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Special Issue "Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion"

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Masao Kanamori

College of Sport and Health Science/Department of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto/Kusatu Prefecture 525-8577, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: physical activity; leisure-sport; heath; health effect

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

People try to escape the crowds of cities, seeking to improve their moods by going out to the countryside and highlands/mountains. We are seeking research papers on health effects, such as physiological changes due to leisure–sports/physical activity. We are seeking, not only research on the effects of diseases but also recent research findings, such as the elimination of anxiety, mood changes, and improving quality of life.

Prof. Masao Kanamori
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • leisure-sport
  • heath
  • health effect

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Heart Rate Variability in Physically Inactive Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071508
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80
[...] Read more.
Physically inactive adults are prevalent worldwide. This study compared the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on heart rate variability (HRV) in physically inactive adults as a preliminary study. Thirteen physically inactive male adults (27.5 ± 3.80 years) were randomly assigned to HIIT (N = 7) or MICT (N = 6). The HIIT program consisted of 20 min of interval training with cycling to rest ratio of 10/50 s at ≥90% HRpeak, while the MICT program consisted of 40 min of continuous cycling at 60–75% HRpeak. Both groups completed eight sessions of training within two weeks. Time and frequency domains of HRV were measured for 20 min with Actiwave-Cardio monitor (CamNtech, UK). The number of R-R interval and inter-beat interval (IBI) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both HIIT and MICT programs following eight sessions of training. A significant interaction effect for group by time was found in the lnLF/HF ratio (p < 0.05) where it was only improved in the HIIT group from pre- to post-test. The HIIT program is superior to MICT in improving HRV in physically inactive adults. The HIIT program can be applied as a time-efficient program for improving cardiac-autoregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Exercising in Air Pollution: The Cleanest versus Dirtiest Cities Challenge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071502
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated
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Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated exercise sessions at cleanest and dirtiest cities reported by World Health Organization (WHO) considering air quality. Methods: Minute ventilation data were extracted from laboratory-based exercise of 116 incremental running tests and used to calculate total ventilation of a hypothetical 30-min moderate continuous exercise routine. Afterwards, total ventilation values were combined with particulate matter (PM) data reported by the WHO for the 10 cleanest and 10 dirtiest cities, to calculate inhaled doses and the relative risk of all-cause mortality by exercising in different air pollution concentrations. Findings: The dirtiest cities are located at less developed countries compared to cleanest cities. The inhaled dose of PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly higher in the dirtiest cities compared to the cleanest cities at rest and exercise, and significantly higher during exercise compared to the rest at dirtiest cities. The relative risk of all-cause mortality analysis showed that, while exercise in the cleanest cities improved health benefits throughout up to 90 min, there were no further health benefits after 15 min of exercise in the dirtiest cities, and the air pollution health risks surpassed the exercise benefits after 75 min. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that a traditional 30-min of moderate aerobic exercise session might induce inhalation of high levels of pollutants when performed at dirtiest cities. Considering several adverse health effects from air pollutants inhalation, so the results suggest that the air pollution levels of the cities should be taken into account for physical exercise recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an Intervention Program Based on Active Video Games and Motor Games on Health Indicators in University Students: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071329
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention
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(1) Background: High levels of physical inactivity caused by sedentary digital screen leisure constitute one of the main causes of the high levels of obesity observed in today’s society; (2) Methods: The present study aims to analyse the effect of a 12-week intervention program based on the application of active video games and motor games on health status indicators, problematic use of video games, and resilience capacity in university students. Besides, the content blocks of the Physical Education (PE) field are worked on through these devices, revealing their potential as an Information and Communications Technology (ICT) resource. A longitudinal study with a pre-experimental design with pretest–posttest measurements in a single group (n = 47) was performed, using as main instruments a Tanita TBF300® bioimpedance scale, the 20mSRT test for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Test (KIDMED), the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video games (QERV) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC); (3) Results: The main results were a discrete improvement in the percentage of fat mass and VO2max, representing a small effect size in both cases. The quality of the diet followed and the confidence and tolerance for adversity as a resilience factor were also improved, representing a medium size effect for this last variable; (4) Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this study as it does not have a control group, the main conclusions are that active video games and motor games can be a motivational resource to follow an active lifestyle, helping to improve health status indicators in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Sport Activity for Health!! The Effects of Karate Participants’ Involvement, Perceived Value, and Leisure Benefits on Recommendation Intention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050953
Received: 7 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that
[...] Read more.
This study intends to discuss the effects of participants’ involvement, perceived value, and leisure benefits on recommendation intention in the sport of karate. The questionnaires were collected online by karate clubs on Facebook and included 369 valid participants. The research findings show that karate participants from different places of residence do not display significant differences in involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Furthermore, “attraction” in the involvement category reveals the highest mean, “paid spirit and energy being worthy” in perceived value appears as the highest mean, and “physiological benefits” in leisure benefits shows the highest mean. The Pearson correlation analysis result presents significant strong positive correlations between involvement, perceived value, leisure benefits, and recommendation intention. Finally, multiple regression analysis reveals that leisure benefits, except “physiological benefits”, show notably positive effects on recommendation intention. According to the research results, suggestions are proposed for the reference of karate teaching business managers, participants, and future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050894
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI). A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069). (3) Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4) Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Eye on the Ball: Table Tennis as a Pro-Health Form of Leisure-Time Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040738
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive
[...] Read more.
Background: The article is devoted to an analysis of leisure-time (amateur) table tennis in Poland, its practitioners and the regularities of their activity. Methods: The study examined 12,406 persons in 4689 households (representative for the population). We used binary logistic regression and descriptive statistics in order to identify the patterns and determinants of table-tennis practice in Poland. Results: Table tennis is practised by 2.8% of population, and by 6.6% of physically active Poles. Among adults it is predominantly an occasional recreational game, not performed as a sport per se. Among children, it is often the part of physical education (PE) classes. Statistically significant predictors of contact with table tennis are: gender, age, income, place of residence, children in the household and being a student. Conclusions: Due to the undeniable benefits of table tennis (health, pleasure, personal and social development), the sport is recommended for use as a tool in increasing the (overall low) physical activity of Poles. Its popularization requires promotion in the media (as a health-oriented activity) and using various channels, including public places, the workplace (as part of corporate social responsibility) and physical education classes at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)

