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Special Issue "NextGen Materials for 3D Printing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chee Kai Chua

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.1-B2c-03b, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: geometric modelling; rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; reverse engineering; biomedical engineering design; tissue engineering; biomaterials; bioprinting
Guest Editor
Dr. Jia An

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.1-B2c-03b, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 3D printing; bioprinting; biomaterials; polymer processing; polymer microfibers; polymer membranes; tissue engineering
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Dr. Wai Yee Yeong

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N3.2-02-27, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; tissue engineering, biomaterials; 3D bioprinting; laser-material interaction; medical devices; lightweight structure and design; metal printing; qualification ad certification of AM parts.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

3D printing, formally known as additive manufacturing, has advanced significantly in the field of processing materials. Recently, many materials, most deemed as non-printable before, have surfaced in the field of 3D printing as new 3D printable materials; for example, glass, concrete, carbon fibers, dissolvable metals, etc. Though not many have reached commercial maturity, the endless possibilities of 3D printing have been undoubtedly manifested. This causes us to consider, by looking at today’s range of materials and the range of 3D printable materials, what will 3D printing look like tomorrow? This exciting question motivates us to propose a Special Issue on the next generation of 3D printing materials.

The focus of this Special Issue is on new, 3D printable materials. Any topics involving 3D printing materials will be of interest to us. Please refer to the following list of suggested keywords for the scope of this Special Issue. We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Chee Kai Chua
Assist. Prof. Dr. Wai Yee Yeong
Dr. Jia An
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multi-materials
  • Hybrid materials
  • Smart materials (e.g. shape memory materials)
  • Magnetic materials
  • Glass and ceramics
  • Functional materials
  • New biomaterials
  • Nanomaterials/Nanocomposites
  • Cement and concrete
  • Carbon fibre composites
  • Dissolvable metals
  • Drugs/pharmaceuticals
  • Food/nutrients

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate
Materials 2018, 11(1), 129; doi:10.3390/ma11010129
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
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Abstract
The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone
[...] Read more.
The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physically and chemically assessed, considering mechanical, wettability, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric tests. Cell viability, attachment and proliferation tests were performed using human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs). Results show that scaffolds containing HA present better biological properties and TCP scaffolds present improved mechanical properties. It was also possible to observe that the addition of ceramic particles had no effect on the wettability of the scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of T2 Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Properties of the Selective Laser Melted Aluminum Alloy Samples
Materials 2018, 11(1), 66; doi:10.3390/ma11010066
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, aluminum alloy samples were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and subsequently T2 heat treatment was undertaken. In order to obtain comprehensive results, various experiments on densification, hardness, tensile strength, bending strength and microstructure characterization were carried out. The results
[...] Read more.
In this paper, aluminum alloy samples were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and subsequently T2 heat treatment was undertaken. In order to obtain comprehensive results, various experiments on densification, hardness, tensile strength, bending strength and microstructure characterization were carried out. The results show that densification of samples after T2 heat treatment does not vary very much from the SLMed ones, while the Brinell hardness and strength decreases to about 50%. Moreover, the plasticity and fracture deflection increases about 3 fold. The effects on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the SLMed aluminum alloy samples and subsequent T2 heat treatment were studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Open AccessArticle Visible Light Photoinitiator for 3D-Printing of Tough Methacrylate Resins
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1445; doi:10.3390/ma10121445
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Lithography-based additive manufacturing was introduced in the 1980s, and is still the method of choice for printing accurate plastic parts with high surface quality. Recent progress in this field has made tough photopolymer resins and cheap LED light engines available. This study presents
[...] Read more.
Lithography-based additive manufacturing was introduced in the 1980s, and is still the method of choice for printing accurate plastic parts with high surface quality. Recent progress in this field has made tough photopolymer resins and cheap LED light engines available. This study presents the influence of photoinitiator selection and post-processing on the thermomechanical properties of various tough photopolymers. The influence of three photoinitiators (Ivocerin, BAPO, and TPO-L) on the double-bond conversion and mechanical properties was investigated by mid infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests. It was found that 1.18 wt % TPO-L would provide the best overall results in terms of double-bond conversion and mechanical properties. A correlation between double-bond conversion, yield strength, and glass transition temperature was found. Elongation at break remained high after post-curing at about 80–100%, and was not influenced by higher photoinitiator concentration. Finally, functional parts with 41 MPa tensile strength, 82% elongation at break, and 112 °C glass transition temperature were printed on a 405 nm DLP (digital light processing) printer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Open AccessArticle Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP)
Materials 2017, 10(12), 1368; doi:10.3390/ma10121368
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 25 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA),
[...] Read more.
In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. T3DP opens the door to the AM of further ceramic-based 4D components, such as multi-color, multi-material, or especially, multi-functional components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Exploration of Metal Cable as Reinforcement in 3D Printed Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1314; doi:10.3390/ma10111314
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or
[...] Read more.
The Material Deposition Method (MDM) is enjoying increasing attention as an additive method to create concrete mortar structures characterised by a high degree of form-freedom, a lack of geometrical repetition, and automated construction. Several small-scale structures have been realised around the world, or are under preparation. However, the nature of this construction method is unsuitable for conventional reinforcement methods to achieve ductile failure behaviour. Sometimes, this is solved by combining printing with conventional casting and reinforcing techniques. This study, however, explores an alternative strategy, namely to directly entrain a metal cable in the concrete filament during printing to serve as reinforcement. A device is introduced to apply the reinforcement. Several options for online reinforcement media are compared for printability. Considerations specific to the manufacturing process are discussed. Subsequently, pull-out tests on cast and printed specimens provide an initial characterisation of bond behaviour. Bending tests furthermore show the potential of this reinforcement method. The bond stress of cables in printed concrete was comparable to values reported for smooth rebar but lower than that of the same cables in cast concrete. The scatter in experimental results was high. When sufficient bond length is available, ductile failure behaviour for tension parallel to the filament direction can be achieved, even though cable slip occurs. Further improvements to the process should pave the way to achieve better post-crack resistance, as the concept in itself is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Selective Laser Sintering of Porous Silica Enabled by Carbon Additive
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1313; doi:10.3390/ma10111313
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of a freeform fabrication of porous ceramic parts through selective laser sintering (SLS). SLS was proposed to manufacture ceramic green parts because this additive manufacturing technique can be used to fabricate three-dimensional objects
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of a freeform fabrication of porous ceramic parts through selective laser sintering (SLS). SLS was proposed to manufacture ceramic green parts because this additive manufacturing technique can be used to fabricate three-dimensional objects directly without a mold, and the technique has the capability of generating porous ceramics with controlled porosity. However, ceramic printing has not yet fully achieved its 3D fabrication capabilities without using polymer binder. Except for the limitations of high melting point, brittleness, and low thermal shock resistance from ceramic material properties, the key obstacle lies in the very poor absorptivity of oxide ceramics to fiber laser, which is widely installed in commercial SLS equipment. An alternative solution to overcome the poor laser absorptivity via improving material compositions is presented in this study. The positive effect of carbon additive on the absorptivity of silica powder to fiber laser is discussed. To investigate the capabilities of the SLS process, 3D porous silica structures were successfully prepared and characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperViewpoint Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials
Materials 2017, 10(11), 1260; doi:10.3390/ma10111260
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in
[...] Read more.
Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM). Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED) technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
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