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Topical Collection "Advances in Molecular Oncology"

Editor

Collection Editor
Dr. William Chi-shing Cho

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, China
E-Mail
Interests: cancer biomarker; chinese medicine; diabetes mellitus; evidence-based medicine; genomics; microRNA; molecular diagnostics; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; non-small cell lung cancer; proteomics

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The completion of the human genome project and the availability of high-throughput technologies have led a dramatic change in cancer research. In the past few decades, oncological studies are evolving from traditional to molecular oncology. Numerous researches have contributed to our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer progression, defining pathways that influence cancer therapy and response, as well as developing new tools and therapeutics to prevent or manage cancer more effectively. The field of molecular oncology is growing rapidly and it has a great impact on basic science, clinical study, and translational cancer research. This open-access topical collection issue will bring together original research and review articles on molecular oncology. It highlights new discoveries, approaches, and technical developments in molecular cancer research. The main feature of this topical collection is to provide an open-source sharing of significant works in the field of molecular oncology that can advance our understanding of cancer development which may lead to the discovery of novel molecular diagnostic technologies and targeted therapeutics.

Topics of this Topical Collection include, but are not limited to:

  • Key biological processes such as: genome instability, checkpoints, cell cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis, autophagy, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, signaling pathway, "drivers" versus "passengers"
  • Molecular tumor pathology
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Cancer epidemiology and prevention
  • Cancer biomarkers: screening, diagnosis, treatment response, prognosis
  • Cancer therapy: target discovery, drug design, resistance, targeted therapy, theranostics, personalized medicine
  • Translational cancer research
  • High-throughput technologies: genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, microarray, next generation sequencing, and other omics technologies
  • Genomic and proteomic databases and applications

Dr. William Chi-Shing Cho
Collection Editor

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (140 papers)

2018

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Open AccessArticle Resveratrol Suppresses the Growth and Enhances Retinoic Acid Sensitivity of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041030
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a highly lethal undifferentiated malignancy without reliable therapies. Retinoic acid (RA) has been employed to promote redifferentiation of thyroid cancers by increasing their I131 uptake and radio-sensitivity, but its effect(s) on ATCs has not yet been ascertained.
[...] Read more.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a highly lethal undifferentiated malignancy without reliable therapies. Retinoic acid (RA) has been employed to promote redifferentiation of thyroid cancers by increasing their I131 uptake and radio-sensitivity, but its effect(s) on ATCs has not yet been ascertained. Likewise, resveratrol induces cancer redifferentiation but, also in this case, its effects on ATCs remain unknown. These issues have been addresses in the current study using three human ATC cell lines (THJ-11T, THJ-16T, and THJ-21T) through multiple experimental approaches. The results reveal that RA exerts a small inhibitory effect on these cell lines. In comparison with normally cultured cells, the total cell number in resveratrol-treated THJ-16T and THJ-21T cultures significantly decreased (p < 0.05), and this effect was accompanied by reduced Cyclin D1 immuno-labeling, increased apoptotic fractions, and distinct caspase-3 activation. Resveratrol failed to inhibit growth but enhanced RA sensitivity of THJ-11T cells, suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPAR-β/δ), and upregulated cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β) expression. Increased thyroglobulin (Tg) and E-cadherin levels and appearance of membranous E-cadherin were evidenced in resveratrol-treated THJ-11T cells. Our results demonstrate for the first time: (1) the therapeutic value of resveratrol by itself or in combination with RA in the management of ATCs, (2) the capacity of resveratrol to overcome RA resistance in ATC cells by reprogramming CRABP2/RAR- and fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5)/PPAR-β/δ-mediated RA signaling, and (3) the redifferentiating potential of resveratrol in ATC cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The rs2910164 Genetic Variant of miR-146a-3p Is Associated with Increased Overall Mortality in Patients with Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030655
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aberrant expression of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and the resistance to post-operative radioactive iodide treatment is a crucial cause of higher mortality of some thyroid cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-146a on the expression and function of NIS
[...] Read more.
Aberrant expression of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and the resistance to post-operative radioactive iodide treatment is a crucial cause of higher mortality of some thyroid cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-146a on the expression and function of NIS and on the overall survival of thyroid cancer patients. The study included 2441 patients (2163 women; 278 men); including 359 cases with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC). miR:NIS interactions were analyzed in cell lines using in vivo binding and inhibition assays and radioactive iodine uptake assays. Tumor/blood DNA was used for rs2910164 genotyping. Overall survival was assessed retrospectively. In the results, we showed that miR-146a-3p directly binds to and inhibits NIS. Inhibition of miR-146a-3p restores the expression and function of NIS, increasing radioactive iodine uptake. Rs2910164 functional variant within miR-146a-3p is associated with increased overall mortality among fvPTC female patients. The deaths per 1000 person-years were 29.7 in CC carriers vs. 5.08 in GG/GC-carriers (HR = 6.21, p = 0.006). Higher mortality of CC vs. GG/GC carriers was also observed in patients with lower clinical stage (HR = 22.72, p < 0.001), smaller tumor size (pT1/pT2) (HR = 25.05, p < 0.001), lack of extrathyroidal invasion (HR = 9.03, p = 0.02), lack of nodular invasion (HR = 7.84, p = 0.002), lack of metastases (HR = 6.5, p = 0.005) and older (age at diagnosis >50 years) (HR = 7.8, p = 0.002). MiR-146a-3p underwent somatic mutations in 16.1% of analyzed specimens, mainly towards the deleterious C allele. In this report we propose a novel molecular marker of the clinical outcome of fvPTC patients. Rs2910164 increases the overall mortality with inhibition of NIS and disruption of radioiodine uptake as a possible mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Identification of a Rare Germline Heterozygous Deletion Involving the Polycistronic miR-17–92 Cluster in Two First-Degree Relatives from a BRCA 1/2 Negative Chilean Family with Familial Breast Cancer: Possible Functional Implications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010321
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel gene expression regulators. Recent evidence strongly suggests a role for miRNAs in a large variety of cancer-related pathways. Different studies have shown that 18.7 to 37% of all human miRNA genes are clustered. miR-17–92 polycistronic cluster overexpression
[...] Read more.
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel gene expression regulators. Recent evidence strongly suggests a role for miRNAs in a large variety of cancer-related pathways. Different studies have shown that 18.7 to 37% of all human miRNA genes are clustered. miR-17–92 polycistronic cluster overexpression is associated with human hematolymphoid and solid malignancies including breast cancer (BC). Here, we report the identification of rs770419845, a rare 6 bp deletion located within the polycistronic miR-17–92 cluster, in two first-degree relatives from a Chilean family with familial BC and negative for point mutations in BRCA 1/2 genes. The deletion was identified by Sanger sequencing when 99 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative BC cases with a strong family history were initially screened. In silico analysis predicts that rs770419845 affects the secondary structure and stability of the pre-miR-17–pre-miR-18 region and the entire 17–92 cluster. The deletion was screened in 458 high-risk BRCA1/2-negative Chilean families and 480 controls. rs770419845 was not detected in any control but identified in a single family with two cases of BC and other cancers. Both BC cases, the mother and her daughter, carried the deletion. Based on bioinformatic analyses, the location of the deletion and its low frequency, we presume rs770419845 may be a pathogenic variant. Functional studies are needed to support this hypothesis. Full article
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2017

Jump to: 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessReview Renal Cell Tumors: Understanding Their Molecular Pathological Epidemiology and the 2016 WHO Classification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102195
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accumulating evidence suggests that renal cell tumors represent a group of histologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases, even within the same histological subtype. In accordance with the increased understanding of the morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of renal cell tumors, the World Health
[...] Read more.
Accumulating evidence suggests that renal cell tumors represent a group of histologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases, even within the same histological subtype. In accordance with the increased understanding of the morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of renal cell tumors, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal cell tumors has been modified. This review provides perspectives on both new and current subtypes of renal cell tumors, as well as on the emerging/provisional renal cell carcinomas in the new 2016 WHO classification, which focuses on features of their molecular pathological epidemiology. The WHO classification will require additional revisions to enable the classification of renal cell tumors as clinically meaningful subtypes and provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of renal cell tumors. Full article
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Open AccessReview Erythropoietin and Its Angiogenic Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071519
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hematopoietic hormone acting on progenitor red blood cells via stimulation of cell growth, differentiation, and anti-apoptosis. However, its receptor (EPOR) is also expressed in various non-hematopoietic tissues, including endothelium. EPO is a pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits growth
[...] Read more.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hematopoietic hormone acting on progenitor red blood cells via stimulation of cell growth, differentiation, and anti-apoptosis. However, its receptor (EPOR) is also expressed in various non-hematopoietic tissues, including endothelium. EPO is a pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits growth stimulation and cell/tissue protection on numerous cells and tissues. In this article we review the angiogenesis potential of EPO on endothelial cells in heart, brain, and leg ischemia, as well as its role in retinopathy protection and tumor promotion. Furthermore, the effect of EPO on bone marrow and adipose tissue is also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle B-Myb Is Up-Regulated and Promotes Cell Growth and Motility in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18060860
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (16758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of
[...] Read more.
B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of B-Myb and its functional impact in lung cancer. Expression analysis by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that B-Myb expression is aberrantly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and positively correlated with pathologic grade and clinical stage of NSCLC. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of B-Myb significantly increases lung cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Conversely, a loss-of-function study showed that knockdown of B-Myb decreases cell growth, migration, and invasion. B-Myb overexpression also promoted tumor growth in vivo in a NSCLC xenograft nude mouse model. A molecular mechanistic study by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that B-Myb overexpression causes up-regulation of various downstream genes (e.g., COL11A1, COL6A1, FN1, MMP2, NID1, FLT4, INSR, and CCNA1) and activation of multiple critical pathways (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphorylated-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways) involved in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Collectively, our results indicate a tumor-promoting role for B-Myb in NSCLC and thus imply its potential as a target for the diagnosis and/or treatment of NSCLC. Full article
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Open AccessReview Target Therapies for Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051100
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carcinosarcomas (CS) in gynecology are very infrequent and represent only 2–5% of uterine cancers. Despite surgical cytoreduction and subsequent chemotherapy being the primary treatment for uterine CS, the overall five-year survival rate is 30 ± 9% and recurrence is extremely common (50–80%). Due
[...] Read more.
Carcinosarcomas (CS) in gynecology are very infrequent and represent only 2–5% of uterine cancers. Despite surgical cytoreduction and subsequent chemotherapy being the primary treatment for uterine CS, the overall five-year survival rate is 30 ± 9% and recurrence is extremely common (50–80%). Due to the poor prognosis of CS, new strategies have been developed in the last few decades, targeting known dysfunctional molecular pathways for immunotherapy. In this paper, we aimed to gather the available evidence on the latest therapies for the treatment of CS. We performed a systematic review using the terms “uterine carcinosarcoma”, “uterine Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors”, “target therapies”, “angiogenesis therapy”, “cancer stem cell therapy”, “prognostic biomarker”, and “novel antibody-drug”. Based on our results, the differential expression and accessibility of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 on metastatic/chemotherapy-resistant CS cells in comparison to normal tissues and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) open up new possibilities in the field of target therapy. Nevertheless, future investigations are needed to clarify the impact of these new therapies on survival rate and medium-/long-term outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030235
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese
[...] Read more.
Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA) and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020367
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes 85% of all lung cancers, and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis and resistance to both radiation and chemotherapy warrant further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of NSCLC and the development of new,
[...] Read more.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes 85% of all lung cancers, and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The poor prognosis and resistance to both radiation and chemotherapy warrant further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of NSCLC and the development of new, more efficacious therapeutics. The processes of autophagy and apoptosis, which induce degradation of proteins and organelles or cell death upon cellular stress, are crucial in the pathophysiology of NSCLC. The close interplay between autophagy and apoptosis through shared signaling pathways complicates our understanding of how NSCLC pathophysiology is regulated. The apoptotic effect of autophagy is controversial as both inhibitory and stimulatory effects have been reported in NSCLC. In addition, crosstalk of proteins regulating both autophagy and apoptosis exists. Here, we review the recent advances of the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in NSCLC, aiming to provide few insights into the discovery of novel pathogenic factors and the development of new cancer therapeutics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sphingosine Kinase-1 Involves the Inhibitory Action of HIF-1α by Chlorogenic Acid in Hypoxic DU145 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020325
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hypoxia enhances cancer development in a solid tumor. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that is dominantly expressed under hypoxia in solid tumor cells and is a key factor that regulates tumor. HIF-1α regulates several target genes involved in many aspects
[...] Read more.
Hypoxia enhances cancer development in a solid tumor. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that is dominantly expressed under hypoxia in solid tumor cells and is a key factor that regulates tumor. HIF-1α regulates several target genes involved in many aspects of cancer progression, including angiogenesis, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and cell proliferation as well as imparts resistance to cancer treatment. In this study, we assessed Crataegus Pinnatifida Bunge var. typical Schneider ethanol extract (CPE) for its anti-cancer effects in hypoxia-induced DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. CPE decreased the abundance of HIF-1α and sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK-1) in hypoxia-induced prostate cancer DU145 cells. CPE decreased HIF-1α and SPHK-1 as well as SPHK-1 activity. Chlorogenic acid (CA) is one of four major compounds of CPE. Compared to CPE, CA significantly decreased the expression of HIF-1α and SPHK-1 as well as SPHK-1 activity in hypoxia-induced DU145 cells. Furthermore, CA decreased phosphorylation AKT and GSK-3β, which are associated with HIF-1α stabilization and affected SPHK-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. We confirmed the mechanism of CA-induced inhibition of HIF-1α by SPHK-1 signaling pathway using SPHK-1 siRNA and SPHK inhibitor (SKI). CA decreased the secretion and cellular expression of VEGF, thus inhibiting hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Treatment of DU145cells with SPHK1 siRNA and CA for 48 h decreased cancer cell growth, and the inhibitory action of SPHK siRNA and CA on cell growth was confirmed by decrease in the abundance of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Level γ-Glutamyl-Hydrolase (GGH) Expression is Linked to Poor Prognosis in ERG Negative Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020286
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
γ-glutamyl-hydrolase (GGH) is a ubiquitously-expressed enzyme that regulates intracellular folate metabolism for cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and repair. Employing GGH immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray with 12,427 prostate cancers, we found that GGH expression was negative to low in normal prostate epithelium, whereas
[...] Read more.
γ-glutamyl-hydrolase (GGH) is a ubiquitously-expressed enzyme that regulates intracellular folate metabolism for cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and repair. Employing GGH immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray with 12,427 prostate cancers, we found that GGH expression was negative to low in normal prostate epithelium, whereas 88.3% of our 10,562 interpretable cancers showed GGH expression. GGH staining was considered as low intensity in 49.6% and as high intensity in 38.6% of cancers. High GGH expression was linked to the TMPRSS2:ERG-fusion positive subset of cancers (p < 0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage, and high Gleason grade (p < 0.0001 each). Further analysis revealed that these associations were merely driven by the subset of ERG-negative cancers, High GGH expression was weakly linked to early biochemical recurrence in ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001) and independent from established histo-pathological parameters. Moreover, GGH expression was linked to features of genetic instability, including presence of recurrent deletions at 3p, 5q, 6q, and 10q (PTEN, p ≤ 0.01 each), as well as to accelerated cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the results of our study identify GGH as an ERG subtype specific molecular marker with modest prognostic relevance, which may have clinical relevance if analyzed in combination with other molecular markers. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2018, 2017, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessReview MicroRNAs, DNA Damage Response, and Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122087
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a result of various stresses, lesions caused by DNA-damaging agents occur constantly in each cell of the human body. Generally, DNA damage is recognized and repaired by the DNA damage response (DDR) machinery, and the cells survive. When repair fails, the genomic
[...] Read more.
As a result of various stresses, lesions caused by DNA-damaging agents occur constantly in each cell of the human body. Generally, DNA damage is recognized and repaired by the DNA damage response (DDR) machinery, and the cells survive. When repair fails, the genomic integrity of the cell is disrupted—a hallmark of cancer. In addition, the DDR plays a dual role in cancer development and therapy. Cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy are designed to eliminate cancer cells by inducing DNA damage, which in turn can promote tumorigenesis. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, have been identified as participating in the processes regulating tumorigenesis and responses to cancer treatment with radiation therapy or genotoxic chemotherapies, by modulating the DDR. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent findings on how miRNAs regulate the DDR and discuss the therapeutic functions of miRNAs in cancer in the context of DDR regulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Intra- and Inter-Tumoral Heterogeneity of RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122015
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Approximately 30% of patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer are non-responders to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs), possibly due to undetected tumoral subclones harboring RAS mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of RAS
[...] Read more.
Approximately 30% of patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer are non-responders to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs), possibly due to undetected tumoral subclones harboring RAS mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of RAS mutations in different areas of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes and distant metastasis. A retrospective cohort of 18 patients with a colorectal cancer (CRC) was included in the study. Multiregion analysis was performed in 60 spatially separated tumor areas according to the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM) staging and KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations were tested using pyrosequencing. In primary tumors, intra-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation was found in 33% of cases. Inter-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes or distant metastasis was found in 36% of cases. Moreover, 28% of tumors had multiple RAS mutated subclones in the same tumor. A high proportion of CRCs presented intra- and/or inter-tumoral heterogeneity, which has relevant clinical implications for anti-EGFR mAbs prescription. These results suggest the need for multiple RAS testing in different parts of the same tumor and/or more sensitive techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Expression of CAPON in Glioma Contributes to Cell Proliferation via the Akt Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111859
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
CAPON is an adapter protein for nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). CAPON has two isoforms in the human brain: CAPON-L (long form of CAPON) and CAPON-S (short form of CAPON). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumorigenesis beyond its classical
[...] Read more.
CAPON is an adapter protein for nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). CAPON has two isoforms in the human brain: CAPON-L (long form of CAPON) and CAPON-S (short form of CAPON). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumorigenesis beyond its classical role in NOS1 activity regulation. In this study, we found that the protein levels of CAPON-S, but not than CAPON-L, were significantly decreased in glioma tissues. Therefore, we established lentivirus-mediated stable cell lines with CAPON-S overexpression or down-regulation, and investigated the role of CAPON-S in the proliferation of glioma cells by using CCK8, EdU, and flow cytometry assays. Overexpression of CAPON-S reduced the cell variability and the percentage of EdU-positive cells, and arrested the cells in the G1 phase in glioma cells. Silencing of CAPON by short-hairpin RNA showed the opposite effects. Furthermore, an intracellular signaling array revealed that overexpression of CAPON-S resulted in a remarkable reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein in glioma cells, which was further confirmed by Western blot. These findings suggest that CAPON may function as a tumor suppressor in human brain glioma and that the inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway caused by CAPON-S overexpression may provide insight into the underlying mechanism of CAPON in glioma cell proliferation. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) Family: Functional Anatomy of BET Paralogous Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111849
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) family of proteins is characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains and an extra-terminal domain. The mammalian BET family of proteins comprises BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT, which are encoded by paralogous genes that may have
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The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET) family of proteins is characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains and an extra-terminal domain. The mammalian BET family of proteins comprises BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT, which are encoded by paralogous genes that may have been generated by repeated duplication of an ancestral gene during evolution. Bromodomains that can specifically bind acetylated lysine residues in histones serve as chromatin-targeting modules that decipher the histone acetylation code. BET proteins play a crucial role in regulating gene transcription through epigenetic interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones during cellular proliferation and differentiation processes. On the other hand, BET proteins have been reported to mediate latent viral infection in host cells and be involved in oncogenesis. Human BRD4 is involved in multiple processes of the DNA virus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through interaction with viral proteins. Aberrant BRD4 expression contributes to carcinogenesis by mediating hyperacetylation of the chromatin containing the cell proliferation-promoting genes. BET bromodomain blockade using small-molecule inhibitors gives rise to selective repression of the transcriptional network driven by c-MYC These inhibitors are expected to be potential therapeutic drugs for a wide range of cancers. This review presents an overview of the basic roles of BET proteins and highlights the pathological functions of BET and the recent developments in cancer therapy targeting BET proteins in animal models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle PPIC, EMP3 and CHI3L1 Are Novel Prognostic Markers for High Grade Glioma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111808
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Current treatment methods for patients diagnosed with gliomas have shown limited success. This is partly due to the lack of prognostic genes available to accurately predict disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate novel prognostic genes based on the molecular
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Current treatment methods for patients diagnosed with gliomas have shown limited success. This is partly due to the lack of prognostic genes available to accurately predict disease outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate novel prognostic genes based on the molecular profile of tumor samples and their correlation with clinical parameters. In the current study, microarray data (GSE4412 and GSE7696) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus were used to identify differentially expressed prognostic genes (DEPGs) by significant analysis of microarray (SAM) between long-term survivors (>2 years) and short-term survivors (≤2 years). DEPGs generated from these two datasets were intersected to obtain a list of common DEPGs. The expression of a subset of common DEPGs was then independently validated by real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR). Survival value of the common DEPGs was validated using known survival data from the GSE4412 and TCGA dataset. After intersecting DEPGs generated from the above two datasets, three genes were identified which may potentially be used to determine glioma patient prognosis. Independent validation with glioma patients tissue (n = 70) and normal brain tissue (n = 19) found PPIC, EMP3 and CHI3L1 were up-regulated in glioma tissue. Survival value validation showed that the three genes correlated with patient survival by Kaplan-Meir analysis, including grades, age and therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Expression and Clinical Outcome of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111803
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and cell division cycle 25C (CDC25C) are two proteins involved in the DNA damage response pathway, playing essential roles in maintaining genome integrity. As one of the major hallmarks of abnormal cellular division, genomic instability occurs in most cancers.
