Special Issue "Sunbathing Habits and Skin Cancer"
A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)
Dr. Magnus Falk
Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, S-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Phone: +46 10 1035337
Interests: skin cancer prevention, and affecting health behaviours, in primary care; photodermatology
Prof. Dr. Christopher David Anderson
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Phone: +46 101031750
The evidence that sunbathing is associated to skin cancer is overwhelming. Cultural differences in the desire of a population to seek out the sun, differs, being more pronounced amongst paler populations in moderate to colder climates. Within a population sun seeking habit varies with age, gender, geographical location and the individual’s perceived risk status influencing behaviour and attitudes. As well as risk groups for skin cancer development such as sun sensitive skin type and familial or individual history of melanoma it is generally accepted that exaggerated sun exposure, most often in the form of recreational exposure such as sun bathing, should be avoided during childhood. Information about risk and methods for reducing sun exposure are keys to changing sun exposure habits and attitudes. Information campaigns need to be factual and effective. Evaluations of the outcome of preventive campaigns, whether they be directed to specific groups or to the general public, need to be performed. When total avoidance of sunlight is not possible (or desired), sunscreens and protective clothing are alternatives in the last line of defence in an activity (sunbathing) which is often enjoyed but is potentially dangerous in the long term. Moving behavioural patterns toward more controlled exposure to light including the small amounts of UV necessary to maintain adequate levels of vitamin-D, is an important public health issue.
Prof. Dr. Christopher David Anderson
Dr. Magnus Falk
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- Sun protection behaviour
- Sun exposure habits
- Skin cancer prevention
- Behaviour change
- Risk communication
- Ultraviolet radiation
Article: The Skin Ivory Spot. A Possible Indicator for Skinfield Photo-Carcinogenesis in Recreational Sunbed Addicts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(2), 362-369; doi:10.3390/ijerph9020362
Received: 10 January 2012; in revised form: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 25 January 2012| Download PDF Full-text (764 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Relationships of Sun-Protection Habit Strength with Sunscreen Use During Outdoor Sport and Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 916-923; doi:10.3390/ijerph9030916
Received: 25 January 2012; in revised form: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012| Download PDF Full-text (232 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(5), 1836-1845; doi:10.3390/ijerph9051836
Received: 16 March 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 2 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012| Download PDF Full-text (140 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2121-2133; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062121
Received: 18 April 2012; in revised form: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 5 June 2012| Download PDF Full-text (109 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(6), 2241-2251; doi:10.3390/ijerph9062241
Received: 28 April 2012; in revised form: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012| Download PDF Full-text (121 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: A Cluster Randomized Trial to Evaluate a Health Education Programme “Living with Sun at School”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2345-2361; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072345
Received: 4 May 2012; in revised form: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012| Download PDF Full-text (154 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(7), 2386-2395; doi:10.3390/ijerph9072386
Received: 30 April 2012; in revised form: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 28 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012| Download PDF Full-text (56 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Authors: Mary L. Greaney 1,*, Elaine Puleo 2, Alan C. Geller 3, Stephanie W. Hu 4, Andrew E. Werchniak 5, Susan DeCristofaro 6 and Karen M. Emmons 7
Affiliations: 1 Center for Community-Based Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, 425 Arnold House, Amherst, MA, 01003-9304 USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
3 Department of Society, Human Development & Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USA; E-Mail: AGELLER@hsph.harvard.edu
4 New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
5 Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 221 Longwood AvenueBoston, MA 02115, USA; E-Mail: AWERCHNIAK@PARTNERS.ORG
6 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 , USA; E-Mail: Susan_DeCristofaro@dfci.harvard.edu
7 Department of Society, Human Development & Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue · Boston, MA 02115, & Center for Community-Based Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; E-Mail: Karen_M_Emmons@dfci.harvard.edu
Abstract: Many skin cancer screenings occur in non-traditional community settings, with the beach being an important setting due to beachgoers being at high risk for skin cancer. This study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of a skin cancer intervention in which participants (n=312) had a full-body skin examination by a clinician and received a presumptive diagnosis (abnormal finding, no abnormal finding). Participants’ pursuit of follow-up was assessed post-intervention (n=283). Analyses examined: 1) participant’s recall of screening results; and 2) whether cognitive and behavioral variables were associated with follow-up being as advised. Just 12% of participants (36/312) did not correctly recall the results of their skin examination. One-third (33%, 93/283) of participants’ follow-up was classified as being not as advised (recommend follow-up not pursued, unadvised follow-up pursued). Among participants whose follow-up was not as advised, 71% (66/93) did not seek recommended care. None of the measured behavioral and cognitive variables were significantly associated with recall of screening examination results or whether follow-up was as advised. Research is needed to determine what factors are associated with follow-up being as advised and to develop messages that increase receipt of advised follow-up care.
Keywords: cancer screening; skin cancer prevention; skin examinations; sun protection
Title: Evaluation of the action “Living With Sun at school”: a health education program for solar prevention
Authors: H. Sancho-Garnier 1, B. Pereira 2 and P. Cesarini 3
Affiliation: 1 CRLC Val d’Aurelle, Prevention and Epidemiology Dept Epidaure, Montpellier, France
2 CHU Clermont-Ferrand,France
3 Sécurité solaire, Paris, France
Abstract: Background: Overexposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers have the opportunity to play an active role in providing prevention advice. “Living with the Sun,” (LWS) is a new sun safety education program for elementary schoolchildren created in 2006 by an astrophysicist, a communications specialist, and a primary school teacher. It called for teachers to lead 10 workshops for 9- to 12-year-olds pupils during the last three months of the school year. The created tool is a teaching guide filled with classroom activities designed to improve children’s scientific knowledge and positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviour. Objectives: Research in epidemiology aims to improve the effectiveness of treatments but also of preventive interventions on risky behaviours such as excessive exposure to the sun. The goal was to determine the effectiveness of this preventive programme in increasing schoolchildren’s knowledge about sun exposure, positively modifying their sun-protective behaviour. Methods: We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes, rather than individuals, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one using the LWS program and one not (the latter serving as control group).. Cluster randomised trials are valuable in the evaluation of interventions including school classes, families, and villages. Existing relationships between individuals in the group (who have some similarities and influence each other), have to be examined and eventually controlled. Data regarding the children’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour were collected both before and then three times after completion of the program (immediately, after the summer holidays, and one year later). The 70 participating classes, consisting of 1,365 schoolchildren with a mean age of 9.9 years, were distributed all over France. The statistical analysis is conducted with mixed effects linear regression extensions accounting for dependencies among cluster members. Results: Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge on sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes ( p<0.001); Children’s age, skin colour, and predisposition to sunburn (skin type) also affected their scores. After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased a little. Children in the LWS classes were more likely than the control group to state that it was necessary to be protected against the sun, especially in the mountains (OR=3.01, 95%CI[2.01:4.87]), and that the use of sunscreen was a good way to avoid skin damages (OR=1.54, 95%CI[1.05:2.27]). We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays: the LWS group applied sunscreen one and a half times more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59%) and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75 % versus 64 %). Conclusion: The approach used in the LWS program appears to produce a significant increase in knowledge and a positive modification of children’s sun-related attitudes and behaviour for at least 6-12 months.
Last update: 3 January 2013