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Special Issue "Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES)"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (7 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Eva M. Rubio

Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, E28040-Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: machining; lightweight materials (magnesium alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys); metal forming technology and processing; sustainable manufacturing; industrial metrology; virtual reality; e-learning; innovation in distance teaching
Guest Editor
Prof. Ana M. Camacho

Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, E28040-Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metal forming of metallic materials (lightweight alloys, advanced high strength steels); additive manufacturing; industrial metrology; materials technology; development of virtual labs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on the Manufacturing Engineering Society is dedicated to publishing high-quality and original research in the field of Manufacturing Engineering and it is promoted by the Manufacturing Engineering Society.

The main objective of this Special Issue is to publish outstanding papers presenting cutting-edge advances in the field of Manufacturing Engineering and materials processing.

The journal aims to explore the evolution of traditional manufacturing models towards the new requirements of the Manufacturing Industry 4.0 and how manufacturing professionals should face the resulting competitive challenges, in the context of an ever-increasing use of digital information systems and communication technologies. Contributions on emerging methods and technologies, such as those related to additive manufacturing will have special relevance within this Special Issue, as well as those ones where sustainability and environmental issues play a fundamental role in manufacturing.

The main topics covered by this Special Issue are scientific contributions on the following manufacturing research topics:

  • Additive manufacturing and 3D printing
  • Advances and innovations in manufacturing processes
  • Sustainable and green manufacturing
  • Micro and nano-manufacturing
  • Manufacturing of new materials
  • Manufacturing systems: machines, equipment and tooling
  • Robotics, mechatronics and manufacturing automation
  • Metrology and quality in manufacturing
  • Industry 4.0
  • Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) technologies
  • Design, modeling and simulation in manufacturing engineering
  • Production planning
  • Manufacturing engineering and Society

The above list is not exhaustive and papers on other topics associated with advances in manufacturing engineering are also welcome.

Excellent papers selected from the Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference can be also be part of this Special Issue, provided that the degree of novelty of the contribution is guaranteed and the paper has been not published elsewhere.

It is our pleasure to invite professionals from industry, academic institutions and research centers from around the world to submit their contributions to this Special Issue.

text

Prof. Eva M. Rubio
Prof. Ana M. Camacho
Guest Editors

  • Members of the Manufacturing Engineering Society will benefit from a 15% discount (approx. 200 €) on the article processing charges. If you are not a member yet, please find more information on how to join the society (here). Regular individual member fee 75 €/year, student fee 35 €/year.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • Machining
  • Forming
  • Moulding
  • Non-traditional manufacturing processes
  • Welding
  • Joining
  • Assembly processes
  • Friction
  • Wear
  • Sustainable manufacturing
  • Green manufacturing
  • Micro-manufacturing
  • Nano-manufacturing
  • Manufacturing systems
  • Robotics
  • Mechatronics
  • Manufacturing automation
  • Metrology
  • Quality in manufacturing
  • Industry 4.0
  • Digital manufacturing
  • Smart manufacturing
  • Virtual manufacturing
  • Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Production planning
  • Ergonomy
  • Safety and risks
  • Heritage

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Force Signals for the Estimation of Surface Roughness during Robot-Assisted Polishing
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081438 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
In this study feature extraction of force signals detected during robot-assisted polishing processes was carried out to estimate the surface roughness during the process. The purpose was to collect significant features from the signal that allow the determination of the end point of
[...] Read more.
In this study feature extraction of force signals detected during robot-assisted polishing processes was carried out to estimate the surface roughness during the process. The purpose was to collect significant features from the signal that allow the determination of the end point of the polishing process based on surface roughness. For this objective, dry polishing turning tests were performed on a Robot-Assisted Polishing (RAP) machine (STRECON NanoRAP 200) during three polishing sessions, using the same polishing conditions. Along the tests, force signals were acquired and offline surface roughness measurements were taken at the end of each polishing session. As a main conclusion, it can be affirmed, regarding the force signal, that features extracted from both time and frequency domains are valuable data for the estimation of surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Potential Economic Impact of the Use of AM Technologies in the Cost Levels of Manufacturing and Stocking of Spare Part Products
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081429
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are appropriate manufacturing technologies to produce low rotation products of high added value. Products in the spare parts business usually have discontinuous demand levels of reduced numbers of parts. Indeed, spare parts inventories handle myriad of products that require
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are appropriate manufacturing technologies to produce low rotation products of high added value. Products in the spare parts business usually have discontinuous demand levels of reduced numbers of parts. Indeed, spare parts inventories handle myriad of products that require big immobilized investments while having an intrinsic risk of no-use (for example due to obsolescence or spoilage). Based on these issues, the present work analyses the fundamental cost factors in a real case study of a company dedicated to the supply of spare parts for fluid conduction systems. Real inventory data is assessed to determine the product taxonomy and its associated costs. A representative product of the stock is analyzed in detail on original manufacturing costs, in AM costs and then redesigned with topological optimization to reduce the AM cost levels (via design for additive manufacturing). A general equation for cost assessment is formulated. Given the specific data collected from the company, the parameters in this general equation are calculated. Finally, the general equation and the product cost reduction achieved are used to explore the potential economic impact of the use of AM technologies in the cost levels of manufacturing and stocking of spare part products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Scaffold Parameter Selection System with Additive Manufacturing for a Biomedical Cell Culture
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081427
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
PDF Full-text (5306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Open-source 3D printers mean objects can be quickly and efficiently produced. However, design and fabrication parameters need to be optimized to set up the correct printing procedure; a procedure in which the characteristics of the printing materials selected for use can also influence
[...] Read more.
