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Special Issue "Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Carlos Manuel Silva

CICECO–Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portuga
Website | E-Mail
Interests: adsorption, diffusion, ion exchange, membranes, modeling, separation processes, supercritical fluid technology, thermodynamics, transport properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ultimate ambition of the fundamental and applied research on supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and fractionation is the development of a next generation of benign products and sustainable chemical processes.

Notwithstanding the fact that it is frequently and erroneously associated to prohibitive investments, the SFE is being progressively accepted as a green, selective, and cost-effective industrial alternative for the production of valuable extracts and oils from vegetable and animal biomasses. There are already more than 150 SFE commercial units worldwide, many of them devoted to natural products. This number will certainly increase in the near future, where one may expect that multipurpose plants and hybrid and combined processes will prevail.

In this context, accurate optimization and scale-up studies are decisive to unequivocally validate and promote the implementation of efficient SFE-based units and new business opportunities. Here, the use of computational tools for process modeling and simulation, combined with sound design and economic principles, is inherently well positioned for a desired industrial ratification.

The intercrossed complexity of aspects underlying a SFE process (e.g., mass transfer mechanisms, physicochemical interactions between the target molecules and the micro-structure of biomass, operating conditions, patterns of flow, and equipment geometry) requires a comprehensive knowledge of theory and technical principles, which undoubtedly join academics and specialized companies.

It is my pleasure to invite you to participate in this Special Issue of journal Materials, titled “Optimisation and Scale-up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes”, by submitting back your communication, review or full paper at your earliest convenience. Materials currently has an Impact Factor of 2.651 and 5-Year Impact Factor of 3.350.

Dr. Carlos M. Silva
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • biomass
  • carbon dioxide
  • economic analysis
  • extracts
  • green chemistry
  • industry
  • modeling
  • optimisation
  • scale-up
  • simulation
  • supercritical fluid extraction
  • supercritical fluid fractionation
  • sustainability

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Recovery of Butanol by Counter-Current Carbon Dioxide Fractionation with its Potential Application to Butanol Fermentation
Materials 2016, 9(7), 530; doi:10.3390/ma9070530
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A counter-current CO2 fractionation method was applied as a mean to recover n-butanol and other compounds that are typically obtained from biobutanol fermentation broth from aqueous solutions. The influence of operating variables, such as solvent-to-feed ratio, temperature, pressure and feed solution composition
[...] Read more.
A counter-current CO2 fractionation method was applied as a mean to recover n-butanol and other compounds that are typically obtained from biobutanol fermentation broth from aqueous solutions. The influence of operating variables, such as solvent-to-feed ratio, temperature, pressure and feed solution composition was experimentally studied in terms of separation efficiency, butanol removal rate, total removal and butanol concentration in the extract at the end of the continuous cycle. With respect to the temperature and pressure conditions investigated, results show that the highest separation efficiency was obtained at 35 °C and 10.34 MPa. At these operating conditions, 92.3% of the butanol present in the feed solution was extracted, and a concentration of 787.5 g·L−1 of butanol in the extract was obtained, starting from a feed solution of 20 g·L−1. Selectivity was calculated from experimental data, concluding that our column performs much better than a single equilibrium stage. When adding ethanol and acetone to the feed solution, ethanol was detected in the water-rich fraction (raffinate), whereas the highest concentration of acetone was found in the butanol rich fraction (extract). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Total Alkaloids, Peimisine, Peimine and Peiminine from the Bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts
Materials 2016, 9(7), 524; doi:10.3390/ma9070524
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
PDF Full-text (5929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA), ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA) and ferric reducing
[...] Read more.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract total alkaloids, peimisine, peimine and peiminine from the bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA), ABTS radical scavenging activity (ABTS-RSA) and ferric reducing capacity (FRAP) assay. A central composite design (CCD) with four variables and five levels was employed for optimization of process parameters, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Under optimal conditions of 3.0 h, 60.4 °C, 26.5 MPa and 89.3% ethanol, the highest yields were predicted to be 3.8 mg/g for total alkaloids, 0.5 mg/g for peimisine, 1.3 mg/g for peimine and 1.3 mg/g for peiminine, and the antioxidant capacity of extracts displayed EC50, DPPH value of 5.5 mg/mL, EC50, ABTS value of 0.3 mg/mL and FRAP value of 118.2 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/100 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes)
Open AccessArticle Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up
Materials 2016, 9(7), 519; doi:10.3390/ma9070519
Received: 11 March 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on
[...] Read more.
Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step
Materials 2016, 9(6), 494; doi:10.3390/ma9060494
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of
[...] Read more.
Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evaluates economically the encouraging experimental results regarding the use of SFE during annatto seeds valorization. Additionally, other features were discussed such as the benefits of enhancing the bioactive compounds concentration through physical processes and of integrating the proposed annatto seeds biorefinery to a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery, which produces its essential inputs, e.g., CO2, ethanol, heat and electricity. For this, first, different configurations were modeled and simulated using the commercial simulator Aspen Plus® to determine the mass and energy balances. Next, each configuration was economically assessed using MATLAB. SFE proved to be decisive to the economic feasibility of the proposed annatto seeds-sugarcane biorefinery concept. SFE pretreatment associated with sequential fine particles separation process enabled higher bixin-rich extract production using low-pressure solvent extraction method employing ethanol, meanwhile tocotrienols-rich extract is obtained as a first product. Nevertheless, the economic evaluation showed that increasing tocotrienols-rich extract production has a more pronounced positive impact on the economic viability of the concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Modeling of the Kinetics of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lipids from Microalgae with Emphasis on Extract Desorption
Materials 2016, 9(6), 423; doi:10.3390/ma9060423
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
PDF Full-text (1739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae contain valuable biologically active lipophilic substances such as omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. In contrast to the recovery of vegetable oils from seeds, where the extraction with supercritical CO2 is used as a mild and selective method, economically viable application of
[...] Read more.
Microalgae contain valuable biologically active lipophilic substances such as omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. In contrast to the recovery of vegetable oils from seeds, where the extraction with supercritical CO2 is used as a mild and selective method, economically viable application of this method on similarly soluble oils from microalgae requires, in most cases, much higher pressure. This paper presents and verifies hypothesis that this difference is caused by high adsorption capacity of microalgae. Under the pressures usually applied in supercritical fluid extraction from plants, microalgae bind a large fraction of the extracted oil, while under extremely high CO2 pressures their adsorption capacity diminishes and the extraction rate depends on oil solubility in supercritical CO2. A mathematical model for the extraction from microalgae was derived and applied to literature data on the extraction kinetics in order to determine model parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimisation and Scale-Up of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Processes)

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