Special Issue "Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures"

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A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ken McCaffrey

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: geoinformatics methods and applications; high resolution 3D/4D modeling of continental margins; magmatic and mineralized systems; reservoir models of fractured reservoir analogues, including shale basins; structural characterization of fault and shear zones; tectonic and magmatic interactions; tectonic and mechanical processes on active normal faults and earthquake activity; the geometrical and kinematic evolution of deformation zones; visualization and analysis of geological architecture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A range of new Earth surface observation platforms, geoinformatic methods, and applications are providing us with unparalleled insights into the complexities of continental tectonics across a range of scales. This special issue will focus on the acquisition of new high spatial and temporal resolution models of mountain belts, continental margins, magmatic and mineralized systems, basins and reservoirs, active and fossilized deformation zones, and seismicity. Research highlighting these new methods and results and how they can be used to condition numerical and analogue simulations of the underlying dynamical processes is particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ken McCaffrey
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • continental lithosphere
  • geoinformatics
  • earth observation
  • remote sensing
  • digital mapping
  • deformation zones
  • magmatic systems
  • mineralized systems
  • active faults
  • earthquakes and seismicity
  • numerical and analogue models

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Soil Moisture Estimation in South-Eastern New Mexico Using High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data
Geosciences 2016, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/geosciences6010001
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 15 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (19870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil moisture monitoring and characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of this hydrologic parameter at scales from small catchments to large river basins continues to receive much attention, reflecting its critical role in subsurface-land surface-atmospheric interactions and its importance to drought analysis,
[...] Read more.
Soil moisture monitoring and characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of this hydrologic parameter at scales from small catchments to large river basins continues to receive much attention, reflecting its critical role in subsurface-land surface-atmospheric interactions and its importance to drought analysis, irrigation planning, crop yield forecasting, flood protection, and forest fire prevention. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired at different spatial resolutions have been successfully used to estimate soil moisture in different semi-arid areas of the world for many years. This research investigated the potential of linear multiple regressions and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based models that incorporate different geophysical variables with Radarsat 1 SAR fine imagery and concurrently measured soil moisture measurements to estimate surface soil moisture in Nash Draw, NM. An artificial neural network based model with vegetation density, soil type, and elevation data as input in addition to radar backscatter values was found suitable to estimate surface soil moisture in this area with reasonable accuracy. This model was applied to a time series of SAR data acquired in 2006 to produce soil moisture data covering a normal wet season in the study site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
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Open AccessArticle Flash Floods in the Guelmim Area/Southwest Morocco–Use of Remote Sensing and GIS-Tools for the Detection of Flooding-Prone Areas
Geosciences 2015, 5(2), 203-221; doi:10.3390/geosciences5020203
Received: 11 January 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
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Abstract
The violent storms of 22–30 November 2014, resulted in flash floods and wadi floods (rivers) in large parts of Southern Morocco, at the foot of the Atlas Mountains. The Guelmim area was the most affected part with at least 32 fatalities and damages
[...] Read more.
The violent storms of 22–30 November 2014, resulted in flash floods and wadi floods (rivers) in large parts of Southern Morocco, at the foot of the Atlas Mountains. The Guelmim area was the most affected part with at least 32 fatalities and damages due to inundations. The flooding hazard in the Guelmim region initiated this study in order to investigate the use of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) for the detection and identification of areas most likely to be flooded in the future again due to their morphologic properties during similar weather conditions. By combining morphometric analysis and visual interpretation based on Landsat 8 satellite data and derived images such as water index (NDWI) images, areas with relatively higher soil moisture and recently deposited sediments were identified. The resulting maps of weighted overlay procedures, aggregating causal, morphometric factors influencing the susceptibility to flooding (lowest height levels, flattest areas), allowed for the distinguishing of areas with higher, medium and lower susceptibility to flooding. Thus, GIS and remote sensing tools contribut to the recognition and mapping of areas and infrastructure prone to flooding in the Guelmim area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
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Open AccessArticle Architecture of Glaciotectonic Complexes
Geosciences 2014, 4(4), 269-296; doi:10.3390/geosciences4040269