Review

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Open AccessReview Effects of Mind–Body Movements on Balance Function in Stroke Survivors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061292
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an
[...] Read more.
Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if mind–body movements (MBM) could be effective in rehabilitating balance function among stroke survivors. Methods: A literature search was conducted using major Chinese and English electronic databases from an inception until January 2018. Randomized controlled studies were included in our meta-analysis. Data was independently extracted by two review authors using a pre-developed table and confirmed by a third party to reach a consensus. Pooled effect size (Hedge’s g) was computed while the random-effect model was set. Results: The meta-analytic results showed a significant benefit of the MBM intervention on increased balance function compared to the control groups (Hedge’s g = 1.59, CI 0.98 to 2.19, p < 0.001, I2 = 94.95%). Additionally, the meta-regression indicated that the total number of sessions (β = 0.00142, 95% CI 0.0039 to 0.0244, p = 0.0067) and dose of weekly training (β = 0.00776, 95% CI 0.00579 to 0.00972, p = 0.00) had significantly positive effects on balance function. Conclusions: The study encouraging findings indicate the rehabilitative effect of a MBM intervention for balance function in stroke survivors. However, there were significant limitations in the design among several of the included trials. Additional studies with more robust methodologies are needed to provide a more definitive conclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040800
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports
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Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports and cognitive functions. The keywords “children, cognition, cognitive function, physical activity, and brain” were searched for using PsycInfo, Medline, and Google Scholar, with publication dates ranging from January 2000 to November 2017. Of the 617 results, 58 articles strictly connected to the main topics of physical activity and cognitive functioning were then reviewed. The areas of attention, thinking, language, learning, and memory were analyzed relative to sports and childhood. Results suggest that engaging in sports in late childhood positively influences cognitive and emotional functions. There is a paucity of publications that investigate the impact of sports on pre-adolescents’ cognitive functions, or explore which cognitive functions are developed by which sporting disciplines. Such knowledge would be useful in developing training programs for pre-adolescents, aimed at improving cognitive functions that may guide both researchers and practitioners relative to the wide range of benefits that result from physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Baduanjin Exercise for Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040600
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials
[...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of this review was to objectively evaluate the effects of Baduanjin exercise on rehabilitative outcomes in stroke patients. Methods: Both Chinese and English electronic databases were searched for potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently screened eligible trials against the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality by using the revised PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was only performed for balance function. Results: In total, there were eight randomized controlled trials selected in this systematic review. The aggregated result of four trials has shown a significant benefit in favor of Baduanjin on balance function (Hedges’ g = 2.39, 95% CI 2.14 to 2.65, p < 0.001, I2 = 61.54). Additionally, Baduanjin exercise effectively improved sensorimotor function of lower extremities and ability of daily activities as well as reduced depressive level, leading to improved quality of life. Conclusion: Baduanjin exercise as an adjunctive and safe method may be conducive to help stroke patients achieve the best possible short-term outcome and should be integrated with mainstream rehabilitation programs. More rigorous randomized controlled trials with long-term intervention periods among a large sample size of stroke patients are needed to draw a firm conclusion regarding the rehabilitative effects for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based (Baduanjin) Exercise for Alleviating Musculoskeletal Pain and Improving Sleep Quality in People with Chronic Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020206
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI
[...] Read more.
Objective: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. Methods: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI and Wangfang) electronic databases were used to search relevant articles. We used a modified PEDro scale to evaluate risk of bias across studies selected. All eligible RCTS were considered for meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference was calculated for the pooled effects to determine the magnitude of the Baduanjin intervention effect. For the moderator analysis, we performed subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables. Results: The aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin at alleviating musculoskeletal pain (SMD = −0.88, 95% CI −1.02 to −0.74, p < 0.001, I2 = 10.29%) and improving overall sleep quality (SMD = −0.48, 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01, p = 004, I2 = 84.42%). Conclusions: Mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise may be effective for alleviating musculoskeletal pain and improving overall sleep quality in people with chronic illness. Large, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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