Special Issue "Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities"

A special issue of Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks (ISSN 2224-2708).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Burak Kantarci

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Internet of Things; Big Data in the Network; Crowdsensing and Social Networks; Cloud Networking; Digital Health (D-Health); Green ICT and Sustainable Communications
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sema Oktug

Department of Computer Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469 Istanbul, Turkey
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wireless networks (sensor, mesh, cognitive); issues related to Internet of Things; performance modelling of computer networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our lives are being transformed by the interplay between mobile networks, wireless communications and artificial intelligence. This transformation is an outcome of the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) concept, and the advancements in computer architectures that translate into high computing power, high performance processing and huge memory capacities. In addition to the IoT, as a very close concept, cyber-physical systems target seamless integration of physical systems with computing and communication resources. Furthermore, in the urban areas, the integration of the “software-defined sensor networks” and “sensing as a service” concepts with the legacy WSN-based systems is leading to the transformation of the conventional city services towards smart cities. 

Smart energy, smart driving, smart homes, smart living, smart governance and smart health are just a few services that can be offered by smart cities. Furthermore, while these concepts are the major application areas, smart citizens close the loop by participating in sensing, actuating and decision making processes. In the smart cities, legacy WSN-based services are extended by having citizens act as sensors. Opportunistic or participatory sensing models enable groups of individuals to collaboratively work towards the same goal with strong interaction links even though this does not always require strong social links between them. Thus, dedicated and non-dedicated wireless sensors form communities; collaborating communities form social networks where interaction can occur in the form of software-defined sensing. This transformation in WSNs introduces unique solutions for the communication plane of smart cities.

In addition to the communication plane challenges, the smart environments require the IoT and WSN sensors to report massive amount of unstructured data in heterogeneous format, which in turn leads to the big sensed data phenomenon. Additionally, addressing the high volume by effective machine learning or data mining techniques, novel data acquisition and processing methodologies for big sensed data are emergent in order to address the high velocity, high variety and high veracity aspects. Moreover, in order to offer smart city services effectively, it is viable to envision massive amount of connected wireless/wired sensors/IoT devices. Thus, scalability remains an open issue in integration the components of a smart city that are mentioned above. While ensuring scalability and connectivity of this infrastructure remains an open issue, battery-limitation of wireless sensors is a grand challenge especially in time sensitive services in smart cities.

In this Special Issue, we are seeking submissions that focus on novel solutions for wireless sensor and actuator networks in smart cities. This Special Issue invites academic and industry researchers in computer science and engineering, electrical engineering and communication engineering, as well as ICT industry engineers and practitioners, to contribute with original articles in all aspects of wireless sensor network and actuator systems for smart cities.

Contributions may include, but are not limited to:

  • Physical layer challenges in WSNs in smart city applications
  • Cross-layer solutions for WSNs and IoT to support smart city services
  • WSN and Internet of Things (IoT) architectures, protocols, platforms and algorithms
  • Device-to-Device networks for smart  cities.
  • Application-layer protocols for WSNs to enable efficient smart city applications
  • Planning of sensor networks in smart cities
  • The interplay between dedicated and non-dedicated sensing
  • Opportunistic and participatory sensing in smart cities
  • Design and Management of Mobile Crowd-Sensing Systems in smart cities
  • Energy harvesting solutions for WSNs in smart cities
  • Vehicular sensing solutions for smart city applications
  • Novel sensory data acquisition techniques
  • Real time and near-real time data analytics on sensory data
  • Software Defined Sensor Networks and Sensing as a Service in smart cities
  • Security, Privacy and Trust in Smart City Sensing
  • Smart city big data and open data
  • Standards for IoT and WSNs in smart city applications
  • Application, deployment, testbed,  experiment experiences and innovative applications for WSN-enabled smart cities
  • IoT-driven smart Governance, smart economy and smart environment