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Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and cell division cycle 25C (CDC25C) are two proteins involved in the DNA damage response pathway, playing essential roles in maintaining genome integrity. As one of the major hallmarks of abnormal cellular division, genomic instability occurs in most cancers. In this study, we identified the functional expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in breast cancer, as well as its association with breast cancer survival. Tissue microarray analysis using immunohistochemistry was constructed to identify the expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in 292 female breast cancer patients. The relationship among protein expression, clinicopathological factors (e.g., human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2), tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification), and overall survival of the breast cancer tissues were analyzed using Pearson’s χ-square (χ2) test, Fisher’s exact test, multivariate logistic regression and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Significantly higher expressions of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 were observed in the nucleus of the breast cancer cells compared to the paracancerous tissue (pCHK2-Thr68, 20.38% vs. 0%; pCDC25C-Ser216, 82.26% vs. 24.24%). The expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in breast cancer showed a positive linear correlation (p = 0.026). High expression of pCHK2-Thr68 was associated with decreased patient survival (p = 0.001), but was not an independent prognostic factor. Our results suggest that pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 play important roles in breast cancer and may be potential treatment targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Golgi-Related Proteins GOLPH2 (GP73/GOLM1) and GOLPH3 (GOPP1/MIDAS) in Cutaneous Melanoma: Patterns of Expression and Prognostic Significance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101619
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 1 October 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 are Golgi-related proteins associated with aggressiveness and progression of a number of cancers. Their prognostic significance in melanoma has not yet been analyzed. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 in 20 normal skin, 30 benign nevi and 100
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GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 are Golgi-related proteins associated with aggressiveness and progression of a number of cancers. Their prognostic significance in melanoma has not yet been analyzed. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 in 20 normal skin, 30 benign nevi and 100 primary melanoma tissue samples and evaluated their expression in three compartments: cancer cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). High levels of both proteins in melanoma cells were associated with characteristics of aggressive disease, and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific overall survival (CSOS). On the contrary, increased numbers of GOLPH2-positive and GOLPH3-positive TAMs were observed in thinner, non-ulcerated tumors, with brisk lymphocytic reaction and absent lymphangioinvasion. Distant metastases were not observed among patients with high numbers of GOLPH2-positive TAMs. Increased expression of either protein in TAMs was related to prolonged CSOS and DFS. Similarly, GOLPH3-expressing CAFs were more frequent in thin melanomas with low mitotic rate, without ulceration and lymphangioinvasion. Moreover, increased GOLPH3-positive CAFs correlated with the absence of regional or distant metastases, and with longer CSOS and DFS. GOLPH2 expression was not observed in CAFs. Our results suggest that GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 play a role in melanoma progression and are potential targets for molecular-based therapies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decreased Expression of SRSF2 Splicing Factor Inhibits Apoptotic Pathways in Renal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101598
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2(SRSF2) belongs to the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Previous studies suggested that SRSF2 can contribute to carcinogenic processes. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer,
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Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 2(SRSF2) belongs to the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Previous studies suggested that SRSF2 can contribute to carcinogenic processes. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, highly aggressive and difficult to treat, mainly due to resistance to apoptosis. In this study we hypothesized that SRSF2 contributes to the regulation of apoptosis in ccRCC. Using tissue samples obtained from ccRCC patients, as well as independent validation on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, we demonstrate for the first time that expression of SRSF2 is decreased in ccRCC tumours when compared to non-tumorous control tissues. Furthermore, by employing a panel of ccRCC-derived cell lines with silenced SRSF2 expression and qPCR arrays we show that SRSF2 contributes not only to splicing patterns but also to expression of multiple apoptotic genes, including new SRSF2 targets: DIABLO, BIRC5/survivin, TRAIL, BIM, MCL1, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF1B, CRADD, BCL2L2, BCL2A1, and TP53. We also identified a new splice variant of CFLAR, an inhibitor of caspase activity. These changes culminate in diminished caspase-9 activity and inhibition of apoptosis. In summary, we show for the first time that decreased expression of SRSF2 in ccRCC contributes to protection of cancer cells viability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elevated Expression of Calpain-4 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer after Gastrectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101612
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract
Calpain-4 belongs to the calpain family of calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and functions as a small regulatory subunit of the calpains. Recent evidence indicates that calpain-4 plays critical roles in tumor migration and invasion. However, the roles of calpain-4 in gastric tumorigenesis remain poorly
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Calpain-4 belongs to the calpain family of calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and functions as a small regulatory subunit of the calpains. Recent evidence indicates that calpain-4 plays critical roles in tumor migration and invasion. However, the roles of calpain-4 in gastric tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Herein, we examined calpain-4 expression by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays containing tumor samples of 174 gastric cancer patients between 2004 and 2008 at a single center. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival curves, and expression levels were correlated to clinicopathological factors and overall survival. Our data demonstrated that calpain-4 was generally increased in gastric cancer cell lines and primary tumor tissues. High expression of calpain-4 was positively associated with vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM (Tumor Node Metastasis) stage. Multivariate analysis identified calpain-4 as an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis. A predictive nomogram integrating calpain-4 expression with other independent prognosticators was constructed, which generated a better prognostic value for overall survival of gastric cancer patients than a TNM staging system. In conclusion, calpain-4 could be regarded as a potential prognosis indicator for clinical outcomes in gastric cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle APEH Inhibition Affects Osteosarcoma Cell Viability via Downregulation of the Proteasome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101614
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by
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The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by severe undesired side effects. We previously reported that the inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) by the peptide SsCEI 4 can significantly affect the proteasome activity in A375 melanoma or Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines, thus shedding new light on therapeutic strategies based on downstream regulation of proteasome functions. In this work, we investigated the functional correlation between APEH and proteasome in a panel of cancer cell lines, and evaluated the cell proliferation upon SsCEI 4-treatments. Results revealed that SsCEI 4 triggered a proliferative arrest specifically in osteosarcoma U2OS cells via downregulation of the APEH–proteasome system, with the accumulation of the typical hallmarks of proteasome: NF-κB, p21Waf1, and polyubiquitinylated proteins. We found that the SsCEI 4 anti-proliferative effect involved a senescence-like growth arrest without noticeable cytotoxicity. These findings represent an important step toward understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the APEH-mediated downregulation of proteasome in order to design new molecules able to efficiently regulate the proteasome system for alternative therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Targeted Cancer Therapy: Vital Oncogenes and a New Molecular Genetic Paradigm for Cancer Initiation Progression and Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091552
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during
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It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091487
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and
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To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Modify the Response of Prostate Cancer Cells to Androgen and Anti-Androgens in Three-Dimensional Spheroid Culture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091458
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Androgen receptor (AR) targeting remains the gold standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa); however, treatment resistance remains a major clinical problem. To study the therapeutic effects of clinically used anti-androgens we characterized herein a tissue-mimetic three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model whereby PCa
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Androgen receptor (AR) targeting remains the gold standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa); however, treatment resistance remains a major clinical problem. To study the therapeutic effects of clinically used anti-androgens we characterized herein a tissue-mimetic three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model whereby PCa cells were cultured alone or with PCa-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Notably, the ratio of PCa cells to CAFs significantly increased in time in favor of the tumor cells within the spheroids strongly mimicking PCa in vivo. Despite this loss of CAFs, the stromal cells, which were not sensitive to androgen and even stimulated by the anti-androgens, significantly influenced the sensitivity of PCa cells to androgen and to the anti-androgens bicalutamide and enzalutamide. In particular, DuCaP cells lost sensitivity to enzalutamide when co-cultured with CAFs. In LAPC4/CAF and LNCaP/CAF co-culture spheroids the impact of the CAFs was less pronounced. In addition, 3D spheroids exhibited a significant increase in E-cadherin and substantial expression of vimentin in co-culture spheroids, whereas AR levels remained unchanged or even decreased. In LNCaP/CAF spheroids we further found increased Akt signaling that could be inhibited by the phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, thereby overcoming the anti-androgen resistance of the spheroids. Our data show that CAFs influence drug response of PCa cells with varying impact and further suggest this spheroid model is a valuable in vitro drug testing tool. Full article
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Open AccessReview Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091434
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of
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Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Human TRIB2 Oscillates during the Cell Cycle and Promotes Ubiquitination and Degradation of CDC25C
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091378
Received: 23 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is a member of the mammalian Tribbles family of serine/threonine pseudokinases (TRIB1-3). Studies of TRIB2 indicate that many of the molecular interactions between the single Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) protein and interacting partners are evolutionary conserved. In this study, we
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Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is a member of the mammalian Tribbles family of serine/threonine pseudokinases (TRIB1-3). Studies of TRIB2 indicate that many of the molecular interactions between the single Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) protein and interacting partners are evolutionary conserved. In this study, we examined the relationship between TRIB2 and cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) family of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (mammalian homologues of Drosophila String), which are key physiological cell cycle regulators. Using co-immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that TRIB2 interacts with CDC25B and CDC25C selectively. Forced overexpression of TRIB2 caused a marked decrease in total CDC25C protein levels. Following inhibition of the proteasome, CDC25C was stabilized in the nuclear compartment. This implicates TRIB2 as a regulator of nuclear CDC25C turnover. In complementary ubiquitination assays, we show that TRIB2-mediated degradation of CDC25C is associated with lysine-48-linked CDC25C polyubiquitination driven by the TRIB2 kinase-like domain. A cell cycle associated role for TRIB2 is further supported by the cell cycle regulated expression of TRIB2 protein levels. Our findings reveal mitotic CDC25C as a new target of TRIB2 that is degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inappropriate CDC25C regulation could mechanistically underlie TRIB2 mediated regulation of cellular proliferation in neoplastic cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081357
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (2850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast
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17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM’s biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein—coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of α1-Adrenoceptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Prostate and Other Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081339
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This review evaluates the role of α-adrenoceptor antagonists as a potential treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Cochrane, Google Scholar and Pubmed were accessed to retrieve sixty-two articles for analysis. In vitro studies demonstrate that doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin (quinazoline α-antagonists) induce apoptosis, decrease
