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Special Issue "Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mady Elbahri

1. Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, Helsinki, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2. Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, 24143 Kiel, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plasmonic metamaterials; nano-optics, nanochemistry, green nanotschnology
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Salah I. HassabElnaby

Engineering Laser Applications, National Institute Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Egypt
E-Mail
Interests: laser remote sensing; nonlinear optics; nanophotonics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Laser technologies have penetrated deeply into many domains in science, medicine, and engineering. The combination of nano particles and lasers in cancer treatment has made good progress in the past few years. Different types of nanoparticles have been studied and also the use of nano particles as catalyst has been researched. This conference includes several workshops to encourage young researchers gain experience and how-to-do knowledge.

The medical section of the conference represents a great amount of knowledge in dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT (ear, nose and throat), and paediatrics.

By shortening the pulse duration from the nanosecond to the femtosecond range, the zone of collateral tissue damage is markedly diminished. This is the mechanism of action of a femtosecond laser. In addition, the versatility, predictability, and unique properties of the femtosecond laser have allowed its application in multiple avenues of anterior segment surgery.

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used to measure the elemental contents of heavy metal pollution in water and soil in order to evaluate the effectiveness of Phytoremediation. Reasonable and promising results have been achieved, indicating the feasibility of using sunflowers as an effective TPH remediation of polluted soil.

Imaging techniques using laser speckle can be a very good method to measure the degree of knee roughness and to evaluate various treatment methods.

Laser surface treatment of setals, e.g., steel can increase the hardness and increase the resistance to corrosion and/or erosion.

Presentations of the successful design and implementation of laser voltage and current sensors show the great promise of measuring very high voltage and current, safely and accurately.

Prof. Dr. Mady Elbahri
Assoc. Prof. Salah I. HassabElnaby
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Laser Engineering
  • Nanocomposites
  • Laser in Ophthalmology
  • Laser in dermatology
  • Photodynamic Therapy
  • Optical treatment of Cancer

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Laser Powder Cladding of Ti-6Al-4V α/β Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1178; doi:10.3390/ma10101178
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system.
[...] Read more.
Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy. The goal was to create a uniform distribution of hard WC particles that is crack-free and nonporous to enhance the wear resistance of such alloy. This was achieved by changing the laser cladding parameters to reach the optimum conditions for favorable mechanical properties. The laser cladding samples were subjected to thorough microstructure examinations, microhardness and abrasion tests. Phase identification was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results revealed that the best clad layers were achieved at a specific heat input value of 59.5 J·mm−2. An increase by more than three folds in the microhardness values of the clad layers was achieved and the wear resistance was improved by values reaching 400 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Method for Medical Diagnosis Based on Optical Fluence Rate Distribution at Tissue Surface
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1104; doi:10.3390/ma10091104
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Optical differentiation is a promising tool in biomedical diagnosis mainly because of its safety. The optical parameters’ values of biological tissues differ according to the histopathology of the tissue and hence could be used for differentiation. The optical fluence rate distribution on tissue
[...] Read more.
Optical differentiation is a promising tool in biomedical diagnosis mainly because of its safety. The optical parameters’ values of biological tissues differ according to the histopathology of the tissue and hence could be used for differentiation. The optical fluence rate distribution on tissue boundaries depends on the optical parameters. So, providing image displays of such distributions can provide a visual means of biomedical diagnosis. In this work, an experimental setup was implemented to measure the spatially-resolved steady state diffuse reflectance and transmittance of native and coagulated chicken liver and native and boiled breast chicken skin at 635 and 808 nm wavelengths laser irradiation. With the measured values, the optical parameters of the samples were calculated in vitro using a combination of modified Kubelka-Munk model and Bouguer-Beer-Lambert law. The estimated optical parameters values were substituted in the diffusion equation to simulate the fluence rate at the tissue surface using the finite element method. Results were verified with Monte-Carlo simulation. The results obtained showed that the diffuse reflectance curves and fluence rate distribution images can provide discrimination tools between different tissue types and hence can be used for biomedical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Estimation of Articular Cartilage Surface Roughness Using Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix of Laser Speckle Image
Materials 2017, 10(7), 714; doi:10.3390/ma10070714
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
The application of He-Ne laser technologies for description of articular cartilage degeneration, one of the most common diseases worldwide, is an innovative usage of these technologies used primarily in material engineering. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging are insufficient to allow the early
[...] Read more.
The application of He-Ne laser technologies for description of articular cartilage degeneration, one of the most common diseases worldwide, is an innovative usage of these technologies used primarily in material engineering. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging are insufficient to allow the early assessment of the disease. As surface roughness of articular cartilage is an important indicator of articular cartilage degeneration progress, a safe and noncontact technique based on laser speckle image to estimate the surface roughness is provided. This speckle image from the articular cartilage surface, when illuminated by laser beam, gives very important information about the physical properties of the surface. An experimental setup using a low power He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital camera was implemented to obtain speckle images of ten bovine articular cartilage specimens prepared for different average roughness values. Texture analysis method based on gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analyzed on the captured speckle images is used to characterize the surface roughness of the specimens depending on the computation of Haralick’s texture features. In conclusion, this promising method can accurately estimate the surface roughness of articular cartilage even for early signs of degeneration. The method is effective for estimation of average surface roughness values ranging from 0.09 µm to 2.51 µm with an accuracy of 0.03 µm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel
Materials 2017, 10(6), 595; doi:10.3390/ma10060595
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface
[...] Read more.
Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min−1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating
Materials 2017, 10(5), 525; doi:10.3390/ma10050525
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low
[...] Read more.
Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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