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Special Issue "Bioceramics 2016"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enrico Bernardo

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cellular glasses and glass-ceramics; glass sintering; glass and glass-ceramic matrix composites; polymer-derived ceramics; silicate bioceramics; phosphate ceramics; additive manufacturing of ceramics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All of us will certainly remember the definition of bioceramics provided by Prof. Hench in his fundamental review paper (L.L. Hench, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74 (1991) 1487–510), as “specifically designed ceramics for the repair and reconstruction of diseased or damaged parts of the body”. The definition includes the inherent mission of bioceramics in improving the quality of life, especially considering the ageing of populations in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China, but also the key words for the development of bioceramics over more than 40 years. In fact, the development of bioceramics concerns their “specific design”, in turn implying an adaptation of the compositions and/or the manufacturing processes to a targeted application.

Bioceramics with a relatively simple formulation, such as Hench’s calcium–sodium silico-phosphate bioglass, have been progressively joined by multicomponent glasses, in which trace elements (e.g., Zn, Sr, Mg, and Cu) have been demonstrated to exhibit a positive impact on the biological response. Fully crystalline or partially crystalline (i.e., glass-ceramics) have been developed as well. Depending on the manufacturing processes used (and consistent with the nature of the chosen bioceramic), the biological response is fundamentally affected also by microstructural features, such as topography, porosity and grain size. Novel manufacturing approaches, e.g., additive manufacturing techniques, have a great potential in tuning morphology, microstructure and properties, for a given formulation.

The present Special Issue is “specifically designed” to include contributions concerning the most recent developments in bioceramics, highlighting the above aspects. In particular, manuscripts reporting studies of the following topics are most welcome: (i) novel synthesis methods for bioceramics; (ii) doping of bioceramics for enhanced osteogenesis and angiogenesis; (iii) additive manufacturing of porous bioceramic components; (iv) surface functionalization of biomaterials via bioceramic coatings; (v) bioceramic-based composites for hard tissue applications; and (vi) engineered formulations and microstructures for drug delivery.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript (full paper, communication, or review paper) for the Special Issue, “Bioceramics 2016”.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Bernardo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Bioglasses and glass-ceramics
  • Porous scaffolds
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Surface functionalization
  • Bone tissue engineering
  • Cell proliferation
  • Metal ion release

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The In Vitro Bioactivity, Degradation, and Cytotoxicity of Polymer-Derived Wollastonite-Diopside Glass-Ceramics
Materials 2017, 10(4), 425; doi:10.3390/ma10040425
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Ca-Mg silicates are receiving a growing interest in the field of bioceramics. In a previous study, wollastonite-diopside (WD) glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by a new processing route, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding reactive oxide particles and a Ca/Mg-rich
[...] Read more.
Ca-Mg silicates are receiving a growing interest in the field of bioceramics. In a previous study, wollastonite-diopside (WD) glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by a new processing route, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding reactive oxide particles and a Ca/Mg-rich glass. The in vitro degradation, bioactivity, and cell response of these new WD glass-ceramics, fired at 900–1100 °C for 1 h, as a function of the Ca/Mg-rich glass content, are the aim of this investigation The results showed that WD glass-ceramics from formulations comprising different glass contents (70–100% at 900 °C, 30% at 1100 °C) exhibit the formation of an apatite-like layer on their surface after immersion in SBF for seven days, thus confirming their surface bioactivity. The XRD results showed that these samples crystallized, mainly forming wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6), but combeite (Na2Ca2Si3O9) crystalline phase was also detected. Besides in vitro bioactivity, cytotoxicity and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation tests were applied after all characterizations, and the formulation comprising 70% glass was demonstrated to be promising for further in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Carbonate Apatite Block through a Dissolution–Precipitation Reaction Using Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate Block as a Precursor
Materials 2017, 10(4), 374; doi:10.3390/ma10040374
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) block, which is a bone replacement used to repair defects, was fabricated through a dissolution–precipitation reaction using a calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) block as a precursor. When the DCPD block was immersed in NaHCO3 or Na
[...] Read more.
Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) block, which is a bone replacement used to repair defects, was fabricated through a dissolution–precipitation reaction using a calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) block as a precursor. When the DCPD block was immersed in NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 solution at 80 °C, DCPD converted to CO3Ap within 3 days. β-Tricalcium phosphate was formed as an intermediate phase, and it was completely converted to CO3Ap within 2 weeks when the DCPD block was immersed in Na2CO3 solution. Although the crystal structures of the DCPD and CO3Ap blocks were different, the macroscopic structure was maintained during the compositional transformation through the dissolution–precipitation reaction. CO3Ap block fabricated in NaHCO3 or Na2CO3 solution contained 12.9 and 15.8 wt % carbonate, respectively. The diametral tensile strength of the CO3Ap block was 2 MPa, and the porosity was approximately 57% regardless of the carbonate solution. DCPD is a useful precursor for the fabrication of CO3Ap block. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Biocompatible Potassium Sodium Niobate Piezoelectric Ceramic as an Electroactive Implant
Materials 2017, 10(4), 345; doi:10.3390/ma10040345
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein
[...] Read more.
The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption and cell proliferation on KNN ceramics surfaces was investigated. KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N and relative density of ~93% were fabricated. The adsorption of protein on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) of KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N showed greater protein adsorption capacity than that on non-polarized surfaces (NPs). Biocompatibility of KNN ceramics was verified through cell culturing and live/dead cell staining of MC3T3. The cells experiment showed enhanced cell growth on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) compared to non-polarized surfaces (NPs). These results revealed that KNN ceramics had great potential to be used to understand the effect of surface potential on cells processes and would benefit future research in designing piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of Dentin Tubule Occlusion for Novel Calcium Lactate Phosphate (CLP) Paste
Materials 2017, 10(3), 228; doi:10.3390/ma10030228
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for
[...] Read more.
Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for 30 s and individually treated with Colgate® Pro-Relief™ paste, CLP paste, and double distilled water (ddH2O) by a rubber-cupped handpiece. Dentin disks were analyzed under optical micrographs for pre-treatment, directly after treatment, and 14 days post-treatment. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in dentinal tubule diameter. Results: A significant decrease occurred in the mean tubule diameter for dentin disks treated with CLP paste. A decrease was observed from 3.52 ± 0.83 µm to 2.62 ± 0.42 µm right after treatment, further decreasing to 1.71 ± 0.45 µm after immersion in artificial saliva for 14 days (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that the CLP based desensitizing paste has remineralization properties and provides instant and lasting effectiveness in dentinal tubule occlusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds from Novel ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization
Materials 2017, 10(2), 171; doi:10.3390/ma10020171
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly porous wollastonite-diopside glass-ceramics have been successfully obtained by a new gel-casting technique. The gelation of an aqueous slurry of glass powders was not achieved according to the polymerization of an organic monomer, but as the result of alkali activation. The alkali activation
[...] Read more.
Highly porous wollastonite-diopside glass-ceramics have been successfully obtained by a new gel-casting technique. The gelation of an aqueous slurry of glass powders was not achieved according to the polymerization of an organic monomer, but as the result of alkali activation. The alkali activation of a Ca-Mg silicate glass (with a composition close to 50 mol % wollastonite—50 mol % diopside, with minor amounts of Na2O and P2O5) allowed for the obtainment of well-dispersed concentrated suspensions, undergoing progressive hardening by curing at low temperature (40 °C), owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. An extensive direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of partially gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The open-celled structure resulting from mechanical foaming could be ‘frozen’ by the subsequent sintering treatment, at 900–1000 °C, causing substantial crystallization. A total porosity exceeding 80%, comprising both well-interconnected macro-pores and micro-pores on cell walls, was accompanied by an excellent compressive strength, even above 5 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Medium Composition on the Zn2+ Lixiviation and the Antifouling Properties of a Glass with a High ZnO Content
Materials 2017, 10(2), 167; doi:10.3390/ma10020167
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB), yeast extract, tryptone), and human serum. It
[...] Read more.
