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Special Issue "Polymer Blends and Compatibilization"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Volker Altstädt

Fakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The market is continuously looking for substitutes for expensive polymers or tailor made polymers for specific applications. Therefore, polymer blends are gaining more interest since they possess a great potential to fulfill these needs. Blending results, not only in better final properties, but can also improve the processing behavior and reduce the costs. In the field of polymer blends, there are numerous parameters that influence the morphology, e.g., viscosity ratio, blend composition, shear conditions, and blend ratio. There is still a great deal of potential to scientifically exploit the possibilities of blend technology, which is necessary to obtain a foundation based on science, engineering, technology, and applications in order to make it possible to tailor polymer blends as desired.

However, combining two or more different polymers to receive favorable properties by blending often results in immiscible polymer blends. This immiscibility goes along with phase separation leading to weak mechanical properties. The high interfacial tension causing this can be reduced by compatibilization of polymer blends. There are different methods like adding block and graft copolymers, reactive polymers to form block and graft copolymers, nanoparticles or organic molecules. Using suitable compatibilizers, not only is the interfacial adhesion between matrix and its blends reduced, but also the dispersion of the dispersed phase is improved, the adhesion between the phases is enhanced and the morphology is stabilized. This can lead to improved mechanical and morphological properties.

Designing new polymer blends or improving the properties of immiscible polymer blends by compatibilization is very challenging but a good way to scoop the full potential of polymers for applications and needs.

This Special Issue should be the source of information on all recent aspects of polymer blend technology. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Volker Altstädt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immiscible polymer blends
  • miscible polymer blends
  • compatibilization, reactive compatibilization
  • block-co-polymers
  • interfacial tension
  • micro- and nano morphology
  • interpenetrating networks
  • blend rheology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Morphology Formation in PC/ABS Blends during Thermal Processing and the Effect of the Viscosity Ratio of Blend Partners
Materials 2016, 9(8), 659; doi:10.3390/ma9080659
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Morphology formation during compounding, as well as injection molding of blends containing 60 wt % polycarbonate (PC) and 40 wt % polybutadiene rubber-modified styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ABS), has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Profiles of the blend morphology have been recorded in
[...] Read more.
Morphology formation during compounding, as well as injection molding of blends containing 60 wt % polycarbonate (PC) and 40 wt % polybutadiene rubber-modified styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ABS), has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Profiles of the blend morphology have been recorded in injection-molded specimens and significant morphology gradients observed between their skin and core. A <10 µm thick surface layer with strongly dispersed and elongated nano-scale (streak-like) styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) phases and well-dispersed, isolated SAN-grafted polybutadiene rubber particles is followed by a 50–150 µm thick skin layer in which polymer morphology is characterized by lamellar SAN/ABS phases. Thickness of these lamellae increases with the distance from the specimen’s surface. In the core of the specimens the SAN-grafted polybutadiene rubber particles are exclusively present within the SAN phases, which exhibit a much coarser and less oriented, dispersed morphology compared to the skin. The effects of the viscosity of the SAN in the PC/ABS blends on phase morphologies and correlations with fracture mechanics in tensile and impact tests were investigated, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assessment of the fracture surfaces. A model explaining the mechanisms of morphology formation during injection molding of PC/ABS blends is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Changes of Lignin Molecular Structures in a Modification of Kraft Lignin Using Acid Catalyst
Materials 2016, 9(8), 657; doi:10.3390/ma9080657
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to modify lignin for better blending with general purpose synthetic polymers. The possible advantages by using this modification would be cost reduction, better physical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, butyrolactone-modified lignin (BLL) and tetrahydrofuran-modified lignin (THFL)
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to modify lignin for better blending with general purpose synthetic polymers. The possible advantages by using this modification would be cost reduction, better physical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, butyrolactone-modified lignin (BLL) and tetrahydrofuran-modified lignin (THFL) were used for aliphatic chain modification of lignin using an acid-catalyzed esterification method in order to mimic the relation of lignin-carbohydrate-complex (LCC) and cellulose. The results of several analyses indicated that lignin was well modified. It was confirmed that the lignin was modified as expected and the reaction sites of the modification, as well as the reaction behaviors, were varied by the reagent types. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) analysis indicated that modified lignin/polymer blends increased the crystallinity due to their good compatibility. It can be confirmed that the type of alkyl chain and the miscibility gap between the alkyl chain-matrix affected the mechanical properties enormously in the fungi-degradable environment. From this study, a new method of lignin modification is proposed, and it is found that modified lignin retains the property of the substituted aliphatic chain well. This method could be a proper lignin modification method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties and Morphologies of Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene Acrylonitrile Liquid Rubber/Epoxy Blends Compatibilized by Pre-Crosslinking
Materials 2016, 9(8), 640; doi:10.3390/ma9080640
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to enhance the compatibilization and interfacial adhesion between epoxy and liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber, an initiator was introduced into the mixture and heated to initiate the cross-linking reaction of CTBN. After the addition of curing agents, the CTBN/epoxy blends
[...] Read more.