Open-source 3D printers mean objects can be quickly and efficiently produced. However, design and fabrication parameters need to be optimized to set up the correct printing procedure; a procedure in which the characteristics of the printing materials selected for use can also influence the process. This work focuses on optimizing the printing process of the open-source 3D extruder machine RepRap, which is used to manufacture poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for cell culture applications. PCL is a biocompatible polymer that is free of toxic dye and has been used to fabricate scaffolds, i.e., solid structures suitable for 3D cancer cell cultures. Scaffold cell culture has been described as enhancing cancer stem cell (CSC) populations related to tumor chemoresistance and/or their recurrence after chemotherapy. A RepRap BCN3D+ printer and 3 mm PCL wire were used to fabricate circular scaffolds. Design and fabrication parameters were first determined with SolidWorks and Slic3r software and subsequently optimized following a novel sequential flowchart. In the flowchart described here, the parameters were gradually optimized step by step, by taking several measurable variables of the resulting scaffolds into consideration to guarantee high-quality printing. Three deposition angles (45°, 60° and 90°) were fabricated and tested. MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells and NIH/3T3 murine fibroblasts were used to assess scaffold adequacy for 3D cell cultures. The 60° scaffolds were found to be suitable for the purpose. Therefore, PCL scaffolds fabricated via the flowchart optimization with a RepRap 3D printer could be used for 3D cell cultures and may boost CSCs to study new therapeutic treatments for this malignant population. Moreover, the flowchart defined here could represent a standard procedure for non-engineers (i.e., mainly physicians) when manufacturing new culture systems is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Delamination Study in Edge Trimming of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastics (BFRP)
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081418
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Although there are many machining studies of carbon and glass fiber reinforced plastics, delamination and tool wear of basalt fiber reinforced plastics (BFRP) in edge trimming has not yet studied. This paper presents an end milling study of BFRP fabricated by resin transfer
[...] Read more.
Although there are many machining studies of carbon and glass fiber reinforced plastics, delamination and tool wear of basalt fiber reinforced plastics (BFRP) in edge trimming has not yet studied. This paper presents an end milling study of BFRP fabricated by resin transfer molding (RTM), to evaluate delamination types at the top layer of the machined edge with different cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) and fiber volume fraction (40% and 60%). This work quantifies delamination types, using a parameter Sd/L, that evaluates the delamination area (Sd) and the length (L), taking into account tool position in the yarn and movement of yarns during RTM process, which show the random nature of delamination. Delamination was present in all materials with 60% of fiber volume. High values of tool wear did not permit to machine the material due to an excessive delamination. Type II delamination was the most usual delamination type and depth of cut has influence on this type of delamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Numerical-Experimental Study of the Consolidation Phenomenon in the Selective Laser Melting Process with a Thermo-Fluidic Coupled Model
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081414
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
One of the main limiting factors for a widespread industrial use of the Selective Laser Melting Process it its lack of productivity, which restricts the use of this technology just for high added-value components. Typically, the thickness of the metallic powder that is
[...] Read more.