The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB), yeast extract, tryptone), and human serum. It has been established that the media containing amino acids and proteins produce a high lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass due to the ability of zinc and zinc oxide to react with amino acids and proteins to form complex organic compounds. The process of Zn2+ lixiviation from the glass network has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these results we can state that the process of lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass network is similar to the one observed in sodalime glasses, where Na+ is lixiviated to the media first and the fraction of Zn that acts as modifiers (~2/3) is lixiviated in second place. After the subsequent collapse of the outer surface glass layer (about 200–300 nm thick layer) the dissolution process starts again. Antifouling properties against different bacteria (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and M. lutea) have also been established for the glass pellets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bioactive Glass Fiber-Reinforced PGS Matrix Composites for Cartilage Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(1), 83; doi:10.3390/ma10010083
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is an elastomeric polymer which is attracting increasing interest for biomedical applications, including cartilage regeneration. However, its limited mechanical properties and possible negative effects of its degradation byproducts restrict PGS for in vivo application. In this study, a novel PGS–bioactive
[...] Read more.
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is an elastomeric polymer which is attracting increasing interest for biomedical applications, including cartilage regeneration. However, its limited mechanical properties and possible negative effects of its degradation byproducts restrict PGS for in vivo application. In this study, a novel PGS–bioactive glass fiber (F18)-reinforced composite was developed and characterized. PGS-based reinforced scaffolds were fabricated via salt leaching and characterized regarding their mechanical properties, degradation, and bioactivity in contact with simulated body fluid. Results indicated that the incorporation of silicate-based bioactive glass fibers could double the composite tensile strength, tailor the polymer degradability, and improve the scaffold bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Physico-Chemical, In Vitro, and In Vivo Evaluation of a 3D Unidirectional Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(1), 33; doi:10.3390/ma10010033
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 25 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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Abstract
The unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite HAp (UDPHAp) is a scaffold with continuous communicated pore structure in the axial direction. We evaluated and compared the ability of the UDPHAp as a three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue engineering scaffold to the interconnected calcium porous HAp ceramic (IP-CHA).
[...] Read more.
The unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite HAp (UDPHAp) is a scaffold with continuous communicated pore structure in the axial direction. We evaluated and compared the ability of the UDPHAp as a three-dimensional (3D) bone tissue engineering scaffold to the interconnected calcium porous HAp ceramic (IP-CHA). To achieve this, we evaluated in vitro the compressive strength, controlled rhBMP-2 release behavior, adherent cell morphology, cell adhesion manner, and cell attachment of UDPHAp. As a further in vivo experiment, UDPHAp and IP-CHA with rhBMP-2 were transplanted into mouse calvarial defects to evaluate their bone-forming ability. The Results demonstrated that the maximum compressive strengths of the UDPHAp was 7.89 ± 1.23 MPa and higher than that of IP-CHA (1.92 ± 0.53 MPa) (p = 0.0039). However, the breaking energies were similar (8.99 ± 2.72 vs. 13.95 ± 5.69 mJ, p = 0.055). The UDPHAp released rhBMP-2 more gradually in vivo. Cells on the UDPHAp adhered tightly to the surface, which had grown deeply into the scaffolds. A significant increase in cell number on the UDPHAp was observed compared to the IP-CHA on day 8 (102,479 ± 34,391 vs. 32,372 ± 29,061 estimated cells per scaffold, p = 0.0495). In a mouse calvarial defect model, the percentages of new bone area (mature bone + trabecular bone) in the 2x field were 2.514% ± 1.224% for the IP-CHA group and 7.045% ± 2.055% for the UDPHAp group, and the percentage was significantly higher in the UDPHAp group (p = 0.0209). While maintaining the same strength as the IP-CHA, the UDPHAp with 84% porosity showed a high cell number, high cell invasiveness, and excellent bone formation. We believe the UDPHAp is an excellent material that can be applied to bone regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Effects of Si-Ca-P Biphasic Ceramic on the Osteogenic Differentiation of a Population of Multipotent Adult Human Stem Cells
Materials 2016, 9(12), 969; doi:10.3390/ma9120969
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite
[...] Read more.