In order to enhance the compatibilization and interfacial adhesion between epoxy and liquid carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber, an initiator was introduced into the mixture and heated to initiate the cross-linking reaction of CTBN. After the addition of curing agents, the CTBN/epoxy blends with a localized interpenetrating network structure were prepared. The mechanical properties and morphologies of pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends were investigated. The results show that the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends are significantly higher than those of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends, which is primarily due to the enhanced interfacial strength caused by the chemical bond between the two phases and the localized interpenetrating network structure. Both pre-crosslinked and non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends show a bimodal distribution of micron- and nano-sized rubber particles. However, pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends have smaller micron-sized rubber particles and larger nano-sized rubber particles than non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows that the storage modulus of pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends is higher than that of non-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends. The glass transition temperature of the CTBN phase in pre-crosslinked CTBN/epoxy blends increases slightly compared with the CTBN/epoxy system. The pre-crosslinking of rubber is a promising method for compatibilization and controlling the morphology of rubber-modified epoxy materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a New Titanate Coupling Agent for the Modification of Calcium Sulfate Whisker in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Composite
Materials 2016, 9(8), 625; doi:10.3390/ma9080625
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new titanate coupling agent synthesized from polyethylene glycol (PEG), isooctyl alcohol, and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) was used for the modification of calcium sulfate whiskers (CSWs) and the preparation of high-performance CSW/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) composites. The titanate coupling agent
[...] Read more.
A new titanate coupling agent synthesized from polyethylene glycol (PEG), isooctyl alcohol, and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) was used for the modification of calcium sulfate whiskers (CSWs) and the preparation of high-performance CSW/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) composites. The titanate coupling agent (sTi) and the modified CSWs (sTi–CSW) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and heat resistant properties and thermostability of sTi–CSW/PVC and CSW/PVC composites were compared. The results show that sTi–CSW/PVC composite with 10 wt. % whisker content has the best performance, and its tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation at break, break strength, and impact strength are 67.2 MPa, 1926 MPa, 233%, 51.1 MPa, and 12.75 KJ·m−2, with an increase of 20.9%, 11.5%, 145.3%, 24.6%, and 65.4% compared to that of CSW/PVC composite at the same whisker content. As the whisker content increases, the storage modulus increases, the Vicat softening temperature decreases slightly, and the glass transition temperature increases at first and then decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Flexible Epoxy Resin Formed Upon Blending with a Triblock Copolymer through Reaction-Induced Microphase Separation
Materials 2016, 9(6), 449; doi:10.3390/ma9060449
Received: 24 April 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we used diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a matrix, the ABA block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide–b–propylene oxide–b–ethylene oxide) (Pluronic F127) as an additive, and diphenyl diaminosulfone (DDS) as a curing agent to prepare flexible epoxy resins
[...] Read more.