Dr. Burak Kantarci
Prof. Dr. Sema Oktug
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wireless sensor and actuator networks
  • smart cities
  • Internet of Things
  • cyber-physical systems
  • device-to-device networks
  • opportunistic sensing
  • participatory sensing
  • big sensed data
  • sensory data acquisition
  • smart citizens
  • non-dedicated sensing
  • social sensing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Modeling and Optimisation of a Solar Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Network Nodes
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030040
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are the basic building blocks of today’s modern internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure in smart buildings, smart parking, and smart cities. The WSN nodes suffer from a major design constraint in that their battery energy is limited and
[...] Read more.
The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are the basic building blocks of today’s modern internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure in smart buildings, smart parking, and smart cities. The WSN nodes suffer from a major design constraint in that their battery energy is limited and can only work for a few days depending upon the duty cycle of operation. The main contribution of this research article is to propose an efficient solar energy harvesting solution to the limited battery energy problem of WSN nodes by utilizing ambient solar photovoltaic energy. Ideally, the Optimized Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network (SEH-WSN) nodes should operate for an infinite network lifetime (in years). In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient solar energy harvesting system with pulse width modulation (PWM) and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for WSN nodes. The research focus is to increase the overall harvesting system efficiency, which further depends upon solar panel efficiency, PWM efficiency, and MPPT efficiency. Several models for solar energy harvester system have been designed and iterative simulations were performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK for solar powered DC-DC converters with PWM and MPPT to achieve optimum results. From the simulation results, it is shown that our designed solar energy harvesting system has 87% efficiency using PWM control and 96% efficiency ( η s y s ) by using the MPPT control technique. Finally, an experiment for PWM controlled SEH-WSN is performed using Scientech 2311 WSN trainer kit and a Generic LM2575 DC-DC buck converter based solar energy harvesting module for validation of simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Instrumented Wireless SmartInsole System for Mobile Gait Analysis: A Validation Pilot Study with Tekscan Strideway
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030036
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
A SmartInsoles Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is designed and implemented for the purpose of measuring gait parameters of multiple users in a restriction-free environment. This CPS comprises a master software installed on a computer and numerous multi-sensory health devices in the form of smart
[...] Read more.
A SmartInsoles Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is designed and implemented for the purpose of measuring gait parameters of multiple users in a restriction-free environment. This CPS comprises a master software installed on a computer and numerous multi-sensory health devices in the form of smart insoles. Each of these insoles contains 12 Force-Sensitive Resistor (FSR) sensors, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), a WiFi-enabled microcontroller and a battery to power all components. A validation pilot study was completed in collaboration with the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences at the University of Ottawa by performing 150 trials on 15 healthy subjects. Each subject performed 10 walks on the Tekscan Strideway gait mat system, while simultaneously wearing the designed SmartInsoles CPS. Spatiotemporal data for over 450 unique steps were collected by both systems. These data were analyzed carefully, and a thorough comparison was performed between the results from the two systems. Seven parameters were analyzed in this study: stride time, stance time, swing time, double support time, step time, cadence and gait time. Detailed results in the form of tables, scatterplots, histograms and Bland–Altman graphs were generated. Analysis of the results shows high agreement between the values of the two systems and suggests high accuracy of the implemented CPS as a multi-device, multi-sensory system for gait measurement and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Activity Recognition Using Gazed Text and Viewpoint Information for User Support Systems
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030031
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
The development of information technology has added many conveniences to our lives. On the other hand, however, we have to deal with various kinds of information, which can be a difficult task for elderly people or those who are not familiar with information
[...] Read more.
The development of information technology has added many conveniences to our lives. On the other hand, however, we have to deal with various kinds of information, which can be a difficult task for elderly people or those who are not familiar with information devices. A technology to recognize each person’s activity and providing appropriate support based on that activity could be useful for such people. In this paper, we propose a novel fine-grained activity recognition method for user support systems that focuses on identifying the text at which a user is gazing, based on the idea that the content of the text is related to the activity of the user. It is necessary to keep in mind that the meaning of the text depends on its location. To tackle this problem, we propose the simultaneous use of a wearable device and fixed camera. To obtain the global location of the text, we perform image matching using the local features of the images obtained by these two devices. Then, we generate a feature vector based on this information and the content of the text. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we performed activity recognition experiments with six subjects in a laboratory environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Trajectory-Assisted Municipal Agent Mobility: A Sensor-Driven Smart Waste Management System
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030029
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Ubiquity, heterogeneity and dense deployment of sensors have yielded the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, which is an integral component of various smart spaces including smart cities. Applications and services in a smart city ecosystem aim at minimizing the cost and maximizing the
[...] Read more.