One of the main limiting factors for a widespread industrial use of the Selective Laser Melting Process it its lack of productivity, which restricts the use of this technology just for high added-value components. Typically, the thickness of the metallic powder that is used lies on the scale of micrometers. The use of a layer up to one millimeter would be necessarily associated to a dramatic increase of productivity. Nevertheless, when the layer thickness increases, the complexity of consolidation phenomena makes the process difficult to be governed. The present work proposes a 3D finite element thermo-coupled model to study the evolution from the metallic powder to the final consolidated material, analyzing specifically the movements and loads of the melt pool, and defining the behavior of some critical thermophysical properties as a function of temperature and the phase of the material. This model uses advanced numerical tools such as the Arbitrary Lagrangean–Eulerian formulation and the Automatic Remeshing technique. A series of experiments have been carried out, using a high thickness powder layer, allowing for a deeper understanding of the consolidation phenomena and providing a reference to compare the results of the numerical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Calibration in Multi-Material 3D Bioprinting for Tissue Engineering
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081402
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Most of the studies in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting have been traditionally based on printing a single bioink. Addressing the complexity of organ and tissue engineering, however, will require combining multiple building and sacrificial biomaterials and several cells types in a single biofabrication session.
[...] Read more.
Most of the studies in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting have been traditionally based on printing a single bioink. Addressing the complexity of organ and tissue engineering, however, will require combining multiple building and sacrificial biomaterials and several cells types in a single biofabrication session. This is a significant challenge, and, to tackle that, we must focus on the complex relationships between the printing parameters and the print resolution. In this paper, we study the influence of the main parameters driven multi-material 3D bioprinting and we present a method to calibrate these systems and control the print resolution accurately. Firstly, poloxamer hydrogels were extruded using a desktop 3D printer modified to incorporate four microextrusion-based bioprinting (MEBB) printheads. The printed hydrogels provided us the particular range of printing parameters (mainly printing pressure, deposition speed, and nozzle z-offset) to assure the correct calibration of the multi-material 3D bioprinter. Using the printheads, we demonstrated the excellent performance of the calibrated system extruding different fluorescent bioinks. Representative multi-material structures were printed in both poloxamer and cell-laden gelatin-alginate bioinks in a single session corroborating the capabilities of our system and the calibration method. Cell viability was not significantly affected by any of the changes proposed. We conclude that our proposal has enormous potential to help with advancing in the creation of complex 3D constructs and vascular networks for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Influence of Shielding Gases on Laser Metal Deposition of Inconel 718 Superalloy
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081388
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
The use of the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) technology as a manufacturing and repairing technique in industrial sectors like the die and mold and aerospace is increasing within the last decades. Research carried out in the field of LMD process situates argon as
[...] Read more.
The use of the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) technology as a manufacturing and repairing technique in industrial sectors like the die and mold and aerospace is increasing within the last decades. Research carried out in the field of LMD process situates argon as the most usual inert gas, followed by nitrogen. Some leading companies have started to use helium and argon as carrier and shielding gas, respectively. There is therefore a pressing need to know how the use of different gases may affect the LMD process due there being a lack of knowledge with regard to gas mixtures. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of a mixture of argon and helium on the LMD process by analyzing single tracks of deposited material. For this purpose, special attention is paid to the melt pool temperature, as well as to the characterization of the deposited clads. The increment of helium concentration in the gases of the LMD processes based on argon will have three effects. The first one is a slight reduction of the height of the clads. Second, an increase of the temperature of the melt pool. Last, smaller wet angles are obtained for higher helium concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Surface Quality Enhancement of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Printed Samples Based on the Selection of Critical Printing Parameters
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081382
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
The present paper shows an experimental study on additive manufacturing for obtaining samples of polylactic acid (PLA). The process used for manufacturing these samples was fused deposition modeling (FDM). Little attention to the surface quality obtained in additive manufacturing processes has been paid
[...] Read more.
The present paper shows an experimental study on additive manufacturing for obtaining samples of polylactic acid (PLA). The process used for manufacturing these samples was fused deposition modeling (FDM). Little attention to the surface quality obtained in additive manufacturing processes has been paid by the research community. So, this paper aims at filling this gap. The goal of the study is the recognition of critical factors in FDM processes for reducing surface roughness. Two different types of experiments were carried out to analyze five printing parameters. The results were analyzed by means of Analysis of Variance, graphical methods, and non-parametric tests using Spearman’s ρ and Kendall’s τ correlation coefficients. The results showed how layer height and wall thickness are the most important factors for controlling surface roughness, while printing path, printing speed, and temperature showed no clear influence on surface roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Process Parameter Effects on Biocompatible Thermoplastic Sheets Produced by Incremental Forming
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081377
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been increasing interest in the processes that enable part customization and small-batch production in recent years. The prosthetic sector, in which biocompatible materials are used, is one of the areas that requires these types of processes; Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) technology
[...] Read more.
