelling. A longer soak time results in a more advantageous hydration swelling effect. The chemical attack reaction restrains the hydration swelling of the GCL. Moreover, the GCL hydraulic conductivity exponentially decreases with the increased amplitude of thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)

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