Ubiquity, heterogeneity and dense deployment of sensors have yielded the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, which is an integral component of various smart spaces including smart cities. Applications and services in a smart city ecosystem aim at minimizing the cost and maximizing the quality of living. Among these services, waste management is a unique service that covers both aspects. To this end, in this paper, we propose a WSN-driven system for smart waste management in urban areas. In our proposed framework, the waste bins are equipped with sensors that continuously monitor the waste level and trigger alarms that are wirelessly communicated to a cloud platform to actuate the municipal agents, i.e., waste collection trucks. We formulate an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model to find the best set of trajectory-truck with the objectives of minimum cost or minimum delay. In order for the trajectory assistance to work in real time, we propose three heuristics, one of which is a greedy one. Through simulations, we show that the ILP formulation can provide a baseline reference to the heuristics, whereas the non-greedy heuristics can significantly outperform the greedy approach regarding cost and delay under moderate waste accumulation scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Priority-Based Machine-To-Machine Overlay Network over LTE for a Smart City
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030027
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its improvement, Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), are attractive choices for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication due to their ubiquitous coverage and high bandwidth. However, the focus of LTE design was high performance connection-based communications between human-operated devices (also known as human-to-human, or
[...] Read more.
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its improvement, Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), are attractive choices for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication due to their ubiquitous coverage and high bandwidth. However, the focus of LTE design was high performance connection-based communications between human-operated devices (also known as human-to-human, or H2H traffic), which was initially established over the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). On the other hand, M2M traffic is mostly based on contention-based transmission of short messages and does not need connection establishment. As a result, M2M traffic transmitted over LTE PRACH has to use the inefficient four-way handshake and compete for resources with H2H traffic. When a large number of M2M devices attempts to access the PRACH, an outage condition may occur; furthermore, traffic prioritization is regulated only through age-based power ramping, which drives the network even faster towards the outage condition. In this article, we describe an overlay network that allows a massive number of M2M devices to coexist with H2H traffic and access the network without going through the full LTE handshake. The overlay network is patterned after IEEE 802.15.6 to support multiple priority classes of M2M traffic. We analyse the performance of the joint M2M and H2H system and investigate the trade-offs needed to keep satisfactory performance and reliability for M2M traffic in the presence of H2H traffic of known intensity. Our results confirm the validity of this approach for applications in crowd sensing, monitoring and others utilized in smart city development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Designing and Managing a Smart Parking System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020024
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
For several years, the population of cities has continued to multiply at a rapid pace. The main cause of this phenomenon in developing countries like Morocco is the rural exodus. In fact, rural youth are increasingly attracted by the modern way of life
[...] Read more.
For several years, the population of cities has continued to multiply at a rapid pace. The main cause of this phenomenon in developing countries like Morocco is the rural exodus. In fact, rural youth are increasingly attracted by the modern way of life and the opportunities of employment offered by cities. This increase in population density has a large number of negative effects on the quality of life in the city. The most obvious is the intensity of the traffic, which has become an almost insurmountable problem and which causes a great deal of damage, such as the increase in the number of accidents that cause serious bodily harm to the road users, the pollution caused by the large amount of CO2 released by the vehicles, and the continuous stress of drivers who must drive in often narrow and very busy roads and who must look for a long time to find a space to park. Thus, to solve the parking problem, several modern technologies have been created to equip car parks with smart devices that help road users identify the nearest car park that has a free space. These technologies most often use wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things (IoT) technology. In this paper, we present the design and development of a smart parking system using the latest technologies based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). Our system uses an adaptable and hybrid self-organization algorithm for wireless sensor networks that adapts to all types of car parks existing in the city (linear and mass parking), and offers a better management of the energy consumption during the wireless communication to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and the longevity of the WSN. This system also offers innovative services which facilitate the task to the drivers when looking for an available parking space in the city near their destination, in a fast and efficient manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Cost IoT: A Holistic Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7020019
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable:
[...] Read more.
The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable: an initial financial support may induce dependencies from technologies that become unsustainable in the long period. In addition, the initial adoption of an emerging technology that fails to affirm may jeopardize investment return. This paper investigates a smart-village use case, the success of which strongly depends on the initial cost and scalability, exploring a low-cost way for Internet of Things (IoT). We propose a simple conceptual framework for cost evaluation, and we verify its effectiveness with an exhaustive use case: a prototype sensor designed and tested with its surrounding eco-system. Using experimental results, we can estimate both performance and cost for a pilot system made of fifty sensors deployed in an urban area. We show that such cost grows linearly with system size, taking advantage of widely adopted technologies. The code and the design of the prototype are available, so that all steps are reproducible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
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