There has been increasing interest in the processes that enable part customization and small-batch production in recent years. The prosthetic sector, in which biocompatible materials are used, is one of the areas that requires these types of processes; Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) technology can meet these requirements. However, the biocompatible thermoplastic polymers formed by this technology have not yet been tested. Hence, the aim of this paper is to cover this gap in our knowledge by analyzing the effects of process parameters on the ISF process with the aim of optimizing these parameters before the actual production of, in this case, customized prostheses. Tests with polycaprolactone (PCL) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were performed. Maximum force, surface roughness and maximum depth were statistically analyzed by means of response surface methodology and survival analysis. Spindle speed and tool diameter were shown to be the most influential process parameters in terms of maximum forming force and surface roughness for both materials. In contrast, survival analysis applied to maximum depth showed a greater influence of tool diameter in PCL sheets and a greater influence of spindle speed in the case of UHMWPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle In-Process Measurement for the Process Control of the Real-Time Manufacturing of Tapered Roller Bearings
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081371
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Tapered roller bearings can accommodate high radial loads as well as high axial loads. The manufacturing process consists of machining processes for ring and component assembly. In this contribution, the parameters of influence on the measurement procedure were studied. These parameters of influence
[...] Read more.
Tapered roller bearings can accommodate high radial loads as well as high axial loads. The manufacturing process consists of machining processes for ring and component assembly. In this contribution, the parameters of influence on the measurement procedure were studied. These parameters of influence were classified as environmental, process, and machine parameters. The main objective of this work was to optimize the process using real-time measurements, which required the study of the influence of several parameters on the measurement uncertainty and how to correct their effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Cutting Parameter Selection for Efficient and Sustainable Repair of Holes Made in Hybrid Mg–Ti–Mg Component Stacks by Dry Drilling Operations
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081369
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drilling is one of the most common machining operations in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. For assembling parts, a large number of holes are usually drilled into the parts so that they can be joined later by rivets. As these holes are subjected
[...] Read more.
Drilling is one of the most common machining operations in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. For assembling parts, a large number of holes are usually drilled into the parts so that they can be joined later by rivets. As these holes are subjected to fatigue cycles, they have to be checked regularly for maintenance or repair, since small cracks or damage in its contour can quickly cause breakage of the part, which can have dangerous consequences. This paper focuses on finding the best combinations of cutting parameters to perform repair and maintenance operations of holes in stacked hybrid magnesium–titanium–magnesium components in an efficient, timely, and sustainable (without lubricants or coolants) manner, under dry drilling conditions. For the machining trials, experiments were designed and completed. A product of a full factorial 23 and a block of two factors (3 × 2) was used with surface roughness as the response variable measured as the mean roughness average. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the results. A set of optimized tool and cutting conditions is presented for performing dry drilling repair operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Design and Simulation of Production and Maintenance Management Applying the Viable System Model: The Case of an OEM Plant
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081346
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
PDF Full-text (7520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Designing, changing and adapting organizations to secure viability is challenging for manufacturing companies. Researchers often fail to holistically design or transform production systems. Reasons are often the conflict of interests between production and maintenance, the temporal divergence of their activities and their organizational
[...] Read more.
Designing, changing and adapting organizations to secure viability is challenging for manufacturing companies. Researchers often fail to holistically design or transform production systems. Reasons are often the conflict of interests between production and maintenance, the temporal divergence of their activities and their organizational structure. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a holistic approach of how production and maintenance can be designed, changed or managed. Hereby, the Viable System Model was applied. This structure can be applied to any kind of structured organization and for its management with goals to be achieved in modern society; however, focus of the research is the coordination of production and maintenance management. The goal of the developed model is to be able to react to some potential production environments by taking coordinated decisions correctly and in the right moment based on the needed information. To ensure this, standardized communication channels were defined. In conclusion, this proposed approach enables production systems to have internal mechanisms to secure viability depending on all potential environment scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on the Mechanical Behaviour of PLA and ABS Pieces Manufactured by FDM: A Comparative Analysis
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081333
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
PDF Full-text (5462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative study of the tensile mechanical behaviour of pieces produced using the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) additive manufacturing technique with respect to the two types of thermoplastic material most widely used in this technique: polylactide (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative study of the tensile mechanical behaviour of pieces produced using the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) additive manufacturing technique with respect to the two types of thermoplastic material most widely used in this technique: polylactide (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The aim of this study is to compare the effect of layer height, infill density, and layer orientation on the mechanical performance of PLA and ABS test specimens. The variables under study here are tensile yield stress, tensile strength, nominal strain at break, and modulus of elasticity. The results obtained with ABS show a lower variability than those obtained with PLA. In general, the infill percentage is the manufacturing parameter of greatest influence on the results, although the effect is more noticeable in PLA than in ABS. The test specimens manufactured using PLA perform more rigidly and they are found to have greater tensile strength than ABS. The bond between layers in PLA turns out to be extremely strong and is, therefore, highly suitable for use in additive technologies. The methodology proposed is a reference of interest in studies involving the determination of mechanical properties of polymer materials manufactured using these technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Influence of PLA Filament Conditions on Characteristics of FDM Parts
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081322
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
PDF Full-text (11407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies play an important role in Industry 4.0. One of the most prevalent processes is fused deposition modelling (FDM) due to its versatility and low cost. However, there is still a lack of standardization of materials and procedures within this technology.
