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Special Issue "Selected Papers from ICBEI2015"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wen-Hsiang Hsieh

Department of Automation Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: engineering applications of materials; mechatronics; automatic machinery
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yi-Chang Wu

Department of Automation Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
E-Mail
Interests: magnetic gear; finite-element analysis; magnetic materials; mechatronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Conference on Biomedical Engineering Innovation 2015 (ICBEI2015) will be held in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, from 30 October to 3 November, 2015. This conference, as a sub-conference of the International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 2015 (IMETI2015), will provide relevant and practical information about this exciting and thriving new technology, and its various applications to Biomedical Engineering related topics. All participants will obtain a familiarity with the various applications of Biomedical Engineering, recent and foreseen advancements.

 

This Special Issue selects excellent papers from ICBEI2015 and covers a very broad scope, a wide range of fields in science and engineering innovation and aims to bring together engineering technology expertise. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Wen-Hsiang Hsieh
Prof. Dr. Yi-Chang Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ÿ   biomaterials
  • Ÿ   biomedical engineering
  • Ÿ   engineering innovation
  • Ÿ   IMETI; ICBEI; ICETI; Taiwan

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings
Materials 2016, 9(9), 720; doi:10.3390/ma9090720
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences
[...] Read more.
Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
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Open AccessArticle In Vivo Evaluation of Bulk Metallic Glasses for Osteosynthesis Devices
Materials 2016, 9(8), 676; doi:10.3390/ma9080676
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Young’s modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study
[...] Read more.
Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Young’s modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study for intramedullary implants, osteotomies of the femoral bones were performed in male Wistar rats and were stabilized with Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel intramedullary nails for 12 weeks. In the study for bone surface implants, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs ribbons were implanted on the femur surface for 6 weeks. Local effects on the surrounding soft tissues of the implanted BMGs were assessed by histological observation. Implanted materials’ surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In the study for intramedullary implants, bone healing after osteotomy was assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and mechanical tests. Histological observation showed no findings of the biological effects. SEM-EDS showed no noticeable change on the surface of BMGs, while Ca and P deposition was seen on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface, and irregularities were seen on the 316L stainless steel surface. Mechanical test and peripheral QCT showed that, although there was no significant difference, bone healing of BMGs was more than that of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The results indicated that Zr-based BMGs can lead to bone healing equal to or greater than Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Zr-based BMGs exhibited the advantage of less bone bonding and easier implant removal compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, Zr-based BMGs are promising for osteosynthesis devices that are eventually removed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Ca Content on Formation and Photoluminescence Properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ Phosphor by Combustion Synthesis
Materials 2016, 9(3), 178; doi:10.3390/ma9030178
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
PDF Full-text (5627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effects of Ca content (in the reactant mixture) on the formation and the photoluminescence properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ phosphor (CASIN) were investigated by a combustion synthesis method. Ca, Al, Si, Eu2O3, NaN3, NH4Cl
[...] Read more.
Effects of Ca content (in the reactant mixture) on the formation and the photoluminescence properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ phosphor (CASIN) were investigated by a combustion synthesis method. Ca, Al, Si, Eu2O3, NaN3, NH4Cl and Si3N4 powders were used as the starting materials and they were mixed and pressed into a compact which was then wrapped up with an igniting agent (i.e., Mg + Fe3O4). The compact was ignited by electrical heating under a N2 pressure of ≤1.0 MPa. By keeping the molar ratios of Al and Si (including the Si powder and the Si in Si3N4 powder) both at 1.00 and that of Eu2O3 at 0.02, XRD (X-ray diffraction) coupled with TEM-EDS (transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope) and SAED (selected area electron diffraction) measurements show that AlN:Eu2+ and Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ are formed as the major phosphor products when the Ca molar ratio (denoted by Y) is equal to 0.25 and AlN:Eu2+ and Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ could not be detected at Y ≥ 0.75 and ≥1.00, respectively. CASIN (i.e., CaAlSiN3:Eu2+) becomes the only phosphor product as Y is increased to 1.00 and higher. The extent of formation of CASIN increases with increasing Y up to 1.50 and begins to decrease as Y is further increased to 1.68. While the excitation wavelength regions are similar at various Y, the emission wavelength regions vary significantly as Y is increased from 0.25 to 1.00 due to different combinations of phosphor phases formed at different Y. The emission intensity of CASIN was found to vary with Y in a similar trend to its extent of formation. The Ca and Eu contents (expressed as molar ratios) in the synthesized products were found to increase roughly with increasing Y but were both lower than the respective Ca and Eu contents in the reactant mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Nitinol Spherical Occlusion Device for Liver Cancer