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This review evaluates the role of α-adrenoceptor antagonists as a potential treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Cochrane, Google Scholar and Pubmed were accessed to retrieve sixty-two articles for analysis. In vitro studies demonstrate that doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin (quinazoline α-antagonists) induce apoptosis, decrease cell growth, and proliferation in PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines. Similarly, the piperazine based naftopidil induced cell cycle arrest and death in LNCaP-E9 cell lines. In contrast, sulphonamide based tamsulosin did not exhibit these effects. In vivo data was consistent with in vitro findings as the quinazoline based α-antagonists prevented angiogenesis and decreased tumour mass in mice models of PCa. Mechanistically the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of the α-antagonists appear largely independent of α 1-blockade. The proposed targets include: VEGF, EGFR, HER2/Neu, caspase 8/3, topoisomerase 1 and other mitochondrial apoptotic inducing factors. These cytotoxic effects could not be evaluated in human studies as prospective trial data is lacking. However, retrospective studies show a decreased incidence of PCa in males exposed to α-antagonists. As human data evaluating the use of α-antagonists as treatments are lacking; well designed, prospective clinical trials are needed to conclusively demonstrate the anticancer properties of quinazoline based α-antagonists in PCa and other cancers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advanced Glycation End-Products Enhance Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081289
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
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Abstract
Effects of carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, two advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), upon invasion and migration in A549 and Calu-6 cells, two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were examined. CML or pentosidine at 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 μmol/L were added
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Effects of carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, two advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), upon invasion and migration in A549 and Calu-6 cells, two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were examined. CML or pentosidine at 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 μmol/L were added into cells. Proliferation, invasion and migration were measured. CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L promoted invasion and migration in both cell lines, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β1. CML or pentosidine at 2–16 μmol/L up-regulated the protein expression of AGE receptor, p47phox, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin in test NSCLC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells was increased by CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L. These two AGEs at 2–16 μmol/L enhanced nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κ B) p65 protein expression and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells. However, CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L up-regulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 protein expression in Calu-6 cells. These findings suggest that CML and pentosidine, by promoting the invasion, migration and production of associated factors, benefit NSCLC metastasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Mini-Review for Cancer Immunotherapy: Molecular Understanding of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway & Translational Blockade of Immune Checkpoints
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071151
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interference of the binding of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a new inspiring immunotherapy for resisting cancers. To date, the FDA has approved two PD-1 monoclonal antibody drugs against cancer as well as a monoclonal
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Interference of the binding of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a new inspiring immunotherapy for resisting cancers. To date, the FDA has approved two PD-1 monoclonal antibody drugs against cancer as well as a monoclonal antibody for PD-L1. More PD-1 and PD-L1 monoclonal antibody drugs are on their way in clinical trials. In this review, we focused on the mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway and the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PD-1 and PD-L1, which were approved by the FDA or are still in clinical trials. And also presented is the prospect of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade in the next generation of immunotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-31 Emerges as a Predictive Biomarker of Pathological Response and Outcome in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060878
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (831 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has emerged as the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. However, many cases do not respond to neoadjuvant CRT, suffering unnecessary toxicities and surgery delays. Thus, identification of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision has emerged as the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients. However, many cases do not respond to neoadjuvant CRT, suffering unnecessary toxicities and surgery delays. Thus, identification of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant CRT is a current clinical need. In the present study, microRNA-31 expression was measured in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 78 patients diagnosed with LARC who were treated with neoadjuvant CRT. Then, the obtained results were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome. High microRNA-31 (miR-31) levels were found overexpressed in 34.2% of cases. Its overexpression significantly predicted poor pathological response (p = 0.018) and worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008). The odds ratio for no pathological response among patients with miR-31 overexpression was 0.18 (Confidence Interval = 0.06 to 0.57; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis corroborated the clinical impact of miR-31 in determining pathological response to neoadjuvant CRT as well as OS. Altogether, miR-31 quantification emerges as a novel valuable clinical tool to predict both pathological response and outcome in LARC patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050664
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (6948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of 42 Genes Linked to Stage II Colorectal Cancer Metastatic Relapse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050598
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Metastasis remains the primary cause of CRC death. Predicting the possibility of metastatic relapse in early-stage CRC is of paramount importance to target therapy for patients who really need it and
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Metastasis remains the primary cause of CRC death. Predicting the possibility of metastatic relapse in early-stage CRC is of paramount importance to target therapy for patients who really need it and spare those with low-potential of metastasis. Ninety-six stage II CRC cases were stratified using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data based on a predictive survival algorithm and supervised clustering. All genes included within the resultant copy number aberrations were each interrogated independently at mRNA level using CRC expression datasets available from public repositories, which included 1820 colon cancers, and 167 normal colon tissues. Reduced mRNA expression driven by copy number losses and increased expression driven by copy number gains revealed 42 altered transcripts (29 reduced and 13 increased transcripts) associated with metastatic relapse, short disease-free or overall survival, and/or epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resultant genes were classified based on gene ontology (GO), which identified four functional enrichment groups involved in growth regulation, genomic integrity, metabolism, and signal transduction pathways. The identified 42 genes may be useful for predicting metastatic relapse in stage II CRC. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle KRAS/BRAF Analysis in Ovarian Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Having Synchronous All Pathological Precursor Regions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050625
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to begin as a serous cystadenoma or adenofibroma that progresses in a slow stepwise fashion. Among the low-grade serous carcinomas, there is a high frequency of activating mutations in the KRAS or BRAF genes; however, it remains
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Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma is thought to begin as a serous cystadenoma or adenofibroma that progresses in a slow stepwise fashion. Among the low-grade serous carcinomas, there is a high frequency of activating mutations in the KRAS or BRAF genes; however, it remains unclear as to how these mutations contribute to tumor progression. This is the first report to track the histopathological progression of serous adenofibroma to low-grade serous carcinoma. Each stage was individually analyzed by pathological and molecular genetic methods to determine what differences occur between the distinct stages of progression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040571
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive
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One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC), and nodal metastases (p < 0.001). Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wnt9A Induction Linked to Suppression of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040495
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
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Abstract
Most studies of Wnt signaling in malignant tissues have focused on the canonical Wnt pathway (CWP) due to its role in stimulating cellular proliferation. The role of the non-canonical Wnt pathway (NCWP) in tissues with dysregulated Wnt signaling is not fully understood. Understanding
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Most studies of Wnt signaling in malignant tissues have focused on the canonical Wnt pathway (CWP) due to its role in stimulating cellular proliferation. The role of the non-canonical Wnt pathway (NCWP) in tissues with dysregulated Wnt signaling is not fully understood. Understanding NCWP’s role is important since these opposing pathways act in concert to maintain homeostasis in healthy tissues. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that LiCl inhibited proliferation of primary cells derived from colorectal cancer (CRC). Since LiCl stimulates cell proliferation in normal tissues and NCWP suppresses it, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of NCWP components in LiCl-mediated effects. LiCl-mediated inhibition of CRC cell proliferation (p < 0.001) and increased apoptosis (p < 0.01) coincided with 23-fold increase (p < 0.025) in the expression of the NCWP ligand, Wnt9A. LiCl also suppressed β-catenin mRNA (p < 0.03), total β-catenin protein (p < 0.025) and the active form of β-catenin. LiCl-mediated inhibition of CRC cell proliferation was partially reversed by IWP-2, and Wnt9A antibody. Recombinant Wnt9A protein emulated LiCl effects by suppressing β-catenin protein (p < 0.001), inhibiting proliferation (p < 0.001) and increasing apoptosis (p < 0.03). This is the first study to demonstrate induction of a NCWP ligand, Wnt9A as part of a mechanism for LiCl-mediated suppression of CRC cell proliferation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of TRPV3 Correlates with Tumor Progression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040437
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
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Abstract
(1) Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a member of the TRP channels family of Ca2+-permeant channels. The proteins of some TRP channels are highly expressed in cancer cells. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance
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(1) Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a member of the TRP channels family of Ca2+-permeant channels. The proteins of some TRP channels are highly expressed in cancer cells. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance and biological functions of TRPV3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); (2) Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TRPV3 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of TRPV3, CaMKII, p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD, CyclinE1, CDK2, CDK4, and P27. Small interfering RNA was used to deplete TRPV3 expression. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to measure intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle; (3) Results: TRPV3 was overexpressed in 65 of 96 (67.7%) human lung cancer cases and correlated with differentiation (p = 0.001) and TNM stage (p = 0.004). Importantly, TRPV3 expression was associated with short overall survival. In addition, blocking or knockdown of TRPV3 could inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, TRPV3 inhibition could decrease [Ca2+]i of lung cancer cells and arrest cell cycle at the G1/S boundary. Further results revealed that TRPV3 inhibition decreased expressions of p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD1, CyclinE, and increased P27 level; (4) Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that TRPV3 was overexpressed in NSCLC and correlated with lung cancer progression. TRPV3 activation could promote proliferation of lung cancer cells. TRPV3 might serve as a potential companion drug target in NSCLC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tamoxifen Treatment of Breast Cancer Cells: Impact on Hedgehog/GLI1 Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030308
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 27 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator tamoxifen (TAM) has become the standard therapy for the treatment of ER+ breast cancer patients. Despite the obvious benefits of TAM, a proportion of patients acquire resistance to treatment, and this is a significant clinical problem. Consequently,