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies play an important role in Industry 4.0. One of the most prevalent processes is fused deposition modelling (FDM) due to its versatility and low cost. However, there is still a lack of standardization of materials and procedures within this technology. This work aims to study the relationship of certain operating parameters and the conditions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer with the results of the manufactured parts in dimensional terms, surface quality, and mechanical strength. In this way, the impact of some material characteristics is analyzed, such as the pigmentation of the material and the environmental humidity where it has been stored. The manufacturing parameter that relates to these properties has been the extrusion temperature since it is the most influential in this technology. The results are quite affected especially by humidity, being a parameter little studied in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Replicability of Ultrasonic Molding for Processing Thin-Wall Polystyrene Plates with a Microchannel
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081320
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
PDF Full-text (6765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultrasonic molding is a new technology for processing small and micro polymeric components with reasonable cost and energy savings when small and medium batch sizes are required. However, when microcomponents are manufactured, the replicability of different micro features has to be guaranteed. The
[...] Read more.
Ultrasonic molding is a new technology for processing small and micro polymeric components with reasonable cost and energy savings when small and medium batch sizes are required. However, when microcomponents are manufactured, the replicability of different micro features has to be guaranteed. The aim is to investigate the capability of ultrasonic molding technology for processing thin-wall plates of polystyrene with a microchannel, analyzing the filling behavior, the optical transparency, and the dimensional accuracy of the thin plate. The replicability of the manufactured microchannel is studied according to dimension and shape. The results reveal that plunger velocity influences transparency and filling cavity, whereas the vibration amplitude has less effect in both cases. The thickness deviation achieved on the final part is below 7% and the replication of the microchannel is better in depth than width, obtaining an average deviation of 4% and 11%, respectively. This replication also depends on the orientation of the microchannels and the distance from the injection gate. The replicability and repeatability for processing thin-wall plates with microchannel in polystyrene polymer are proved in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Open Source 3D Printed Lung Tumor Movement Simulator for Radiotherapy Quality Assurance
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081317
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
PDF Full-text (11277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, cancer is one of the main causes of death, lung cancer being one of the most aggressive. There are several techniques for the treatment of lung cancer, among which radiotherapy is one of the
[...] Read more.
In OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, cancer is one of the main causes of death, lung cancer being one of the most aggressive. There are several techniques for the treatment of lung cancer, among which radiotherapy is one of the most effective and least invasive for the patient. However, it has associated difficulties due to the moving target tumor. It is possible to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy by effectively tracking a tumor and reducing target irradiation margins. This paper presents a custom electromechanical system that follows the movement of a lung tumor. For this purpose, a hysteresis loop of human lung movement during breathing was studied to obtain its characteristic movement equation. The system is controlled by an Arduino, steppers motors and a customized 3D printed mechanism to follow the characteristic human breathing, obtaining an accurate trajectory. The developed device helps the verification of individualized radiation treatment plans and permits the improvement of radiotherapy quality assurance procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Single-Shot near Edge X-ray Fine Structure (NEXAFS) Spectroscopy Using a Laboratory Laser-Plasma Light Source
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081303
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
We present a proof of principle experiment on single-shot near edge soft X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy with the use of a laboratory laser-plasma light source. The source is based on a plasma created as a result of the interaction of a nanosecond
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We present a proof of principle experiment on single-shot near edge soft X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy with the use of a laboratory laser-plasma light source. The source is based on a plasma created as a result of the interaction of a nanosecond laser pulse with a double stream gas puff target. The laser-plasma source was optimized for efficient soft X-ray (SXR) emission from the krypton/helium target in the wavelength range from 2 nm to 5 nm. This emission was used to acquire simultaneously emission and absorption spectra of soft X-ray light from the source and from the investigated sample using a grazing incidence grating spectrometer. NEXAFS measurements in a transmission mode revealed the spectral features near the carbon K-α absorption edge of thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and L-ascorbic acid in a single-shot. From these features, the composition of the PET sample was successfully obtained. The NEXAFS spectrum of the L-ascorbic acid obtained in a single-shot exposure was also compared to the spectrum obtained a multi-shot exposure and to numerical simulations showing good agreement. In the paper, the detailed information about the source, the spectroscopy system, the absorption spectra measurements and the results of the studies are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Spiral Bevel Gears Face Roughness Prediction Produced by CNC End Milling Centers