Materials 2016, 9(1), 19; doi:10.3390/ma9010019
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver cancer or hepatic cancer is a cancer that originates in the liver. It is formed from either the liver itself or from structures within the liver, including blood vessels or the bile duct. Liver cancer can be a life-threatening condition, but it
[...] Read more.
Liver cancer or hepatic cancer is a cancer that originates in the liver. It is formed from either the liver itself or from structures within the liver, including blood vessels or the bile duct. Liver cancer can be a life-threatening condition, but it may be cured if found early. Hepatic artery embolization is one of the treatment options involving the injection of substances to reduce the blood flow to cancer cells in the livers of patients with tumors that cannot be removed by surgery; however, this treatment has some limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel nitinol “spherical occlusion device” concept, the first of its kind in the world. Our proposed spherical occlusion device is able to reduce the blood flow to cancer cells by deploying it in the upstream hepatic artery supplying blood to the liver. Moreover, it could carry multiple chemotherapy or radioactive drugs for delivery directly to the target site. Nitinol alloy was chosen as the device material due to its excellent super-elastic property. Computational models were developed to predict the mechanical response of the device during manufacturing and deployment procedures, as well as its hemodynamic behavior. Simulation results showed that the presence of the spherical occlusion device with 14%–27% metal density deployed at the upstream location of the right hepatic artery had significant occlusion effects, with the average blood flow rate cut down by 30%–50%. A pulsed fiber laser and a series of expansions and heat treatments were developed to make the first prototype of the spherical occlusion device for the demonstration of our novel concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8850-8859; doi:10.3390/ma8125496
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) that have a similar melt flow index (MFI) to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile
[...] Read more.
This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) that have a similar melt flow index (MFI) to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM results show that PP and HDPE are incompatible polymers with PP being a continuous phase and HDPE being a dispersed phase. The FTIR results show that the combination of HDPE does not influence the chemical structure of PP, indicating that the polyblends are made of a physical blending. The DSC and XRD results show that PP and HDPE are not compatible, and the combination of HDPE is not correlated with the crystalline structure and stability of PP. The PLM results show that the combination of HDPE causes stacking and incompatibility between HDPE and PP spherulites, and PP thus has incomplete spherulite morphology and a smaller spherulite size. However, according to mechanical property test results, the combination of HDPE improves the impact strength of PP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Manufacturing Methods on the Conflict between Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Spiral and Porous Polyethylene Terephthalate/Sodium Alginate Bone Scaffolds
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8768-8779; doi:10.3390/ma8125488
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to solve the incompatibility between high porosity and mechanical properties, this study fabricates bone scaffolds by combining braids and sodium alginate (SA) membranes. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plied yarns are braided into hollow, porous three dimensional (3D) PET braids, which are then
[...] Read more.
In order to solve the incompatibility between high porosity and mechanical properties, this study fabricates bone scaffolds by combining braids and sodium alginate (SA) membranes. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plied yarns are braided into hollow, porous three dimensional (3D) PET braids, which are then immersed in SA solution, followed by cross-linking with calcium chloride (CaCl2) and drying, to form PET bone scaffolds. Next, SA membranes are rolled and then inserted into the braids to form the spiral and porous PET/SA bone scaffolds. Samples are finally evaluated for surface observation, porosity, water contact angle, compressive strength, and MTT assay. The test results show that the PET bone scaffolds and PET/SA bone scaffolds both have good hydrophilicity. An increasing number of layers and an increasing CaCl2 concentration cause the messy, loose surface structure to become neat and compact, which, in turn, decreases the porosity and increases the compressive strength. The MTT assay results show that the cell viability of differing SA membranes is beyond 100%, indicating that the PET/SA bone scaffolds containing SA membranes are biocompatible for cell attachment and proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging System with Chirp-Coded Excitation for Assessing Biomechanical Properties of Elasticity Phantom
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8392-8413; doi:10.3390/ma8125458
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
PDF Full-text (13533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) is diminished because of the attenuation of