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The selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator tamoxifen (TAM) has become the standard therapy for the treatment of ER+ breast cancer patients. Despite the obvious benefits of TAM, a proportion of patients acquire resistance to treatment, and this is a significant clinical problem. Consequently, the identification of possible mechanisms involved in TAM-resistance should help the development of new therapeutic targets. In this study, we present in vitro data using a panel of different breast cancer cell lines and demonstrate the modulatory effect of TAM on cellular proliferation and expression of Hedgehog signaling components, including the terminal effector of the pathway, the transcription factor GLI1. A variable pattern of expression following TAM administration was observed, reflecting the distinctive properties of the ER+ and ER− cell lines analyzed. Remarkably, the TAM-induced increase in the proliferation of the ER+ ZR-75-1 and BT474 cells parallels a sustained upregulation of GLI1 expression and its translocation to the nucleus. These findings, implicating a TAM-GLI1 signaling cross-talk, could ultimately be exploited not only as a means for novel prognostication markers but also in efforts to effectively target breast cancer subtypes. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Using Copy Number Alterations to Identify New Therapeutic Targets for Bladder Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030271
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 24 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs) and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to
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Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs) and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to metastasis. Despite improvements in knowledge, treatment has not advanced significantly in recent years, with the absence of new therapeutic targets. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, the greater challenge will be to identify biomarkers for clinical application. For this reason, we compared our array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) results with those reported in literature for invasive bladder tumors and, in particular, we focused on the evaluation of copy number alterations (CNAs) present in biopsies and retained in the corresponding cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations that should be the main target of therapy. According to our data, CCNE1, MYC, MDM2 and PPARG genes could be interesting therapeutic targets for bladder CSC subpopulations. Surprisingly, HER2 copy number gains are not retained in bladder CSCs, making the gene-targeted therapy less interesting than the others. These results provide precious advice for further study on bladder therapy; however, the clinical importance of these results should be explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Generation of Potent Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Neutralizing Antibodies from Mouse Phage Display Library for Cancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020214
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important stimulator for angiogenesis in solid tumors. Blocking VEGF activity is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Avastin, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizes VEGF, has been approved by the US Food and
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important stimulator for angiogenesis in solid tumors. Blocking VEGF activity is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Avastin, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizes VEGF, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To generate potential VEGF-recognizing antibodies with better tumor regression ability than that of Avastin, we have designed a systematic antibody selection plan. From mice immunized with recombinant human VEGF, we generated three phage display libraries, scFv-M13KO7, Fab-M13KO7, and scFv-Hyperphage, in single-chain Fv (scFv) or Fab format, displayed using either M13KO7 helper phage or Hyperphage. Solid-phase and solution-phase selection strategies were then applied to each library, generating six panning combinations. A total of sixty-four antibodies recognizing VEGF were obtained. Based on the results of epitope mapping, binding affinity, and biological functions in tumor inhibition, eight antibodies were chosen to examine their abilities in tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model using human COLO 205 cancer cells. Three of them showed improvement in the inhibition of tumor growth (328%–347% tumor growth ratio (% of Day 0 tumor volume) on Day 21 vs. 435% with Avastin). This finding suggests a potential use of these three antibodies for VEGF-targeted therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010043
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bladder cancer (BC), the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients
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Bladder cancer (BC), the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory. Full article
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Open AccessReview Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Effects of Tumor Support or Suppression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30015-30033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226215
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exhibit a marked tropism towards site of tumors. Many studies have reported that tumor progression and metastasis increase by MSCs. In contrast, other studies have shown that MSCs suppress growth of tumors. MSCs contribute to tumor growth promotion
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exhibit a marked tropism towards site of tumors. Many studies have reported that tumor progression and metastasis increase by MSCs. In contrast, other studies have shown that MSCs suppress growth of tumors. MSCs contribute to tumor growth promotion by several mechanisms: (1) transition to tumor-associated fibroblasts; (2) suppression of immune response; (3) promotion of angiogenesis; (4) stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); (5) contribution to the tumor microenvironment; (6) inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis; and (7) promotion of tumor metastasis. In contrast to the tumor-promoting properties, MSCs inhibit tumor growth by increasing inflammatory infiltration, inhibiting angiogenesis, suppressing Wnt signaling and AKT signaling, and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In this review, we will discuss potential mechanisms by which MSC mediates tumor support or suppression and then the possible tumor-specific therapeutic strategies using MSCs as delivery vehicles, based on their homing potential to tumors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Histone Methylation Marks on Circulating Nucleosomes as Novel Blood-Based Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29654-29662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226180
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) are under investigation as a liquid biopsy in cancer as potential non-invasive biomarkers, as stable structure in circulation nucleosomes could be valuable sources for detection of cancer-specific alterations in histone modifications. Our interest is in histone methylation marks with
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Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) are under investigation as a liquid biopsy in cancer as potential non-invasive biomarkers, as stable structure in circulation nucleosomes could be valuable sources for detection of cancer-specific alterations in histone modifications. Our interest is in histone methylation marks with a focus on colorectal cancer, one of the leading cancers respective the incidence and mortality. Our previous work included the analysis of trimethylations of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me3) and of lysine 20 on histone 4 (H4K20me3) by chromatin immuno- precipitation-related PCR in circulating nucleosomes. Here we asked whether global immunologic measurement of histone marks in circulation could be a suitable approach to show their potential as biomarkers. In addition to H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 we also measured H3K27me3 in plasma samples from CRC patients (n = 63) and cancer free individuals (n = 40) by ELISA-based methylation assays. Our results show that of three marks, the amounts of H3K27me3 (p = 0.04) and H4K20me3 (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in CRC patients than in healthy controls. For H3K9me3 similar amounts were measured in both groups. Areas under the curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicating the power of CRC detection were 0.620 for H3K27me3, 0.715 for H4K20me3 and 0.769 for the combination of both markers. In conclusion, findings of this preliminary study reveal the potential of blood-based detection of CRC by quantification of histone methylation marks and the additive effect of the marker combination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Analysis of SEPT9 Promoter Methylation Status, Micronuclei Frequency, and Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms: The Potential for a Novel Blood-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28486-28497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226113
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) is identifying novel biomarkers to be introduced in screening programs. The present study investigated the promoter methylation status of the SEPT9 gene in peripheral blood samples of subjects’ positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). In order to
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One challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) is identifying novel biomarkers to be introduced in screening programs. The present study investigated the promoter methylation status of the SEPT9 gene in peripheral blood samples of subjects’ positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). In order to add new insights, we investigated the association between SEPT9 promoter methylation and micronuclei frequency, and polymorphisms in the folate-related pathway genes. SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency, and genotypes were evaluated on 74 individuals’ FOBT positive. Individuals were subjected to a colonoscopy that provided written informed consent for study participation. SEPT9 promoter methylation status was significantly lower in the CRC group than controls (p = 0.0006). In contrast, the CaCo2 cell-line, analyzed as a tissue specific model of colon adenocarcinoma, showed a significantly higher percentage of SEPT9 promoter methylation compared to the CRC group (p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation between micronuclei frequency and the decrease in the methylation levels of SEPT9 promoter region among CRC patients (β = −0.926, p = 0.0001). With regard to genotype analysis, we showed the involvement of the DHFR polymorphism (rs70991108) in SEPT9 promoter methylation level in CRC patients only. In particular, the presence of at least one 19 bp del allele significantly correlates with decreased SEPT9 promoter methylation, compared to the 19 bp ins/ins genotype (p = 0.007). While remaining aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, this represents the first evidence of a novel approach for the early detection of CRC, using SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency and genotypes, with the potential to improve CRC risk assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Caveolin-1 as Key-Regulator of Three-Dimensional Growth in Thyroid Cancer Cells Cultured under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28296-28310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226108
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We recently demonstrated that the CAV1 gene was down-regulated, when poorly differentiated thyroid FTC-133 cancer cells formed spheroids under simulated microgravity conditions. Here, we present evidence that the caveolin-1 protein is involved in the inhibition of spheroid formation, when confluent monolayers are exposed
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We recently demonstrated that the CAV1 gene was down-regulated, when poorly differentiated thyroid FTC-133 cancer cells formed spheroids under simulated microgravity conditions. Here, we present evidence that the caveolin-1 protein is involved in the inhibition of spheroid formation, when confluent monolayers are exposed to microgravity. The evidence is based on proteins detected in cells and their supernatants of the recent spaceflight experiment: “NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer”. The culture supernatant had been collected in a special container adjacent to the flight hardware incubation chamber and stored at low temperature until it was analyzed by Multi-Analyte Profiling (MAP) technology, while the cells remaining in the incubation chamber were fixed by RNAlater and examined by mass spectrometry. The soluble proteins identified by MAP were investigated in regard to their mutual interactions and their influence on proteins, which were associated with the cells secreting the soluble proteins and had been identified in a preceding study. A Pathway Studio v.11 analysis of the soluble and cell-associated proteins together with protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) suggests that caveolin-1 is involved, when plasminogen enriched in the extracellular space is not activated and the vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) mediated cell–cell adhesion is simultaneously strengthened and activated PRKCA is recruited in caveolae, while the thyroid cancer cells do not form spheroids. Full article
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Open AccessReview EZH2 in Bladder Cancer, a Promising Therapeutic Target
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27107-27132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126000
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (3655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bladder Cancer (BC) represents a current clinical and social challenge. The recent studies aimed to describe the genomic landscape of BC have underscored the relevance of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Among the epigenetic alterations, histone modifications occupied a central
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Bladder Cancer (BC) represents a current clinical and social challenge. The recent studies aimed to describe the genomic landscape of BC have underscored the relevance of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Among the epigenetic alterations, histone modifications occupied a central role not only in cancer, but also in normal organism homeostasis and development. EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2) belongs to the Polycomb repressive complex 2 as its catalytic subunit, which through the trimethylation of H3 (Histone 3) on K27 (Lysine 27), produces gene silencing. EZH2 is frequently overexpressed in multiple tumor types, including BC, and plays multiple roles besides the well-recognized histone mark generation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on the oncogenic roles of EZH2 and its potential use as a therapeutic target, with special emphasis on BC pathogenesis and management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silencing of Kv1.5 Gene Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26914-26926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126002
Received: 22 July 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kv1.5 (also known as KCNA5) is a protein encoded by the KCNA5 gene, which belongs to the voltage-gated potassium channel, shaker-related subfamily. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that Kv1.5 is overexpressed in numerous cancers and plays crucial roles in cancer development.