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081301
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of multitasking machines in the machine tool sector presents new opportunities for the machining of large size gears and short production series in these machines. However, the possibility of using standard tools in conventional machines for gears machining represents a technological
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The emergence of multitasking machines in the machine tool sector presents new opportunities for the machining of large size gears and short production series in these machines. However, the possibility of using standard tools in conventional machines for gears machining represents a technological challenge from the point of view of workpiece quality. Machining conditions in order to achieve both dimensional and surface quality requirements need to be determined. With these considerations in mind, computer numerical control (CNC) methods to provide useful tools for gear processing are studied. Thus, a model for the prediction of surface roughness obtained on the teeth surface of a machined spiral bevel gear in a multiprocess machine is presented. Machining strategies and optimal machining parameters were studied, and the roughness model is validated for 3 + 2 axes and 5 continuous axes machining strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Study on Near-Net Forming Technology for Stepped Shaft by Cross-Wedge Rolling Based on Variable Cone Angle Billets
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081278
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Considering problems about concaves at the stepped shaft ends, this paper established the plastic flow kinetic theories about metal deforming during the cross-wedge rolling (CWR) process. By means of the DEFORM-3D finite element software and the point tracing method, the forming process of
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Considering problems about concaves at the stepped shaft ends, this paper established the plastic flow kinetic theories about metal deforming during the cross-wedge rolling (CWR) process. By means of the DEFORM-3D finite element software and the point tracing method, the forming process of stepped shafts and the forming mechanism of concaves at shaft ends were studied. Based on the forming features of stepped shafts, rolling pieces were designed using variable cone angle billets. Single-factor tests were conducted to analyze the influence law of the shape parameters of billet with variable cone angle on end concaves, and rolling experiments were performed for verification. According to the results, during the rolling process of stepped shafts, concaves will come into being in stages, and the increasing tendency of its depth is due to the wave mode, the parameters of cone angle α, the first cone section length n. Furthermore, the total cone section length m has an increasingly weaker influence on the end concaves. Specifically, cone angle α has the most significant influence on the quality of shaft ends, which is about twice the influence of the total cone section length m. The concave depth will decrease at the beginning, and then increase with the increasing of the cone angle α and the first cone section length n, and it will decrease with the increasing of the total cone section length m. Finite element numerical analysis results are perfectly consistent with experimental results, with the error ratio being lower than 5%. The results provide a reliable theoretical basis for effectively disposing of end concave problems during CWR, rationally confirming the shape parameters of billets with a variable cone angle, improving the quality of stepped shaft ends, and realizing the near-net forming process of cross-wedge rolling without a stub bar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Tool Wear Mechanism in Cutting of Stack CFRP/UNS A97075
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081276
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
The aeronautics industry’s competitiveness has led to the need to increase productivity with one shot drilling (OSD) systems capable of drilling stacks of dissimilar materials (fibre/metal laminates, FML) in order to reduce riveting times. Among the materials that constitute the current aeronautical models,
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The aeronautics industry’s competitiveness has led to the need to increase productivity with one shot drilling (OSD) systems capable of drilling stacks of dissimilar materials (fibre/metal laminates, FML) in order to reduce riveting times. Among the materials that constitute the current aeronautical models, composite materials and aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) alloys stand out. These one-pass machining techniques produce high-quality holes, especially when all the elements that have to be joined are made of the same material. This work has followed a conventional OSD strategy and the same cutting conditions applied to CFRP (carbo-fibre-reinforced polymer), Al and CFRP/Al stacked sheets to know the wear mechanisms produced. With this purpose, results were obtained by using current specific techniques, such as microstructural analysis, monitoring of the shear forces and analysis of macrogeometric deviations. It has been determined that when these drilling techniques are applied under the same cutting conditions to stacks of materials of a different nature, the results of the wear mechanisms acting on the tool differ from those obtained when machining each material separately. This article presents a comparison between the effects of tool wear during dry drilling of CFRP and UNS A97075 plates separately and when machined as stacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Functional Performance in Turned Workpieces: Methodology and Application to UNS A92024-T3
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081264
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
Turning of light alloys as aluminum-based UNS A92024-T3 is broadly implemented in the manufacture of critical aircraft parts, so ensuring a good functional performance of these pieces is essential. Moreover, operational conditions of these pieces include saline environments where corrosion processes are present.
