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Special Issue "Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bingqing Wei

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 312 Spencer Lab, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon nanotube; graphene; supercapacitor; Li-ion battery
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jian-Gan Wang

Center for Nano Energy Materials, School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanocomposite; electrochemical energy storage; catalyst; solar cell

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The limited fossil fuels and the serious environmental problems have sparked unprecedented research effort in developing novel energy storage technologies from sustainable and renewable energy resources in recent years. Electrochemical capacitors (also called supercapacitors) and secondary batteries are the most attractive electrochemical energy storage systems that may find widespread applications ranging from consumer electronics, electric vehicles to large-scale smart utility grids. However, the-state-of-the art power sources cannot meet the ever-increasing demands for high energy density, high power density and long cycle life. It is therefore important to explore high-performance energy storage systems by developing novel electrode/electrolyte materials, increasing electrochemical utilization of active materials, and constructing devices based on new chemistry/configuration. To this end, this Special Issue aims to address current and future advancements in all aspects of materials science and engineering and their applications for supercapacitors and batteries. We cordially invite original research and review articles on a wide range of topics that include nanomaterials, nanotechnology and mechanisms for supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-sulfur batteries, Na-ion batteries, etc.

Prof. Dr. Bingqing Wei
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jian-Gan Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrode materials
  • electrolyte
  • electrochemical capacitors
  • secondary batteries