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Kv1.5 (also known as KCNA5) is a protein encoded by the KCNA5 gene, which belongs to the voltage-gated potassium channel, shaker-related subfamily. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that Kv1.5 is overexpressed in numerous cancers and plays crucial roles in cancer development. However, until now, the expression and functions of Kv1.5 in osteosarcoma are still unclear. To characterize the potential biological functions of Kv1.5 in osteosarcoma, herein, we examined the expression levels of Kv1.5 in osteosarcoma cells and tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemistry assays. Four short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting Kv1.5 were designed and homologous recombination technology was used to construct pGeneSil-Kv1.5 vectors. In addition, the vectors were transfected into osteosarcoma MG63 cells and Kv1.5 mRNA level was measured by qRT-PCR and the Kv1.5 protein level was examined by western blot. We also examined the effects of Kv1.5 silencing on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the osteosarcoma cells using CCK-8, colony formation, flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Our results showed that Kv1.5 was aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma and that the synthesized shRNA targeting Kv1.5 reduced Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expression effectively. Silencing Kv1.5 expression in the osteosarcoma cells significantly inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, and induced cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p21, p27, Bax, Bcl-XL and caspase-3 and down-regulation of cyclins A, cyclins D1, cyclins E, Bcl-2 and Bik. In summary, our results indicate that Kv1.5 silencing could suppress osteosarcoma progression through multiple signaling pathways and suggest that Kv1.5 may be a novel target for osteosarcoma therapeutics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26754-26769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125992
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 9 November 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (7619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the
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Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN), fisetin (FN), quercetin (QN), kaempferol (KL) and galangin (GN). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nimbolide Induces ROS-Regulated Apoptosis and Inhibits Cell Migration in Osteosarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23405-23424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161023405
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 5 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumor of bone and is most prevalent in children and adolescents. OS is frequently associated with pulmonary metastasis, which is the main cause of OS-related mortality. OS has a poor prognosis and is often unresponsive to conventional
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumor of bone and is most prevalent in children and adolescents. OS is frequently associated with pulmonary metastasis, which is the main cause of OS-related mortality. OS has a poor prognosis and is often unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we determined that Nimbolide, a novel anti-cancer therapy, acts by modulating multiple mechanisms in osteosarcoma cells. Nimbolide induces apoptosis by increasing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and finally, caspase activation. We also determined that Nimbolide inhibits cell migration, which is crucial for metastasis, by reducing the expression of integrin αvβ5. In addition, our results demonstrate that integrin αvβ5 expression is modulated by the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling cascade. Nimbolide has potential as an anti-tumor drug given its multifunctional effects in OS. Collectively, these results help us to understand the mechanisms of action of Nimbolide and will aid in the development of effective therapies for OS. Full article
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Open AccessReview PI3K and AKT: Unfaithful Partners in Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21138-21152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160921138
Received: 25 July 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (2008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes. An overactivation of the pathway is frequently present in human malignancies and plays a key role in cancer progression. Hence, its inhibition has become a promising approach in cancer therapy. However, the development
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes. An overactivation of the pathway is frequently present in human malignancies and plays a key role in cancer progression. Hence, its inhibition has become a promising approach in cancer therapy. However, the development of resistances, such as the abrogation of negative feedback mechanisms or the activation of other proliferative signaling pathways, has considerably limited the anticancer efficacy of PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In addition, emerging evidence points out that although AKT is acknowledged as the major downstream effector of PI3K, both PI3K and AKT can operate independently of each other in cancer, revealing another level of complexity in this pathway. Here, we highlight the complex relationship between PI3K and AKT in cancer and further discuss the consequences of this relationship for cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of RUNX2 in Breast Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20969-20993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920969
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
RUNX2 is a transcription factor playing the major role in osteogenesis, but it can be involved in DNA damage response, which is crucial for cancer transformation. RUNX2 can interact with cell cycle regulators: cyclin-dependent kinases, pRB and p21Cip1 proteins, as well as the
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RUNX2 is a transcription factor playing the major role in osteogenesis, but it can be involved in DNA damage response, which is crucial for cancer transformation. RUNX2 can interact with cell cycle regulators: cyclin-dependent kinases, pRB and p21Cip1 proteins, as well as the master regulator of the cell cycle, the p53 tumor suppressor. RUNX2 is involved in many signaling pathways, including those important for estrogen signaling, which, in turn, are significant for breast carcinogenesis. RUNX2 can promote breast cancer development through Wnt and Tgfβ signaling pathways, especially in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative cases. ERα interacts directly with RUNX2 and regulates its activity. Moreover, the ERa gene has a RUNX2 binding site within its promoter. RUNX2 stimulates the expression of aromatase, an estrogen producing enzyme, increasing the level of estrogens, which in turn stimulate cell proliferation and replication errors, which can be turned into carcinogenic mutations. Exploring the role of RUNX2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer can lead to revealing new therapeutic targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selection and Characterization of Single Chain Antibody Fragments Specific for Hsp90 as a Potential Cancer Targeting Molecule
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19920-19935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160819920
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (21991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heat shock proteins play an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation and they have been recognized as important factors in human cancers. One of the key elements of the molecular chaperones machinery is Hsp90 and it has recently become a target for anticancer
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Heat shock proteins play an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation and they have been recognized as important factors in human cancers. One of the key elements of the molecular chaperones machinery is Hsp90 and it has recently become a target for anticancer therapeutic approaches. The potential and importance of Hsp90-directed agents becomes apparent when one realizes that disruption of Hsp90 function may influence over 200 oncogenic client proteins. Here, we described the selection and characterization of Hsp90-specific antibody fragments from commercially available Tomlinson I and J phage display libraries. The affinities of Hsp90-binding scFv variants were measured using SPR method. Then, based on the best clone selected, we performed the affinity maturation procedure and obtained valuable Hsp90-specific clones. The selected binders were expressed and applied for immunostaining, ELISA and SPR analysis using model cancer cell lines. All performed experiments confirmed the ability of selected antibodies to interact with the Hsp90. Therefore, the presented Hsp90-specific scFv, might be a starting point for the development of a novel antibody-based strategy targeting cancer. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Pyrosequencing-Based Assays for Rapid Detection of HER2 and HER3 Mutations in Clinical Samples Uncover an E332E Mutation Affecting HER3 in Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19447-19457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160819447
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mutations in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (HER) are associated with poor prognosis of several types of solid tumors. Although HER-mutation detection methods are currently available, such as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), alternative pyrosequencing allow the rapid characterization of specific mutations. We developed specific
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Mutations in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (HER) are associated with poor prognosis of several types of solid tumors. Although HER-mutation detection methods are currently available, such as Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), alternative pyrosequencing allow the rapid characterization of specific mutations. We developed specific PCR-based pyrosequencing assays for identification of most prevalent HER2 and HER3 mutations, including S310F/Y, R678Q, L755M/P/S/W, V777A/L/M, 774-776 insertion, and V842I mutations in HER2, as well as M91I, V104M/L, D297N/V/Y, and E332E/K mutations in HER3. We tested 85 Formalin Fixed and Paraffin Embbeded (FFPE) samples and we detected three HER2-V842I mutations in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), ovarian carcinoma, and pancreatic carcinoma patients, respectively, and a HER2-L755M mutation in a CRC specimen. We also determined the presence of a HER3-E332K mutation in an urothelial carcinoma sample, and two HER3-D297Y mutations, in both gastric adenocarcinoma and CRC specimens. The D297Y mutation was previously detected in breast and gastric tumors, but not in CRC. Moreover, we found a not-previously-described HER3-E332E synonymous mutation in a retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma patient. The pyrosequencing assays presented here allow the detection and characterization of specific HER2 and HER3 mutations. These pyrosequencing assays might be implemented in routine diagnosis for molecular characterization of HER2/HER3 receptors as an alternative to complex NGS approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle UV Differentially Induces Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in BCR-ABL1-Positive Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18111-18128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160818111
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells express the active BCR-ABL1 protein, which has been targeted by imatinib in CML therapy, but resistance to this drug is an emerging problem. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress promoting genomic instability and imatinib resistance. In the present work,
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Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells express the active BCR-ABL1 protein, which has been targeted by imatinib in CML therapy, but resistance to this drug is an emerging problem. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress promoting genomic instability and imatinib resistance. In the present work, we investigated the extent of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes in BCR-ABL1 cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib. The resistance resulted either from the Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene or incubation in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). UV irradiation at a dose rate of 0.12 J/(m2·s) induced more DNA damage detected by the T4 pyrimidine dimers glycosylase and hOGG1, recognizing oxidative modifications to DNA bases in imatinib-resistant than -sensitive cells. The resistant cells displayed also higher susceptibility to UV-induced apoptosis. These cells had lower native mitochondrial membrane potential than imatinib-sensitive cells, but UV-irradiation reversed that relationship. We observed a significant lowering of the expression of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) gene, encoding a component of the complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is involved in apoptosis sensing. Although detailed mechanism of imatinib resistance in AR cells in unknown, we detected the presence of the Y253H mutation in a fraction of these cells. In conclusion, imatinib-resistant cells may display a different extent of genome instability than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts, which may follow their different reactions to both endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors, including DNA repair and apoptosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dysregulation of PAK1 Is Associated with DNA Damage and Is of Prognostic Importance in Primary Esophageal Small Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12035-12050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160612035
Received: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma (PESCC) is a rare, but fatal subtype of esophageal carcinoma. No effective therapeutic regimen for it. P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is known to function as an integrator and an indispensable node of major growth factor signaling and the
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Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma (PESCC) is a rare, but fatal subtype of esophageal carcinoma. No effective therapeutic regimen for it. P21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is known to function as an integrator and an indispensable node of major growth factor signaling and the molecular therapy targeting PAK1 has been clinical in pipeline. We thus set to examine the expression and clinical impact of PAK1 in PESCC. The expression of PAK1 was detected in a semi-quantitative manner by performing immunohistochemistry. PAK1 was overexpressed in 22 of 34 PESCC tumors, but in only 2 of 18 adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Overexpression of PAK1 was significantly associated with tumor location (p = 0.011), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.026) and patient survival (p = 0.032). We also investigated the association of PAK1 with DNA damage, a driven cause for malignancy progression. γH2AX, a DNA damage marker, was detectable in 18 of 24 (75.0%) cases, and PAK1 expression was associated with γH2AX (p = 0.027). Together, PAK1 is important in metastasis and progression of PESCC. The contribution of PAK1 to clinical outcomes may be involved in its regulating DNA damage pathway. Further studies are worth determining the potentials of PAK1 as prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for PESCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exposure of Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Apoptotic MCF-7 Cells Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 11966-11982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160611966
Received: 25 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (4560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been found to be associated with the progression and metastasis of breast cancer. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between TAMs and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer recurrence and metastasis, we used a co-culture model of
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been found to be associated with the progression and metastasis of breast cancer. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between TAMs and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer recurrence and metastasis, we used a co-culture model of macrophages and apoptotic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells to investigate the effects of TAMs on MCF-7 in vitro and in vivo. Macrophages co-cultured with apoptotic MCF-7 had increased tumor growth and metastatic ability in a nude mouse transplantation assay. The macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells also induce an increase in the proportion of CD44+/CD24 cancer stem-like cells, as well as their proliferative ability accompanied with an increase in mucin1 (MUC1) expression. During this process, macrophages secreted increased amounts of interleukin 6 (IL-6) leading to increased phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), which likely explains the increased transcription of STAT3 target genes such as TGF-β1 and HIF-1α. Our results indicate that when cancer cells endure chemotherapy induced apoptosis, macrophages in their microenvironment can then activate cancer stem cells to promote cancer growth and metastasis by secreting IL-6, which activates STAT3 phosphorylation to regulate the transcription of its downstream target genes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Molecular Connections between Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Tumor Microenvironment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11055-11086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160511055