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Turning of light alloys as aluminum-based UNS A92024-T3 is broadly implemented in the manufacture of critical aircraft parts, so ensuring a good functional performance of these pieces is essential. Moreover, operational conditions of these pieces include saline environments where corrosion processes are present. In this paper, a methodology for the evaluation of the functional performance in turned pieces is proposed. Specimens affected and not affected by corrosion are compared. In addition, performance in service through tensile stress tests of these parts is considered. The results show that turning improves the functional performance of UNS A92024-T3 alloy and that corrosion can enhance the mechanical properties of this alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Parametric Relationships for Chip Geometry in Dry Machining of the Ti6Al4V Alloy
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071260
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
The Ti6Al4V alloy is included in the group of difficult-to-cut materials. Segmented chips are generated for a wide range of cutting parameters. This kind of chip geometry leads to the periodic variation of machining forces, tool vibrations, and work part-tolerance inaccuracies. Therefore, the
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The Ti6Al4V alloy is included in the group of difficult-to-cut materials. Segmented chips are generated for a wide range of cutting parameters. This kind of chip geometry leads to the periodic variation of machining forces, tool vibrations, and work part-tolerance inaccuracies. Therefore, the analysis of chip morphology and geometry becomes a fundamental machinability criterion. However, few studies propose experimental parametric relationships that allow predicting chip-geometry evolution as a function of cutting parameters. In this work, an experimental analysis of the influence of cutting speed and feed rate on various chip-geometric parameters in dry machining of the Ti6Al4V alloy was carried out. In addition, the chip morphology and chip microstructure were studied. A clear dependence of certain chip-geometric parameters on the cutting parameters studied was found. From the experimental data, several parametric relationships were developed. These relationships were able to predict the evolution of different geometric parameters as a function of cutting speed and feed, within the tested range of values. The differences between the proposed models and the experimental data were also highlighted. These parametric equations allowed quantifying the value of parameters in which the trend was clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Combination of Laser Material Deposition and Laser Surface Processes for the Holistic Manufacture of Inconel 718 Components
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071247
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
The present work proposes a novel manufacturing technique based on the combination of Laser Metal Deposition, Laser Beam Machining, and laser polishing processes for the complete manufacturing of complex parts. Therefore, the complete process is based on the application of a laser heat
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The present work proposes a novel manufacturing technique based on the combination of Laser Metal Deposition, Laser Beam Machining, and laser polishing processes for the complete manufacturing of complex parts. Therefore, the complete process is based on the application of a laser heat source both for the building of the preform shape of the part by additive manufacturing and for the finishing operations. Their combination enables the manufacture of near-net-shape parts and afterwards removes the excess material via laser machining, which has proved to be capable of eliminating the waviness resulting from the additive process. Besides, surface quality is improved via laser polishing so that the roughness of the final part is reduced. Therefore, conventional machining operations are eliminated, which results in a much cleaner process. To validate the capability of this new approach, the dimensional accuracy and surface quality as well as the microstructure of the resulting parts are evaluated. The process has been validated on an Inconel 718 test part, where a previously additively built-up part has been finished by means of laser machining and laser polishing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Application of Pin-On-Disc Techniques for the Study of Tribological Interferences in the Dry Machining of A92024-T3 (Al–Cu) Alloys
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071236
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
One of the main criteria for the establishment of the performance of a forming process by material removal is based on cutting tool wear. Wear is usually caused by different mechanisms, however, only one is usually considered as predominant or the controller of
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One of the main criteria for the establishment of the performance of a forming process by material removal is based on cutting tool wear. Wear is usually caused by different mechanisms, however, only one is usually considered as predominant or the controller of the process. This experimental research is focused on the application of Pin-on-Disc wear tests, in which the tribological interference between UNS A92024-T3 Aluminum–Copper alloy and tungsten carbide (WC–Co) has been studied. The main objective of this study is focused on the determination of the predominant wear mechanisms involved in the process, as well as the characterization of the sliding and friction effects by using SEM and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques, as applied to WC–Co (cutting tool material)/Al (workpiece material) which are widely used in the aerospace industry. Performed analysis prove the appearance of abrasive wear mechanisms prior to adhesion. This fact promotes adhesion mechanisms in several stages because of the surface quality deterioration, presenting different alloy composition in the form of a Built-Up Layer (BUL)/Built-Up Edge (BUE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle On the Performance of Thin-Walled Crash Boxes Joined by Forming
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071118
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
A new joining by forming process that combines lancing and shearing with sheet-bulk compression is utilized to assemble thin-walled crash boxes utilized as energy absorbers. Process design and fabrication of the new crash boxes are analyzed by finite elements and experimentation. Axial crush