[...] Read more.
The biomechanical properties of soft tissues vary with pathological phenomenon. Ultrasound elasticity imaging is a noninvasive method used to analyze the local biomechanical properties of soft tissues in clinical diagnosis. However, the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) is diminished because of the attenuation of ultrasonic energy by soft tissues. Therefore, to improve the quality of elastography, the eSNR and depth of ultrasound penetration must be increased using chirp-coded excitation. Moreover, the low axial resolution of ultrasound images generated by a chirp-coded pulse must be increased using an appropriate compression filter. The main aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation using a Tukey window for assessing the biomechanical properties of soft tissues. In this study, we propose an ultrasound elasticity imaging system equipped with a 7.5-MHz single-element transducer and polymethylpentene compression plate to measure strains in soft tissues. Soft tissue strains were analyzed using cross correlation (CC) and absolution difference (AD) algorithms. The optimal parameters of CC and AD algorithms used for the ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation were determined by measuring the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) of a homogeneous phantom. Moreover, chirp-coded excitation and short pulse excitation were used to measure the elasticity properties of the phantom. The elastographic qualities of the tissue-mimicking phantom were assessed in terms of Young’s modulus and elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe). The results show that the developed ultrasound elasticity imaging system with chirp-coded excitation modulated by a Tukey window can acquire accurate, high-quality elastography images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle Reduction of Adipose Tissue Formation by the Controlled Release of BMP-2 Using a Hydroxyapatite-Coated Collagen Carrier System for Sinus-Augmentation/Extraction-Socket Grafting
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7634-7649; doi:10.3390/ma8115411
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coating onto collagen carriers for application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on cell differentiation in vitro, and on in vivo healing patterns after sinus-augmentation and alveolar socket-grafting were evaluated. In vitro induction of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation
[...] Read more.
The effects of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coating onto collagen carriers for application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on cell differentiation in vitro, and on in vivo healing patterns after sinus-augmentation and alveolar socket-grafting were evaluated. In vitro induction of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation was compared between the culture media with rhBMP-2 solution and with the released rhBMP-2 from the control collagen and from the HA-coated collagen. Demineralized bovine bone and collagen/HA-coated collagen were grafted with/without rhBMP-2 in sinus-augmentation and tooth-extraction-socket models. Adipogenic induction by rhBMP-2 released from HA-coated collagen was significantly reduced compared to collagen. In the sinus-augmentation model, sites that received rhBMP-2 exhibited large amounts of vascular tissue formation at two weeks and increased adipose tissue formation at eight weeks; this could be significantly reduced by using HA-coated collagen as a carrier for rhBMP-2. In extraction-socket grafting, dimensional reduction of alveolar ridge was significantly decreased at sites received rhBMP-2 compared to control sites, but adipose tissue was increased within the regenerated socket area. In conclusion, HA-coated collagen carrier for Escherichia coli-derived rhBMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) may reduce in vitro induction of adipogenic differentiation and in vivo adipose bone marrow tissue formation in bone tissue engineering by ErhBMP-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of Angle Variation on Water Permeability through Hourglass-Shaped Nanopores
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7257-7268; doi:10.3390/ma8115380
Received: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water transport through aquaporin water channels occurs extensively in cell membranes. Hourglass-shaped (biconical) pores resemble the geometry of these aquaporin channels and therefore attract much research attention. We assumed that hourglass-shaped nanopores are capable of high water permeation like biological aquaporins. In order
[...] Read more.
Water transport through aquaporin water channels occurs extensively in cell membranes. Hourglass-shaped (biconical) pores resemble the geometry of these aquaporin channels and therefore attract much research attention. We assumed that hourglass-shaped nanopores are capable of high water permeation like biological aquaporins. In order to prove the assumption, we investigated nanoscale water transport through a model hourglass-shaped pore using molecular dynamics simulations while varying the angle of the conical entrance and the total nanopore length. The results show that a minimal departure from optimized cone angle (e.g., 9° for 30 Å case) significantly increases the osmotic permeability and that there is a non-linear relationship between permeability and the cone angle. The analysis of hydrodynamic resistance proves that the conical entrance helps to reduce the hydrodynamic entrance hindrance. Our numerical and analytical results thus confirm our initial assumption and suggest that fast water transport can be achieved by adjusting the cone angle and length of an hourglass-shaped nanopore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBEI2015)

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