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis, instead of oxidative phosphorylation, for metabolism even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the “Warburg effect”, commonly exists in a variety of tumors. Recent studies further demonstrate that both genetic factors
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Cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis, instead of oxidative phosphorylation, for metabolism even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the “Warburg effect”, commonly exists in a variety of tumors. Recent studies further demonstrate that both genetic factors such as oncogenes and tumor suppressors and microenvironmental factors such as spatial hypoxia and acidosis can regulate the glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells. Reciprocally, altered cancer cell metabolism can modulate the tumor microenvironment which plays important roles in cancer cell somatic evolution, metastasis, and therapeutic response. In this article, we review the progression of current understandings on the molecular interaction between cancer cell metabolism and the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we discuss the implications of these interactions in cancer therapy and chemoprevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle VEGFR-1 Overexpression Identifies a Small Subgroup of Aggressive Prostate Cancers in Patients Treated by Prostatectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8591-8606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16048591
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 27 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The VEGFR-1 is suggested to promote tumor progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the VEGFR-1 by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 3000 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ETS-related gene (ERG)
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The VEGFR-1 is suggested to promote tumor progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the VEGFR-1 by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 3000 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ETS-related gene (ERG) status, and biochemical recurrence. Membranous VEGFR-1 expression was detectable in 32.6% of 2669 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.7%, moderate in 6.7% and weak in 24.2% of cases. Strong VEGFR-1 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001 each). Elevated VEGFR-1 expression was linked to high Gleason grade and advanced pT stage in TMPRSS2:ERG negative cancers (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.001), while these associations were absent in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cancers. VEGFR-1 expression was also linked to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletions. A comparison with prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence revealed that the 1.7% of prostate cancers with the highest VEGFR-1 levels had a strikingly unfavorable prognosis. This could be seen in all cancers, in the subsets of TMPRSS2:ERG positive or negative, PTEN deleted or undeleted carcinomas (p < 0.0001 each). High level VEGFR-1 expression is infrequent in prostate cancer, but identifies a subgroup of aggressive cancers, which may be candidates for anti-VEGFR-1 targeted therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Psoralea glandulosa as a Potential Source of Anticancer Agents for Melanoma Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7944-7959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047944
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1
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With the aim of identifying novel agents with antigrowth and pro-apoptotic activity on melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological activity of the resinous exudate of aerial parts from Psoralea glandulosa, and its active components (bakuchiol (1), 3-hydroxy-bakuchiol (2) and 12-hydroxy-iso-bakuchiol (3)) against melanoma cells (A2058). In addition, the effect in cancer cells of bakuchiol acetate (4), a semi-synthetic derivative of bakuchiol, was examined. The results obtained show that the resinous exudate inhibited the growth of cancer cells with IC50 value of 10.5 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, while, for pure compounds, the most active was the semi-synthetic compound 4. Our data also demonstrate that resin is able to induce apoptotic cell death, which could be related to an overall action of the meroterpenes present. In addition, our data seem to indicate that the apoptosis correlated to the tested products appears, at least in part, to be associated with an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that P. glandulosa may be considered a source of useful molecules in the development of analogues with more potent efficacy against melanoma cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Utero Exposure to Low-Dose Alcohol Induces Reprogramming of Mammary Development and Tumor Risk in MMTV-erbB-2 Transgenic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7655-7671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047655
Received: 1 January 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 7 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is increasing evidence that prenatal exposure to environmental factors may modify breast cancer risk later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol on mammary development and tumor risk. Pregnant MMTV-erbB-2 mice were exposed
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There is increasing evidence that prenatal exposure to environmental factors may modify breast cancer risk later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol on mammary development and tumor risk. Pregnant MMTV-erbB-2 mice were exposed to alcohol (6 g/kg/day) between day 13 and day 19 of gestation, and the female offspring were examined for tumor risk. Whole mount analysis indicated that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induced significant increases in ductal extension at 10 weeks of age. Molecular analysis showed that in utero alcohol exposure induced upregulation of ERα signaling and activation of Akt and Erk1/2 in pubertal mammary glands. However, enhanced signaling in the EGFR/erbB-2 pathway appeared to be more prominent in 10-week-old glands than did signaling in the other pathways. Interestingly, tumor development in mice with in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol was slightly delayed compared to control mice, but tumor multiplicity was increased. The results indicate that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induces the reprogramming of mammary development by mechanisms that include altered signaling in the estrogen receptor (ER) and erbB-2 pathways. The intriguing tumor development pattern might be related to alcohol dose and exposure conditions, and warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessReview New Therapies for Dedifferentiated Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6153-6182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16036153
Received: 30 December 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of thyroid cancers is increasing. Standard treatment usually includes primary surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy, and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine (RAI). Despite the generally good prognosis of thyroid carcinoma, about 5% of patients will develop metastatic disease,
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The number of thyroid cancers is increasing. Standard treatment usually includes primary surgery, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy, and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine (RAI). Despite the generally good prognosis of thyroid carcinoma, about 5% of patients will develop metastatic disease, which fails to respond to RAI, exhibiting a more aggressive behavior. The lack of specific, effective and well-tolerated drugs, the scarcity of data about the association of multi-targeting drugs, and the limited role of radioiodine for dedifferentiated thyroid cancer, call for further efforts in the field of new drugs development. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma gene rearrangements, BRAF (B-RAF proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) gene mutations, RAS (rat sarcoma) mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways playing a crucial role in the development of thyroid cancer. Targeted novel compounds have been demonstrated to induce clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Sorafenib has been approved for differentiated thyroid cancer refractory to RAI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tetraspanin 8-Rictor-Integrin α3 Complex Is Required for Glioma Cell Migration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 5363-5374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16035363
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The malignant glioma remains one of the most aggressive human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis. Glioma cell invasion and migration are the main causes of death. In the current study, we studied the expression and the potential functions of tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in
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The malignant glioma remains one of the most aggressive human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis. Glioma cell invasion and migration are the main causes of death. In the current study, we studied the expression and the potential functions of tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in malignant gliomas. We found that Tspan8 expression level is high in both malignant glioma tissues and in several human glioma cell lines, where it formed a complex integrin α3 and rictor, the latter is a key component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2). Disruption of this complex, through siRNA-mediated knockdown of anyone of these three proteins, inhibited U251MG glioma cell migration in vitro. We further showed that Tspan8-rictor association appeared required for mTORC2 activation. Knockdown of Tspan8 by the targeted siRNAs prevented mTOR-rictor (mTORC2) assembly as well as phosphorylation of AKT (Ser-473) and protein kinase C α (PKCα) in U251MG cells. Together, these results demonstrate that over-expressed Tspan8 in malignant glioma forms a complex with rictor and integrin α3 to mediate mTORC2 activation and glioma cell migration. Therefore, targeting Tspan8-rictor-integrin α3 complex may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. Full article
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Open AccessReview An Epigenetic Regulator: Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain Protein 1 (MBD1)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 5125-5140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16035125
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 1 March 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA methylation is an important form of epigenetic regulation in both normal development and cancer. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 (MBD1) is highly related to DNA methylation. Its MBD domain recognizes and binds to methylated CpGs. This binding allows it to trigger methylation of
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DNA methylation is an important form of epigenetic regulation in both normal development and cancer. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1 (MBD1) is highly related to DNA methylation. Its MBD domain recognizes and binds to methylated CpGs. This binding allows it to trigger methylation of H3K9 and results in transcriptional repression. The CXXC3 domain of MBD1 makes it a unique member of the MBD family due to its affinity to unmethylated DNA. MBD1 acts as an epigenetic regulator via different mechanisms, such as the formation of the MCAF1/MBD1/SETDB1 complex or the MBD1-HDAC3 complex. As methylation status always changes along with carcinogenesis or neurogenesis, MBD1 with its interacting partners, including proteins and non-coding RNAs, participates in normal or pathological processes and functions in different regulatory systems. Because of the important role of MBD1 in epigenetic regulation, it is a good candidate as a therapeutic target for diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Roles of Ubiquitination and SUMOylation on Prostate Cancer: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4560-4580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034560
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initiation and progression of human prostate cancer are highly associated with aberrant dysregulations of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Despite that deletions and mutations of tumor suppressors and aberrant elevations of oncogenes at the genetic level are reported to cause cancers, emerging evidence
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The initiation and progression of human prostate cancer are highly associated with aberrant dysregulations of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Despite that deletions and mutations of tumor suppressors and aberrant elevations of oncogenes at the genetic level are reported to cause cancers, emerging evidence has revealed that cancer progression is largely regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic alterations. PTMs play critical roles in gene regulation, cellular functions, tissue development, diseases, malignant progression and drug resistance. Recent discoveries demonstrate that ubiquitination and SUMOylation are complicated but highly-regulated PTMs, and make essential contributions to diseases and cancers by regulation of key factors and signaling pathways. Ubiquitination and SUMOylation pathways can be differentially modulated under various stimuli or stresses in order to produce the sustained oncogenic potentials. In this review, we discuss some new insights about molecular mechanisms on ubiquitination and SUMOylation, their associations with diseases, oncogenic impact on prostate cancer (PCa) and clinical implications for PCa treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview Tumor Progression Locus 2 (Tpl2) Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Double-Sided Effects of Tpl2 on Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4471-4491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16034471
Received: 29 December 2014 / Revised: 15 February 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAP3K) that conveys various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli to effector proteins of cells provoking adequate adoptive responses. Recent studies have elucidated that Tpl2 is an indispensable signal transducer as an
[...] Read more.
Tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MAP3K) that conveys various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli to effector proteins of cells provoking adequate adoptive responses. Recent studies have elucidated that Tpl2 is an indispensable signal transducer as an MAP3K family member in diverse signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, and death. Since tumorigenesis results from dysregulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, Tpl2 participates in many decisive molecular processes of tumor development and progression. Moreover, Tpl2 is closely associated with cytokine release of inflammatory cells, which has crucial effects on not only tumor cells but also tumor microenvironments. These critical roles of Tpl2 in human cancers make it an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic target. However, Tpl2 contradictorily works as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. The double-sided effects of Tpl2 originate from the specific upstream and downstream signaling environment of each tumor, since Tpl2 interacts with various signaling components. This review summarizes recent studies concerning the possible roles of Tpl2 in human cancers and considers its possibility as a therapeutic target, against which novel anti-cancer agents could be developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Prostate Cancer Genome Reveals Simultaneous Losses of PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 in Patients with PSA Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3856-3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023856
Received: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa) creates a challenge to patients’ outcome prediction and their clinical management. An approach that scrutinizes every cancer focus is needed in order to generate a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and by correlating to patients’ clinico-pathological
[...] Read more.
The multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa) creates a challenge to patients’ outcome prediction and their clinical management. An approach that scrutinizes every cancer focus is needed in order to generate a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and by correlating to patients’ clinico-pathological information, specific prognostic biomarker can be identified. Our study utilized the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Genome-wide assay to investigate forty-three fresh frozen PCa tissue foci from twenty-three patients. With a long clinical follow-up period that ranged from 2.0–9.7 (mean 5.4) years, copy number variation (CNV) data was evaluated for association with patients’ PSA status during follow-up. From our results, the loss of unique genes on 10q23.31 and 10q23.2–10q23.31 were identified to be significantly associated to PSA recurrence (p < 0.05). The implication of PTEN and FAS loss (10q23.31) support previous reports due to their critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the PAPSS2 gene (10q23.2–10q23.31) may be functionally relevant in post-operative PSA recurrence because of its reported role in androgen biosynthesis. It is suggestive that the loss of the susceptible region on chromosome 10q, which implicates PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 may serve as genetic predictors of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expression and Significance of CD44, CD47 and c-met in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3391-3404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023391
Received: 22 November 2014 / Revised: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
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Abstract
Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the correlation in their expression and their relationship with the biological behavior of OCCC. Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to
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Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the correlation in their expression and their relationship with the biological behavior of OCCC. Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met in OCCC (86 cases) and investigated the effects of the expression and interaction of these molecules on the development of OCCC. Results: CD44, CD47 and c-met expression was significantly high in OCCC. Expression of CD44 and CD47 correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), and expression of c-met correlated with chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). The surgical stage, CD44, CD47 and c-met expression were independent risk factors for OCCC prognosis (all p < 0.05). Patients with low levels of CD44, CD47 and c-met showed better survival than those with high levels (all p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between CD44 (or CD47) and c-met, as well as between CD44 and CD47 (the Spearman correlation coefficient rs was 0.783, 0.776 and 0.835, respectively, all p < 0.01). Additionally, pairwise correlation analysis of these three markers shows that the high expression of CD44/CD47, CD44/c-met and CD47/c-met were correlated with patient surgical stage, chemotherapy resistance and prognosis (all p < 0.05), but did not correlate with lymph node metastasis (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met was upregulated in OCCC and pairwise correlation. CD44, CD47 and c-met may have synergistic effects on the development of OCCC and are prognostic factors for ovarian cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle FBXW7 Acts as an Independent Prognostic Marker and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Human Osteosarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2294-2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16022294
Received: 22 November 2014 / Revised: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS) cases
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F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS) cases were significantly lower than those in normal bone tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that FBXW7 was expressed at lower levels in OS patients with advanced clinical stage, high T classification and poor histological differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high expression of FBXW7 was correlated with a better 5-year survival of OS patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that FBXW7 was an independent prognostic marker in OS. Our in vitro studies showed that FBXW7 overexpression inhibited cell cycle transition and cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model, FBXW7 overexpression slowed down tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest. Mechanistically, FBXW7 inversely regulated oncoprotein c-Myc and cyclin E levels in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. Together these findings suggest that FBXW7 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and inhibit tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in OS. Full article
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Open AccessReview Diverse Roles of SIRT1 in Cancer Biology and Lipid Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 950-965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010950
Received: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been described in the literature as a major player in the regulation of cellular stress responses. Its expression has been shown to be altered in cancer cells, and it targets both histone and non-histone proteins for
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SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been described in the literature as a major player in the regulation of cellular stress responses. Its expression has been shown to be altered in cancer cells, and it targets both histone and non-histone proteins for deacetylation and thereby alters metabolic programs in response to diverse physiological stress. Interestingly, many of the metabolic pathways that are influenced by SIRT1 are also altered in tumor development. Not only does SIRT1 have the potential to regulate oncogenic factors, it also orchestrates many aspects of metabolism and lipid regulation and recent reports are beginning to connect these areas. SIRT1 influences pathways that provide an alternative means of deriving energy (such as fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis) when a cell encounters nutritive stress, and can therefore lead to altered lipid metabolism in various pathophysiological contexts. This review helps to show the various connections between SIRT1 and major pathways in cellular metabolism and the consequence of SIRT1 deregulation on carcinogenesis and lipid metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Connexin 43 Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis by Down-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor via Hypoxic-Induced Factor-1α
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 439-451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010439
Received: 18 November 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous work showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) reduced the expression of hypoxic-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) in astrocytes. HIF-1α is a master transcription factor for angiogenesis in tumor. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor progression. Here, we investigated the role of Cx43 in vascular endothelial growth
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Previous work showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) reduced the expression of hypoxic-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) in astrocytes. HIF-1α is a master transcription factor for angiogenesis in tumor. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor progression. Here, we investigated the role of Cx43 in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and angiogenesis in murine tumor. In the study, mouse B16F10 and 4T1 cells were overexpressed or knockdown with Cx43. The expression profiles as well as activity of the treated cells were examined. Furthermore, reduced Cx43 expression in B16F10 and 4T1 cells causes increased expression of VEGF and enhanced the proliferation of endothelial cells. On the contrary, the expression of VEGF and the proliferation of endothelial were increased in the conditioned medium of Cx43-knockdown tumor cells. We subcutaneously transplanted Cx43-overexpressing B16F10 cells into mice to evaluate the roles of Cx43 in the tumor angiogenesis. Both tumor size and the number of vessels growing in the tumor were markedly decreased compare with control group. Our findings suggest that Cx43 inhibited tumor growth by reducing angiogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Levels of KAP1 Expression Are Associated with Aggressive Clinical Features in Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 363-377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16010363
Received: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (10295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
KAP1 is an universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins in both normal and tumor cells. In this study, the biological function and clinical significance of KAP1 expression in ovarian cancer were investigated. Immunohistological staining of KAP1 was evaluated in 111 patients
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KAP1 is an universal corepressor for Kruppel-associated box zinc finger proteins in both normal and tumor cells. In this study, the biological function and clinical significance of KAP1 expression in ovarian cancer were investigated. Immunohistological staining of KAP1 was evaluated in 111 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer, 15 with ovarian borderline tumor, and 20 normal ovarian tissue. The correlations of KAP1 expression with clinicopathological features were studied. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard modeling were used to assess overall survival to analyze the effect of KAP1 expression on the prognosis of ovarian cancer. The positive rates of KAP1 were significantly higher in ovarian epithelial cancer (55.7%) and borderline tumor (20.0%) than in normal ovarian tissue (5.0%) (all p < 0.01). KAP1 expression correlated significantly with clinical stage (χ2 = 14.57, p < 0.0001), pathological grade (χ2 = 6.06, p = 0.048) and metastases (χ2 =10.38, p = 0.001). Patients with high KAP 1 levels showed poor survival (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that KAP1 high expression was an independent predictor for ovarian cancer patients (hazard ratio = 0.463; 95% confidence interval = 0.230–0.9318, p = 0.031). Functionally, depletion of KAP1 by siRNA inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, cell migration. KAP1 expression correlated with aggressive clinical features in ovarian cancer. High KAP1 expression was a prognostic factor of ovarian cancer. Full article
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Open AccessReview Battle Against Cancer: An Everlasting Saga of p53
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22109-22127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151222109
Received: 20 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is one of the most life-threatening diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of malignant cells. The tumor suppressor p53 is the master regulator of tumor cell growth and proliferation. In response to various stress signals, p53 can be activated and transcriptionally
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Cancer is one of the most life-threatening diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of malignant cells. The tumor suppressor p53 is the master regulator of tumor cell growth and proliferation. In response to various stress signals, p53 can be activated and transcriptionally induces a myriad of target genes, including both protein-encoding and non-coding genes, controlling cell cycle progression, DNA repair, senescence, apoptosis, autophagy and metabolism of tumor cells. However, around 50% of human cancers harbor mutant p53 and, in the majority of the remaining cancers, p53 is inactivated through multiple mechanisms. Herein, we review the recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of p53 signaling, particularly the newly identified ribosomal stress—p53 pathway, and the development of chemotherapeutics via activating wild-type p53 or restoring mutant p53 functions in cancer. A full understanding of p53 regulation will aid the development of effective cancer treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Twist-1 Up-Regulation in Carcinoma Correlates to Poor Survival
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 21621-21630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151221621
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to be a key factor in the promotion of metastasis of cancer cells, and is known to induce EMT. Twist-1 participation in carcinoma progression and metastasis has been reported in a variety of tumors. However, controversy exists concerning the correlation between Twist-1 and prognostic value with respect to carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the expression of Twist-1 was associated with the prognosis of carcinoma patients. This analysis included 17 studies: four studies evaluated lung cancer, three evaluated head and neck cancer, two evaluated breast cancer, two evaluated esophageal cancer, two evaluated liver cancer and one each evaluated osteosarcoma, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancer. A total of 2006 patients were enrolled in these studies, and the median trial sample size was 118 patients. Twist-1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS) at both 3 years (hazard ratio “HR” for death = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.86 to 2.45, p < 0.001) and 5 years (HR for death = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.76 to 2.29, p < 0.001). Expression of Twist-1 is associated with worse survival in carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Growth Suppression of Colorectal Cancer by Plant-Derived Multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via Inhibition of ERK1/2 Phosphorylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21105-21119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151121105
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs
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We have generated the transgenic Tabaco plants expressing multiple monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO7-1A × BR55 by cross-pollinating with mAb CO17-1A and mAb BR55. We have demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55. We find that co-treatment of colorectal mAbs (anti-epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM), plant-derived monoclonal antibody (mAbP) CO17-1A and mAbP CO17-1A × BR55) with RAW264.7 cells significantly inhibited the cell growth in SW620 cancer cells. In particular, multi mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently suppressed the growth of SW620 cancer cells compared to another mAbs. Apoptotic death-positive cells were significantly increased in the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55-treated. The mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 treatment significantly decreased the expression of B-Cell lymphoma-2 (BCl-2), but the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3 were markedly increased. In vivo, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly and efficiently inhibited the growth of colon tumors compared to another mAbs. The apoptotic cell death and inhibition of pro-apoptotic proteins expression were highest by treatment with mAbP CO17-1A × BR55. In addition, the mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors. Therefore, this study results suggest that multiple mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 has a significant effect on apoptosis-mediated anticancer by suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer compared to another mAbs. In light of these results, further clinical investigation should be conducted on mAbP CO17-1A × BR55 to determine its possible chemopreventive and/or therapeutic efficacy against human colon cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-130b Promotes Cell Aggressiveness by Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 20486-20499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151120486
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 1 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (4460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MircroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is proposed as a novel tumor-related miRNA and has been found to be significantly dysregulated in tumors. In this study, the expression level of miR-130b was found to be obviously higher in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in nontumor tissues.
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MircroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is proposed as a novel tumor-related miRNA and has been found to be significantly dysregulated in tumors. In this study, the expression level of miR-130b was found to be obviously higher in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in nontumor tissues. Further, miR-130b was expressed at significantly higher levels in aggressive and recurrent tumor tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that high-expression of miR-130b was prominently correlated with venous infiltration, high Edmondson-Steiner grading and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) tumor stage in HCC. Elevated miR-130b expression was observed in all HCC cell lines (HepG2, SMMC-7721, Huh7, Hep3B and MHCC97H) as compared with that in a nontransformed hepatic cell line (LO2). Furthermore, an inverse correlation between miR-130b and E-cadherin and a positive correlation between miR-130b and Vimentin were observed in HCC tissues. Down-regulation of miR-130b expression reduced invasion and migration in both Hep3B and MHCC97H cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) was inversely correlated with miR-130b expression in HCC tissues. In addition, down-regulation of miR-130b restored PPAR-γ expression and subsequently suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. We identified PPARγ as a direct target of miR-130b in HCC in vitro. Notably, PPAR-γ knockdown abolished down-regulation of miR-130b-inhibited EMT in MHCC97H cells. In conclusion, miR-130b may promote HCC cell migration and invasion by inhibiting PPAR-γ and subsequently inducing EMT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Bmi1 as a Therapeutic Target of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 20004-20021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151120004
Received: 23 August 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 3 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. Our previous studies have revealed that Bmi1 acts as an oncogene in hepatic carcinogenesis
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Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb group family of proteins, and it drives the carcinogenesis of various cancers and governs the self-renewal of multiple types of stem cells. Our previous studies have revealed that Bmi1 acts as an oncogene in hepatic carcinogenesis in an INK4a/ARF locus independent manner. However, whether Bmi1 can be used as a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment has not been fully confirmed yet. Here, we show that perturbation of Bmi1 expression by using short hairpin RNA can inhibit the tumorigenicity and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, Bmi1 knockdown can block the tumor growth, both in the initiating stages and the fast growing stages. Cellular biology analysis revealed that Bmi1 knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings verify Bmi1 as a qualified treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and support Bmi1 targeting treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Full article
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