In this study, we used diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a matrix, the ABA block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide–b–propylene oxide–b–ethylene oxide) (Pluronic F127) as an additive, and diphenyl diaminosulfone (DDS) as a curing agent to prepare flexible epoxy resins through reaction-induced microphase separation (RIMPS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the existence of hydrogen bonding between the poly(ethylene oxide) segment of F127 and the OH groups of the DGEBA resin. Small-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy all revealed evidence for the microphase separation of F127 within the epoxy resin. Glass transition temperature (Tg) phenomena and mechanical properties (modulus) were determined through differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively, of samples at various blend compositions. The modulus data provided evidence for the formation of wormlike micelle structures, through a RIMPS mechanism, in the flexible epoxy resin upon blending with the F127 triblock copolymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Development of Styrene-Grafted Polyurethane by Radiation-Based Techniques
Materials 2016, 9(6), 441; doi:10.3390/ma9060441
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyurethane (PU) is the fifth most common polymer in the general consumer market, following Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and Polystyrene (PS), and the most common polymer for thermosetting resins. In particular, polyurethane has excellent hardness and heat resistance, is a
[...] Read more.
Polyurethane (PU) is the fifth most common polymer in the general consumer market, following Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and Polystyrene (PS), and the most common polymer for thermosetting resins. In particular, polyurethane has excellent hardness and heat resistance, is a widely used material for electronic products and automotive parts, and can be used to create products of various physical properties, including rigid and flexible foams, films, and fibers. However, the use of polar polymer polyurethane as an impact modifier of non-polar polymers is limited due to poor combustion resistance and impact resistance. In this study, we used gamma irradiation at 25 and 50 kGy to introduce the styrene of hydrophobic monomer on the polyurethane as an impact modifier of the non-polar polymer. To verify grafted styrene, we confirmed the phenyl group of styrene at 690 cm−1 by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and at 6.4–6.8 ppm by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and contact angle analysis were also used to confirm styrene introduction. This study has confirmed the possibility of applying high-functional composite through radiation-based techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Microstructured Polymer Blend Surfaces Produced by Spraying Functional Copolymers and Their Blends
Materials 2016, 9(6), 431; doi:10.3390/ma9060431
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We described the fabrication of functional and microstructured surfaces from polymer blends by spray deposition. This simple technique offers the possibility to simultaneously finely tune the microstructure as well as the surface chemical composition. Whereas at lower polymer concentration, randomly distributed surface micropatterns
[...] Read more.
We described the fabrication of functional and microstructured surfaces from polymer blends by spray deposition. This simple technique offers the possibility to simultaneously finely tune the microstructure as well as the surface chemical composition. Whereas at lower polymer concentration, randomly distributed surface micropatterns were observed, an increase of the concentration leads to significant changes on these structures. On the one hand, using pure homopolystyrene fiber-like structures were observed when the polymer concentration exceeded 30 mg/mL. Interestingly, the incorporation of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene changed the morphology, and, instead of fibers, micrometer size particles were identified at the surface. These fluorinated microparticles provide superhydrophobic properties leading to surfaces with contact angles above 165°. Equally, in addition to the microstructures provided by the spray deposition, the use of thermoresponsive polymers to fabricate interfaces with responsive properties is also described. Contact angle measurements revealed variations on the surface wettability upon heating when blends of polystyrene and polystyrene-b-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) are employed. Finally, the use of spraying techniques to fabricate gradient surfaces is proposed. Maintaining a constant orientation, the surface topography and thus the contact angle varies gradually from the center to the edge of the film depending on the spray angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on Polylactide (PLA)/Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/Bark Flour of Plane Tree (PF) Eco-Composites
Materials 2016, 9(5), 393; doi:10.3390/ma9050393
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polylactide (PLA)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/bark flour of plane tree (PF) eco-composites were prepared via melt blending. The morphologies, mechanical properties, crystal structures and melting and crystallization behaviors of the eco-composites were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical tests, polarized light microscopy
[...] Read more.
Polylactide (PLA)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT)/bark flour of plane tree (PF) eco-composites were prepared via melt blending. The morphologies, mechanical properties, crystal structures and melting and crystallization behaviors of the eco-composites were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical tests, polarized light microscopy (PLM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. It is shown that the interfacial adhesion between PLA matrix and PF is weak and the mechanical properties of PLA/PF eco-composites are poor. The titanate treatment improves the adhesion between the matrix and the filler and enhances the stiffness of the eco-composites. The toughness is improved by PBAT and ductile fractured surfaces can be found. The spherulitic size of PLA is decreased by the addition of PF. The α crystalline form of PLA remains in the composites. Compared with PF, T-PF (PF treated by a titanate coupling agent) and PBAT have negative effects on the crystallization of PLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Morphological, Rheological, and Mechanical Properties of Polyamide 6/Polypropylene Blends Compatibilized by Electron-Beam Irradiation in the Presence of a Reactive Agent
Materials 2016, 9(5), 342; doi:10.3390/ma9050342
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An immiscible polyamide 6 (PA6)/polypropylene (PP) blend was compatibilized by electron-beam irradiation in the presence of reactive agent. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as a reactive agent for interfacial cross-copolymerization between dispersed PP and continuous PA6 phases initiated by electron-beam irradiation. The PA6/PP
[...] Read more.
