Special Issue "Pest Control in Glasshouses"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

Independent Advisor, York, UK
E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0) 1904 679830
Interests: biocontrol; integrated pest management; invasive species; pesticides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Invertebrate pest control within the glasshouse environment continues to present many challenges. Increasing consumer concern over the use of chemical pesticides, coupled with increasing reports of chemical resistance, is continuing to pressurise the protected horticultural industry to continue to seek alternative means of pest control. This special issue will include original research articles and reviews by leading research entomologists and associated experts. Articles will focus on the biology and ecology of various major glasshouse invertebrate pests (both indigenous and invasive species) and on advances made in regards to their control.

Dr Andrew G S Cuthbertson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biocontrol
  • integrated pest management
  • invasive species
  • pesticides

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Grain Diversity Effects on Banker Plant Growth and Parasitism by Aphidius colemani
Insects 2015, 6(3), 772-791; doi:10.3390/insects6030772
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system
[...] Read more.
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a serious greenhouse pest with a short generation time, parthenogenetic reproduction and a broad host range. Banker plant systems are becoming a more common form of biological control for this pest. This system consists of grain “banker plants” infested with R. padi, an alternative hosts for the parasitoid Aphidius colemani. Thus A. colemani can reproduce on the banker plant when M. persicae populations are low. This system can increase pest suppression; however, like other biological control tools, efficacy is inconsistent. One reason is because several different grain species have been used. Our studies determined if there were benefits to planting interspecific mixture banker plants, similar to when open agricultural systems use mixed cropping. Our study found that although banker plants grow larger when planted as mixtures this added plant growth does not increase in the number of aphids, or mummies an individual banker plant can sustain. Rye banker plants grew larger, and sustained more mummies than the other species we tested, but barley banker plants resulted in a similar number of aphids in a more condensed area. Ultimately, we did not see any differences in pest suppression between monoculture banker plants, mixture banker plants, or our augmentative release treatment. However, using banker plants resulted in more female parasitoids than the augmentative release, a benefit to using banker plant systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle Slow-Release Sachets of Neoseiulus cucumeris Predatory Mites Reduce Intraguild Predation by Dalotia coriaria in Greenhouse Biological Control Systems
Insects 2015, 6(2), 489-507; doi:10.3390/insects6020489
Received: 18 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intraguild predation of Neoseiulus cucumeris Oudemans (Phytoseiidae) by soil-dwelling predators, Dalotia coriaria Kraatz (Staphylinidae) may limit the utility of open rearing systems in greenhouse thrips management programs. We determined the rate of D. coriaria invasion of N. cucumeris breeder material presented in piles
[...] Read more.
Intraguild predation of Neoseiulus cucumeris Oudemans (Phytoseiidae) by soil-dwelling predators, Dalotia coriaria Kraatz (Staphylinidae) may limit the utility of open rearing systems in greenhouse thrips management programs. We determined the rate of D. coriaria invasion of N. cucumeris breeder material presented in piles or sachets, bran piles (without mites), and sawdust piles. We also observed mite dispersal from breeder piles and sachets when D. coriaria were not present. Dalotia coriaria invaded breeder and bran piles at higher rates than sawdust piles and sachets. Furthermore, proportions of N. cucumeris in sachets were six- to eight-fold higher compared with breeder piles. When D. coriaria were absent, N. cucumeris dispersed from breeder piles and sachets for up to seven weeks. In earlier weeks, more N. cucumeris dispersed from breeder piles compared with sachets, and in later weeks more N. cucumeris dispersed from sachets compared with breeder piles. Sachets protected N. cucumeris from intraguild predation by D. coriaria resulting in higher populations of mites. Therefore, sachets should be used in greenhouse biocontrol programs that also release D. coriaria. Furthermore, breeder piles that provide “quick-releases” or sachets that provide “slow-releases” of mites should be considered when incorporating N. cucumeris into greenhouse thrips management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Novel Pesticides for Use against Glasshouse Invertebrate Pests in UK Tomatoes and Peppers
Insects 2015, 6(2), 464-477; doi:10.3390/insects6020464
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative
[...] Read more.
To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative biopesticide and biorational products based on phytochemicals, microbials and physically-acting substances. The results suggest that certain biopesticide products, particularly botanicals, provide good levels of pest control, with the same being true of experimental conventional chemical pesticides not yet recommended for use against these pests on these crops. Efforts are on-going to ensure that results of the current project translate to industry benefit via new pesticide approvals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse
Insects 2015, 6(2), 442-454; doi:10.3390/insects6020442
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection
[...] Read more.
Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)
Insects 2015, 6(1), 224-235; doi:10.3390/insects6010224
Received: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural
[...] Read more.
Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses
Insects 2015, 6(1), 133-140; doi:10.3390/insects6010133
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a
[...] Read more.
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully “tank-mixed”. A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)

Review

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Open AccessReview Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops
Insects 2015, 6(2), 538-575; doi:10.3390/insects6020538
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals
[...] Read more.
Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies) and abiotic (climate and lighting). For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids) can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness) seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessReview The Importance of Maintaining Protected Zone Status against Bemisia tabaci
Insects 2015, 6(2), 432-441; doi:10.3390/insects6020432
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (99 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and
[...] Read more.
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and plant produce is subjected to a policy of eradication. The impact of B. tabaci entering, and becoming established, is that it is an effective vector of many plant viruses that are not currently found in the protected zones. The Mediterranean species is the most commonly intercepted species of B. tabaci entering both the UK and Finland. The implications of maintaining Protected Zone status are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessReview Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies
Insects 2015, 6(2), 325-332; doi:10.3390/insects6020325
Received: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
PDF Full-text (76 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being
[...] Read more.
Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)

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