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries
Materials 2017, 10(4), 438; doi:10.3390/ma10040438
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries have received worldwide attention due to their excellent energy storage capability for a variety of applications. The rapid development of these technologies is propelled by the advanced electrode materials and new energy storage systems. It is believed that
[...] Read more.
Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries have received worldwide attention due to their excellent energy storage capability for a variety of applications. The rapid development of these technologies is propelled by the advanced electrode materials and new energy storage systems. It is believed that research efforts can improve the device performance to meet the ever-increasing requirements of high energy density, high power density and long cycle life. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of different kinds of electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors and batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore
Materials 2017, 10(4), 414; doi:10.3390/ma10040414
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore
[...] Read more.
The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg−1 at 150 W·kg−1, and 48 W·h·kg−1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg−1. This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Electrodeposited Porous Mn1.5Co1.5O4/Ni Composite Electrodes for High-Voltage Asymmetric Supercapacitors
Materials 2017, 10(4), 370; doi:10.3390/ma10040370
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesoporous Mn1.5Co1.5O4 (MCO) spinel films were prepared directly on a conductive nickel (Ni) foam substrate via electrodeposition and an annealing treatment as supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodeposition time markedly influenced the surface morphological, textural, and supercapacitive properties of MCO/Ni
[...] Read more.
Mesoporous Mn1.5Co1.5O4 (MCO) spinel films were prepared directly on a conductive nickel (Ni) foam substrate via electrodeposition and an annealing treatment as supercapacitor electrodes. The electrodeposition time markedly influenced the surface morphological, textural, and supercapacitive properties of MCO/Ni electrodes. The (MCO/Ni)-15 min electrode (electrodeposition time: 15 min) exhibited the highest capacitance among three electrodes (electrodeposition times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively). Further, an asymmetric supercapacitor that utilizes (MCO/Ni)-15 min as a positive electrode, a plasma-treated activated carbon (PAC)/Ni electrode as a negative electrode, and carboxymethyl cellulose-lithium nitrate (LiNO3) gel electrolyte (denoted as (PAC/Ni)//(MCO/Ni)-15 min) was fabricated. In a stable operation window of 2.0 V, the device exhibited an energy density of 27.6 Wh·kg−1 and a power density of 1.01 kW·kg−1 at 1 A·g−1. After 5000 cycles, the specific energy density retention and power density retention were 96% and 92%, respectively, demonstrating exceptional cycling stability. The good supercapacitive performance and excellent stability of the (PAC/Ni)//(MCO/Ni)-15 min device can be ascribed to the hierarchical structure and high surface area of the (MCO/Ni)-15 min electrode, which facilitate lithium ion intercalation and deintercalation at the electrode/electrolyte interface and mitigate volume change during long-term charge/discharge cycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers’ Interlayers on High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
Materials 2017, 10(4), 376; doi:10.3390/ma10040376
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two different interlayers were introduced in lithium–sulfur batteries to improve the cycling stability with sulfur loading as high as 80% of total mass of cathode. Melamine was recommended as a nitrogen-rich (N-rich) amine component to synthesize a modified polyacrylic acid (MPAA). The electrospun
[...] Read more.
Two different interlayers were introduced in lithium–sulfur batteries to improve the cycling stability with sulfur loading as high as 80% of total mass of cathode. Melamine was recommended as a nitrogen-rich (N-rich) amine component to synthesize a modified polyacrylic acid (MPAA). The electrospun MPAA was carbonized into N-rich carbon nanofibers, which were used as cathode interlayers, while carbon nanofibers from PAA without melamine was used as an anode interlayer. At the rate of 0.1 C, the initial discharge capacity with two interlayers was 983 mAh g−1, and faded down to 651 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles with the coulombic efficiency of 95.4%. At the rate of 1 C, the discharge capacity was kept to 380 mAh g−1 after 600 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8%. It apparently demonstrated that the cathode interlayer is extremely effective at shutting down the migration of polysulfide ions. The anode interlayer induced the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the fiber surface and in the bulk to strengthen the cycling stability of the lithium metal anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Coaxial MoS2@Carbon Hybrid Fibers: A Low-Cost Anode Material for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries
Materials 2017, 10(2), 174; doi:10.3390/ma10020174
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus hierarchically constructing coaxial architecture.
[...] Read more.
A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus hierarchically constructing coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites—when serving as anodes for Li-ion batteries—exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh·g−1, high-rate capability (457 mAh·g−1 at 2 A·g−1), and excellent cycling stability. The use of bio-mass-derived carbon makes the MoS2@carbon composites low-cost and promising anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Deep Eutectic Solvent Synthesis of LiMnPO4/C Nanorods as a Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries
Materials 2017, 10(2), 134; doi:10.3390/ma10020134
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Olivine-type LiMnPO4/C nanorods were successfully synthesized in a chloride/ethylene glycol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) at 130 °C for 4 h under atmospheric pressure. As-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy,
[...] Read more.
Olivine-type LiMnPO4/C nanorods were successfully synthesized in a chloride/ethylene glycol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) at 130 °C for 4 h under atmospheric pressure. As-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical tests. The prepared LiMnPO4/C nanorods were coated with a thin carbon layer (approximately 3 nm thick) on the surface and had a length of 100–150 nm and a diameter of 40–55 nm. The prepared rod-like LiMnPO4/C delivered a discharge capacity of 128 mAh·g−1 with a capacity retention ratio of approximately 93% after 100 cycles at 1 C. Even at 5 C, it still had a discharge capacity of 106 mAh·g−1, thus exhibiting good rate performance and cycle stability. These results demonstrate that the chloride/ethylene glycol-based deep eutectic solvents (DES) can act as a new crystal-face inhibitor to adjust the oriented growth and morphology of LiMnPO4. Furthermore, deep eutectic solvents provide a new approach in which to control the size and morphology of the particles, which has a wide application in the synthesis of electrode materials with special morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
Materials 2017, 10(1), 77; doi:10.3390/ma10010077
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior.
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Pore-Structure-Optimized CNT-Carbon Nanofibers from Starch for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
Materials 2016, 9(12), 995; doi:10.3390/ma9120995
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Porous carbon materials are used for many electrochemical applications due to their outstanding properties. However, research on controlling the pore structure and analyzing the carbon structures is still necessary to achieve enhanced electrochemical properties. In this study, mesoporous carbon nanotube (CNT)-carbon nanofiber electrodes
[...] Read more.
Porous carbon materials are used for many electrochemical applications due to their outstanding properties. However, research on controlling the pore structure and analyzing the carbon structures is still necessary to achieve enhanced electrochemical properties. In this study, mesoporous carbon nanotube (CNT)-carbon nanofiber electrodes were developed by heat-treatment of electrospun starch with carbon nanotubes, and then applied as a binder-free electrochemical electrode for a lithium-ion battery. Using the unique lamellar structure of starch, mesoporous CNT-carbon nanofibers were prepared and their pore structures were controlled by manipulating the heat-treatment conditions. The activation process greatly increased the volume of micropores and mesopores of carbon nanofibers by etching carbons with CO2 gas, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific area increased to about 982.4 m2·g−1. The activated CNT-carbon nanofibers exhibited a high specific capacity (743 mAh·g−1) and good cycle performance (510 mAh·g−1 after 30 cycles) due to their larger specific surface area. This condition presents many adsorption sites of lithium ions, and higher electrical conductivity, compared with carbon nanofibers without CNT. The research suggests that by controlling the heat-treatment conditions and activation process, the pore structure of the carbon nanofibers made from starch could be tuned to provide the conditions needed for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors and Batteries)
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