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Special Issue "Bone Substitute Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Steven J. Eppell

Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, United States
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Biomimetic Biomaterial Design and Synthesis, 3D Nanoscale Imaging and Force Measurement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue focuses on the design, synthesis and/or evaluation of bone substitute materials. Appropriate submissions use information about the nanoscale structure of natural bone in a way that allows the synthetic material to duplicate biomechanical and/or cellular behavior of the natural system.  Submissions describing attempts to duplicate collagen structures, mineral apatites, ground substance and their hierarchical juxstapositions as found in bone are welcome.   All submissions must clearly connect material composition and/or structure with the desired mechanical and/or biological function of the biomaterial.  Authors are encouraged to include a section in each manuscript devoted to explaining how the materials science and engineering aspects of the work are related to solving an outstanding clinical problem.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Steven J. Eppell
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bone
  • biomaterial
  • collagen
  • mineral
  • ground substance
  • biomechanics
  • remodelling
  • biocompatible
  • osteoblast
  • osteoclast

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Efficacy of Octacalcium Phosphate Collagen Composite for Titanium Dental Implants in Dogs
Materials 2018, 11(2), 229; doi:10.3390/ma11020229
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
Background: Previous studies showed that octacalcium (OCP) collagen composite (OCP/Col) can be used to repair human jaw bone defects without any associated abnormalities. The present study investigated whether OCP/Col could be applied to dental implant treatment using a dog tooth extraction socket model.
[...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies showed that octacalcium (OCP) collagen composite (OCP/Col) can be used to repair human jaw bone defects without any associated abnormalities. The present study investigated whether OCP/Col could be applied to dental implant treatment using a dog tooth extraction socket model. Methods: The premolars of dogs were extracted; each extraction socket was extended, and titanium dental implants were placed in each socket. OCP/Col was inserted in the space around a titanium dental implant. Autologous bone was used to fill the other sockets, while the untreated socket (i.e., no bone substitute material) served as a control. Three months after the operation, these specimens were analyzed for the osseointegration of each bone substitute material with the surface of the titanium dental implant. Results: In histomorphometric analyses, the peri-implant bone areas (BA%) and bone-implant contact (BIC%) were measured. There was no difference in BA% or BIC% between OCP/Col and autologous bone. Conclusion: These results suggested that OCP/Col could be used for implant treatment as a bone substitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrophilicity, Viscoelastic, and Physicochemical Properties Variations in Dental Bone Grafting Substitutes
Materials 2018, 11(2), 215; doi:10.3390/ma11020215
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
The indication-oriented Dental Bone Graft Substitutes (DBGS) selection, the correct bone defects classification, and appropriate treatment planning are very crucial for obtaining successful clinical results. However, hydrophilic, viscoelastic, and physicochemical properties’ influence on the DBGS regenerative potential has poorly been studied. For that
[...] Read more.
The indication-oriented Dental Bone Graft Substitutes (DBGS) selection, the correct bone defects classification, and appropriate treatment planning are very crucial for obtaining successful clinical results. However, hydrophilic, viscoelastic, and physicochemical properties’ influence on the DBGS regenerative potential has poorly been studied. For that reason, we investigated the dimensional changes and molecular mobility by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) of xenograft (cerabone®), synthetic (maxresorb®), and allograft (maxgraft®, Puros®) blocks in a wet and dry state. While no significant differences could be seen in dry state, cerabone® and maxresorb® blocks showed a slight height decrease in wet state, whereas both maxgraft® and Puros® had an almost identical height increase. In addition, cerabone® and maxresorb® blocks remained highly rigid and their damping behaviour was not influenced by the water. On the other hand, both maxgraft® and Puros® had a strong increase in their molecular mobility with different damping behaviour profiles during the wet state. A high-speed microscopical imaging system was used to analyze the hydrophilicity in several naturally derived (cerabone®, Bio-Oss®, NuOss®, SIC® nature graft) and synthetic DBGS granules (maxresorb®, BoneCeramic®, NanoBone®, Ceros®). The highest level of hydrophilicity was detected in cerabone® and maxresorb®, while Bio-Oss® and BoneCeramic® had the lowest level of hydrophilicity among both naturally derived and synthetic DBGS groups. Deviations among the DBGS were also addressed via physicochemical differences recorded by Micro Computed Tomography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder Diffractometry, and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Such DBGS variations could influence the volume stability at the grafting site, handling as well as the speed of vascularization and bone regeneration. Therefore, this study initiates a new insight into the DBGS differences and their importance for successful clinical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Powder Printed Bioglass and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Scaffolds
Materials 2018, 11(1), 13; doi:10.3390/ma11010013
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
The use of both bioglass (BG) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for bone replacement applications has been studied extensively due to the materials’ high biocompatibility and ability to resorb when implanted in the body. 3D printing has been explored as a fast and
[...] Read more.
The use of both bioglass (BG) and β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) for bone replacement applications has been studied extensively due to the materials’ high biocompatibility and ability to resorb when implanted in the body. 3D printing has been explored as a fast and versatile technique for the fabrication of porous bone scaffolds. This project investigates the effects of using different combinations of a composite BG and β-TCP powder for 3D printing of porous bone scaffolds. Porous 3D powder printed bone scaffolds of BG, β-TCP, 50/50 BG/β-TCP and 70/30 BG/β-TCP compositions were subject to a variety of characterization and biocompatibility tests. The porosity characteristics, surface roughness, mechanical strength, viability for cell proliferation, material cytotoxicity and in vitro bioactivity were assessed. The results show that the scaffolds can support osteoblast-like MG-63 cells growth both on the surface of and within the scaffold material and do not show alarming cytotoxicity; the porosity and surface characteristics of the scaffolds are appropriate. Of the two tested composite materials, the 70/30 BG/β-TCP scaffold proved to be superior in terms of biocompatibility and mechanical strength. The mechanical strength of the scaffolds makes them unsuitable for load bearing applications. However, they can be useful for other applications such as bone fillers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1127; doi:10.3390/ma10101127
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
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Abstract
Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment
[...] Read more.
Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–15Mo–5Zr–3Al and Ti–15Zr–4Nb–4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Components of Bone and What They Can Teach Us about Regeneration
Materials 2018, 11(1), 14; doi:10.3390/ma11010014
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
The problem of bone regeneration has engaged both physicians and scientists since the beginning of medicine. Not only can bone heal itself following most injuries, but when it does, the regenerated tissue is often indistinguishable from healthy bone. Problems arise, however, when bone
[...] Read more.
The problem of bone regeneration has engaged both physicians and scientists since the beginning of medicine. Not only can bone heal itself following most injuries, but when it does, the regenerated tissue is often indistinguishable from healthy bone. Problems arise, however, when bone does not heal properly, or when new tissue is needed, such as when two vertebrae are required to fuse to stabilize adjacent spine segments. Despite centuries of research, such procedures still require improved therapeutic methods to be devised. Autologous bone harvesting and grafting is currently still the accepted benchmark, despite drawbacks for clinicians and patients that include limited amounts, donor site morbidity, and variable quality. The necessity for an alternative to this “gold standard” has given rise to a bone-graft and substitute industry, with its central conundrum: what is the best way to regenerate bone? In this review, we dissect bone anatomy to summarize our current understanding of its constituents. We then look at how various components have been employed to improve bone regeneration. Evolving strategies for bone regeneration are then considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
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