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A new joining by forming process that combines lancing and shearing with sheet-bulk compression is utilized to assemble thin-walled crash boxes utilized as energy absorbers. Process design and fabrication of the new crash boxes are analyzed by finite elements and experimentation. Axial crush tests were performed to compare the overall crashworthiness performance of the new crash boxes against that of conventional crash boxes assembled by resistance spot-welding. Results show that the joining process is a good alternative to resistance spot-welding because the new crash boxes can absorb the same crushing energy, and because the new process helps to overcome typical manufacturing problems of welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Unexpected Event Prediction in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Using Deep Learning Techniques
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071100
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
Theoretical models of manufacturing processes provide a valuable insight into physical phenomena but their application to practical industrial situations is sometimes difficult. In the context of Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence techniques can provide efficient solutions to actual manufacturing problems when big data are
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Theoretical models of manufacturing processes provide a valuable insight into physical phenomena but their application to practical industrial situations is sometimes difficult. In the context of Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence techniques can provide efficient solutions to actual manufacturing problems when big data are available. Within the field of artificial intelligence, the use of deep learning is growing exponentially in solving many problems related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) but it still remains scarce or even rare in the field of manufacturing. In this work, deep learning is used to efficiently predict unexpected events in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), an advanced machining process largely used for aerospace components. The occurrence of an unexpected event, namely the change of thickness of the machined part, can be effectively predicted by recognizing hidden patterns from process signals. Based on WEDM experiments, different deep learning architectures were tested. By using a combination of a convolutional layer with gated recurrent units, thickness variation in the machined component could be predicted in 97.4% of cases, at least 2 mm in advance, which is extremely fast, acting before the process has degraded. New possibilities of deep learning for high-performance machine tools must be examined in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Temperature Distribution in Ultrasonically Welded Joints of Copper Wire and Sheet Used for Electrical Contacts
Materials 2018, 11(6), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061010
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
The temperature distribution occurring at the interface while joining a simple electrical contact comprising of a copper wire and a copper sheet using ultrasonic metal welding was analyzed using finite element method. Heat flux due to plastic deformation and friction was calculated and
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The temperature distribution occurring at the interface while joining a simple electrical contact comprising of a copper wire and a copper sheet using ultrasonic metal welding was analyzed using finite element method. Heat flux due to plastic deformation and friction was calculated and provided as input load for simulation of temperature distribution. The results of temperature obtained from simulation are found to be in good agreement with the results of temperature from experiments measured using thermocouple. Special focus was given to how the heat generated at the wire–sheet interface affect the strength of the joint in tension. With the knowledge of heat generated at the interface while welding, it is possible to control the strength of the joint and produce defect free joints. Based on the results from finite element analysis and experiments, it is observed that the influence of heat developed due to friction and plastic deformation of metallic specimens has a significant effect on the progress of welding and strength of the joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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Jump to: Research

Open AccessConcept Paper Accelerating High-Throughput Screening for Structural Materials with Production Management Methods
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081330
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
High-throughput screenings are widely accepted for pharmaceutical developments for new substances and the development of new drugs with required characteristics by evolutionary studies. Current research projects transfer this principle of high-throughput testing to the development of metallic materials. In addition to new generating
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High-throughput screenings are widely accepted for pharmaceutical developments for new substances and the development of new drugs with required characteristics by evolutionary studies. Current research projects transfer this principle of high-throughput testing to the development of metallic materials. In addition to new generating and testing methods, these types of high-throughput systems need a logistical control and handling method to reduce throughput time to get test results faster. Instead of the direct material flow found in classical high-throughput screenings, these systems have a very complex structure of material flow. The result is a highly dynamic system that includes short-term changes such as rerun stations, partial tests, and temporarily paced sequences between working systems. This paper presents a framework that divides the actions for system acceleration into three main sections. First, methods for special applications in high-throughput systems are designed or adapted to speed up the generation, treatment, and testing processes. Second, methods are needed to process trial plans and to control test orders, which can efficiently reduce waiting times. The third part of the framework describes procedures for handling samples. This reduces non-productive times and reduces order processing in individual lots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue of the Manufacturing Engineering Society (MES))
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