An immiscible polyamide 6 (PA6)/polypropylene (PP) blend was compatibilized by electron-beam irradiation in the presence of reactive agent. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as a reactive agent for interfacial cross-copolymerization between dispersed PP and continuous PA6 phases initiated by electron-beam irradiation. The PA6/PP (80/20) mixture containing GMA was prepared using a twin-screw extruder, and then exposed to an electron-beam at various doses at room temperature to produce compatibilized PA6/PP blends. The morphological, rheological, and mechanical properties of blends produced were investigated. Morphology analysis revealed that the diameter of PP particles dispersed in PA6 matrix was decreased with increased irradiation dose and interfacial adhesion increased due to high surface area of treated PP particles. Complex viscosities (η*) and storage moduli (G’) of blends increased with increasing irradiation dose and were higher than those of PA6 and PP. The complex viscosity of the blend irradiated at 200 kGy was 64 and 8 times higher than PA6 and PP, respectively. The elongation at break of blend irradiated less than 100 kGy was about twice that of PA6. Electron beam treatment improved the compatibility at the interface between PA6 and PP matrix in the presence of GMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Surface Characterization of Polymer Blends by XPS and ToF-SIMS
Materials 2016, 9(8), 655; doi:10.3390/ma9080655
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The surface properties of polymer blends are important for many industrial applications. The physical and chemical properties at the surface of polymer blends can be drastically different from those in the bulk due to the surface segregation of the low surface energy component.
[...] Read more.
The surface properties of polymer blends are important for many industrial applications. The physical and chemical properties at the surface of polymer blends can be drastically different from those in the bulk due to the surface segregation of the low surface energy component. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have been widely used to characterize surface and bulk properties. This review provides a brief introduction to the principles of XPS and ToF-SIMS and their application to the study of the surface physical and chemical properties of polymer blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Inkjet-Printed Organic Transistors Based on Organic Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends
Materials 2016, 9(8), 650; doi:10.3390/ma9080650
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (12530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors.
[...] Read more.
Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors. Representative studies using soluble acene/insulating polymer blends as an inkjet-printed active layer in OFETs are introduced with special attention paid to the phase separation characteristics of such blended films. In addition, inkjet-printed semiconducting/insulating polymer blends for fabricating high performance printed OFETs are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Compatibilized Immiscible Polymer Blends for Gas Separations
Materials 2016, 9(8), 643; doi:10.3390/ma9080643
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Membrane-based gas separation has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the requirement for high purity gasses in industrial applications like fuel cells, and because of environment concerns, such as global warming. The current methods of cryogenic distillation and pressure swing
[...] Read more.
Membrane-based gas separation has attracted a great deal of attention recently due to the requirement for high purity gasses in industrial applications like fuel cells, and because of environment concerns, such as global warming. The current methods of cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption are energy intensive and costly. Therefore, polymer membranes have emerged as a less energy intensive and cost effective candidate to separate gas mixtures. However, the use of polymeric membranes has a drawback known as the permeability-selectivity tradeoff. Many approaches have been used to overcome this limitation including the use of polymer blends. Polymer blending technology synergistically combines the favorable properties of different polymers like high gas permeability and high selectivity, which are difficult to attain with a single polymer. During polymer mixing, polymers tend to uncontrollably phase separate due to unfavorable thermodynamics, which limits the number of completely miscible polymer combinations for gas separations. Therefore, compatibilizers are used to control the phase separation and to obtain stable membrane morphologies, while improving the mechanical properties. In this review, we focus on immiscible polymer blends and the use of compatibilizers for gas separation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends and Compatibilization) Printed Edition available
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