A new type of bioceramic with osteogenic properties, suitable for hard tissue regeneration, was synthesised. The ceramic was designed and obtained in the Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite subsystem. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectoid 28.39 wt % Nurse’s A-phase-71.61 wt % silicocarnotite invariant point. We report the effect of Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite ceramic on the capacity of multipotent adult human mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) cultured under experimental conditions, known to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast lineage cells. The results at long-term culture (28 days) on the material confirmed that the undifferentiated ahMSCs cultured and in contact with the material surface adhered, spread, proliferated, and produced a mineralised extracellular matrix on the studied ceramic, and finally acquired an osteoblastic phenotype. These findings indicate that it underwent an osteoblast differentiation process. All these findings were more significant than when cells were grown on plastic, in the presence and absence of this osteogenic supplement, and were more evident when this supplement was present in the growth medium (GM). The ceramic evaluated herein was bioactive, cytocompatible and capable of promoting the proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated ahMSCs into osteoblasts, which may be important for bone integration into the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and In Vitro Activity Assessment of Novel Silicon Oxycarbide-Based Bioactive Glasses
Materials 2016, 9(12), 959; doi:10.3390/ma9120959
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel bioactive glasses based on a Ca- and Mg-modified silicon oxycarbide (SiCaMgOC) were prepared from a polymeric single-source precursor, and their in vitro activity towards hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated upon incubating the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. The as-prepared
[...] Read more.
Novel bioactive glasses based on a Ca- and Mg-modified silicon oxycarbide (SiCaMgOC) were prepared from a polymeric single-source precursor, and their in vitro activity towards hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated upon incubating the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. The as-prepared materials exhibit an outstanding resistance against devitrification processes and maintain their amorphous nature even after exposure to 1300 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the SiCaMgOC samples after the SBF test showed characteristic reflections of apatite after only three days, indicating a promising bioactivity. The release kinetics of the Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the adsorption of H+ after immersion of SiCaMgOC in simulated body fluid for different soaking times were analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the mechanism of formation of apatite on the surface of the SiCaMgOC powders is similar to that observed for standard (silicate) bioactive glasses. A preliminary cytotoxicity investigation of the SiOC-based bioactive glasses was performed in the presence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as well as human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). Due to their excellent high-temperature crystallization resistance in addition to bioactivity, the Ca- and Mg-modified SiOC glasses presented here might have high potential in applications related to bone repair and regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antibiotics Enhanced with Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films
Materials 2016, 9(9), 778; doi:10.3390/ma9090778
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (9686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inhibitory and antimicrobial effects of silver particles have been known since ancient times. In the last few years, a major health problem has arisen due to pathogenic bacteria resistance to antimicrobial agents. The antibacterial activities of new materials including hydroxyapatite (HAp), silver-doped
[...] Read more.
The inhibitory and antimicrobial effects of silver particles have been known since ancient times. In the last few years, a major health problem has arisen due to pathogenic bacteria resistance to antimicrobial agents. The antibacterial activities of new materials including hydroxyapatite (HAp), silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) and various types of antibiotics such as tetracycline (T-HAp and T-Ag:HAp) or ciprofloxacin (C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp) have not been studied so far. In this study we reported, for the first time, the preparation and characterization of various thin films based on hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite combined with tetracycline or ciprofloxacin. The structural and chemical characterization of hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphological studies of the HAp, Ag:HAp, T-HAp, T-Ag:HAp, C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp thin solid films were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to study the chemical composition of the coatings, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) measurements have been used, obtaining information on the distribution of the elements throughout the film. These studies have confirmed the purity of the prepared hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained from composite targets containing Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 with xAg = 0 (HAp) and xAg = 0.2 (Ag:HAp). On the other hand, the major aim of this study was the evaluation of the antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. The antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli test strains increased in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Osteointegrative Sr-Substituted Apatitic Cements Enriched with Alginate
Materials 2016, 9(9), 763; doi:10.3390/ma9090763
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work describes the synthesis of novel injectable, self-setting bone cements made of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA), obtained by single-phase calcium phosphate precursors doped with different amounts of strontium and enriched with alginate. The addition of alginate improved the injectability, cohesion, and compression
[...] Read more.
