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Special Issue "Vaccine Safety and Public Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Daniel A. Salmon

Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Ste. 5515, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 443 803 7754
Interests: optimizing the prevention of childhood infectious diseases through the use of vaccines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vaccines have been one of the most successful medical and public health interventions, preventing disease and saving health care costs. The safety standards for vaccines are very high given the near universal use of many vaccines, vaccines are used among children, pregnant women, and other vulnerable populations, and vaccines are given to prevent illness rather than to treat disease. Clinical trials conducted before licensure ensures that common and serious adverse reactions do not occur due to vaccination in the populations studied for products that are licensed and widely used. However, clinical trials cannot detect adverse reactions that are rare because of limits to sample size. It is difficult to study adverse health outcomes with delayed onset in clinical trials as follow-up of participants is limited. Additionally, vaccines are often used in populations excluded from clinical trials. Consequently, post-licensure vaccine safety surveillance and observational studies are often employed for these purposes. Often the full safety profile of a vaccine is not fully characterized until hundreds of thousands to millions of people are vaccinated and appropriate studies are conducted. When a vaccine is found to be associated with an adverse health outcome, it is often important to understand the biological mechanism(s) causing the adverse reaction. The science of vaccine safety is particularly important given the success of many vaccines in preventing disease and a change in public focus from the risks of disease to the risks from vaccines, coupled with misinformation abundantly available on the internet and at times perpetuated in the media. This supplement will focus on vaccine safety studies, including laboratory studies, animal studies, clinical trials, post-licensure studies, and investigations into biological mechanisms causing vaccine adverse reactions.

Dr. Daniel Salmon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • adverse events following immunization
  • vaccine adverse reactions
  • vaccine safety
  • immunization safety

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle Time-Dependent Propensity Score for Assessing the Effect of Vaccine Exposure on Pregnancy Outcomes through Pregnancy Exposure Cohort Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3074-3085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303074
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Women are advised to be vaccinated for influenza during pregnancy and may receive vaccine at any time during their pregnancy. In observational studies evaluating vaccine safety in pregnancy, to account for such time-varying vaccine exposure, a time-dependent predictor can be used in a
[...] Read more.
Women are advised to be vaccinated for influenza during pregnancy and may receive vaccine at any time during their pregnancy. In observational studies evaluating vaccine safety in pregnancy, to account for such time-varying vaccine exposure, a time-dependent predictor can be used in a proportional hazards model setting for outcomes such as spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery. Also, due to the observational nature of pregnancy exposure cohort studies and relatively low event rates, propensity score (PS) methods are often used to adjust for potential confounders. Using Monte Carlo simulation experiments, we compare two different ways to model the PS for vaccine exposure: (1) logistic regression treating the exposure status as binary yes or no; (2) Cox regression treating time to exposure as time-to-event. Coverage probability of the nominal 95% confidence interval for the exposure effect is used as the main measure of performance. The performance of the logistic regression PS depends largely on how the exposure data is generated. In contrast, the Cox regression PS consistently performs well across the different data generating mechanisms that we have considered. In addition, the Cox regression PS allows adjusting for potential time-varying confounders such as season of the year or exposure to additional vaccines. The application of the Cox regression PS is illustrated using data from a recent study of the safety of pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Safety and Public Health)

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