The present work describes the synthesis of novel injectable, self-setting bone cements made of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA), obtained by single-phase calcium phosphate precursors doped with different amounts of strontium and enriched with alginate. The addition of alginate improved the injectability, cohesion, and compression strength of the cements, without affecting the hardening process. A Sr-HA cement exhibiting adequate hardening times and mechanical strength for clinical applications was further tested in vivo in a rabbit model, in comparison with a commercial calcium phosphate cement, revealing the maintenance of biomimetic composition and porous microstructure even after one month in vivo, as well as enhanced ability to induce new bone formation and penetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Nanofibrous Structure of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Microbeads for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2016, 9(6), 487; doi:10.3390/ma9060487
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 4 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A highly ordered, mesoporous (pore size 2~50 nm) bioactive glass (MBG) structure has a greater surface area and pore volume and excellent bone-forming bioactivity compared with traditional bioactive glasses (BGs). Hence, MBGs have been used in drug delivery and bone tissue engineering. MBGs
[...] Read more.
A highly ordered, mesoporous (pore size 2~50 nm) bioactive glass (MBG) structure has a greater surface area and pore volume and excellent bone-forming bioactivity compared with traditional bioactive glasses (BGs). Hence, MBGs have been used in drug delivery and bone tissue engineering. MBGs can be developed as either a dense or porous block. Compared with a block, microbeads provide greater flexibility for filling different-shaped cavities and are suitable for culturing cells in vitro. In contrast, the fibrous structure of a scaffold has been shown to increase cell attachment and differentiation due to its ability to mimic the three-dimensional structure of natural extracellular matrices. Hence, the aim of this study is to fabricate MBG microbeads with a fibrous structure. First, a sol-gel/electrospinning technique was utilized to fabricate the MBG nanofiber (MBGNF) structure. Subsequently, the MBGNF microbeads (MFBs) were produced by an electrospraying technology. The results show that the diameter of the MFBs decreases when the applied voltage increases. The drug loading and release profiles and mechanisms of the MFBs were also evaluated. MFBs had a better drug entrapment efficiency, could reduce the burst release of tetracycline, and sustain the release over 10 days. Hence, the MFBs may be suitable drug carriers. In addition, the cellular attachment of MG63 osteoblast-like cells is significantly higher for MFBs than for glass microbeads after culturing for 4 h. The nanofibrous structure of MFBs could provide an appropriate environment for cellular spreading. Therefore, MFBs have great potential for use as a bone graft material in bone tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)

Review

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Open AccessReview Doped Calcium Silicate Ceramics: A New Class of Candidates for Synthetic Bone Substitutes
Materials 2017, 10(2), 153; doi:10.3390/ma10020153
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Doped calcium silicate ceramics (DCSCs) have recently gained immense interest as a new class of candidates for the treatment of bone defects. Although calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses have remained the mainstream of ceramic bone substitutes, their clinical use is limited by suboptimal
[...] Read more.
Doped calcium silicate ceramics (DCSCs) have recently gained immense interest as a new class of candidates for the treatment of bone defects. Although calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses have remained the mainstream of ceramic bone substitutes, their clinical use is limited by suboptimal mechanical properties. DCSCs are a class of calcium silicate ceramics which are developed through the ionic substitution of calcium ions, the incorporation of metal oxides into the base binary xCaO–ySiO2 system, or a combination of both. Due to their unique compositions and ability to release bioactive ions, DCSCs exhibit enhanced mechanical and biological properties. Such characteristics offer significant advantages over existing ceramic bone substitutes, and underline the future potential of adopting DCSCs for clinical use in bone reconstruction to produce improved outcomes. This review will discuss the effects of different dopant elements and oxides on the characteristics of DCSCs for applications in bone repair, including mechanical properties, degradation and ion release characteristics, radiopacity, and biological activity (in vitro and in vivo). Recent advances in the development of DCSCs for broader clinical applications will also be discussed, including DCSC composites, coated DCSC scaffolds and DCSC-coated metal implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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