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (14072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glaciotectonic studies are an integrated part of the Quaternary geological research carried out by the Danish geological survey. Almost all the hilly areas in Denmark were created or affected by glaciotectonic deformations, and the features are included in the mapping of surface near
[...] Read more.
Glaciotectonic studies are an integrated part of the Quaternary geological research carried out by the Danish geological survey. Almost all the hilly areas in Denmark were created or affected by glaciotectonic deformations, and the features are included in the mapping of surface near deposits. For the mapping and support of constructing 3D geological models a classification of architecture of glaciotectonic complexes is suggested. The important elements for classification of architecture are the surfaces. Four orders of surfaces are defined for glaciotectonic complexes: first-order surfaces are décollement surfaces and glaciotectonic unconformities; second-order surfaces are ramps and flats—the thrust faults; third-order surfaces are folded beds—anticlines and synclines; and fourth-order surfaces are small scale folds and faults—kink bands, conjugate faults, box folds, etc. The most important first-order surface is the décollement surface. This surface limits the glaciotectonic complex at its base and controls the extent of glaciotectonic disturbances. Below this surface, ordinary flat lying planar bedding occurs, whereas above the surface a number of structures are present characteristic of second- to fourth-order elements in the glaciotectonic architecture. The other first-order surface is the topographic top of the glaciotectonic complex, which eventually may be replaced by a truncating unconformity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
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Open AccessArticle GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping on the Peloponnese Peninsula, Greece
Geosciences 2014, 4(3), 176-190; doi:10.3390/geosciences4030176
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
: In this paper, bivariate statistical analysis modeling was applied and validated to derive a landslide susceptibility map of Peloponnese (Greece) at a regional scale. For this purpose, landslide-conditioning factors such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, mean annual precipitation (MAP) and
[...] Read more.
: In this paper, bivariate statistical analysis modeling was applied and validated to derive a landslide susceptibility map of Peloponnese (Greece) at a regional scale. For this purpose, landslide-conditioning factors such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, mean annual precipitation (MAP) and peak ground acceleration (PGA), and a landslide inventory were analyzed within a GIS environment. A landslide dataset was realized using two main landslide inventories. The landslide statistical index method (LSI) produced a susceptibility map of the study area and the probability level of landslide occurrence was classified in five categories according to the best classification method from three different methods tested. Model performance was checked by an independent validation set of landslide events. The accuracy of the final result was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The prediction ability was found to be 75.2% indicating an acceptable susceptibility map obtained from the GIS-based bivariate statistical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
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Open AccessArticle Far-Field Deformation Resulting from Rheologic Differences Interacting with Tectonic Stresses: An Example from the Pacific/Australian Plate Boundary in Southern New Zealand
Geosciences 2014, 4(3), 93-113; doi:10.3390/geosciences4030093
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 10 July 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Miocene in Southern New Zealand was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. Stratigraphic evidence from this time attests to two zones of subsidence in the south: (a) a middle Cenozoic pull-apart basin and (b) a regionally extensive subsiding lake complex, which developed east and
[...] Read more.
The Miocene in Southern New Zealand was dominated by strike-slip tectonics. Stratigraphic evidence from this time attests to two zones of subsidence in the south: (a) a middle Cenozoic pull-apart basin and (b) a regionally extensive subsiding lake complex, which developed east and distal to the developing plate boundary structure. The lake overlay a block of crust with a significantly weak mid-crustal section and we pose the question: can rheological transitions at an angle to a plate boundary produce distal subsidence and/or uplift? We use stratigraphic, structural and geophysical observations from Southern New Zealand to constrain three-dimensional numerical models for a variety of boundary conditions and rheological scenarios. We show that coincident subsidence and uplift can result from purely strike-slip boundary conditions interacting with a transition from strong to weak to strong mid-crustal rheology. The resulting pattern of vertical displacement is a function of the symmetry or asymmetry of the boundary conditions and the extent and orientation of the rheological transitions. For the Southern New Zealand case study, subsidence rates of ~0.1 mm/yr are predicted for a relative plate motion of 25 mm/yr, leading to ~500 m of subsidence over a 5 Ma time period, comparable to the thickness of preserved lacustrine sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to the Investigation of Karst Landscapes in NW-Morocco
Geosciences 2014, 4(2), 50-72; doi:10.3390/geosciences4020050
Received: 2 May 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7952 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) methods were used for karst research in the coastal area of Northwest Morocco near the city of Safi in order to identify karst landscapes, to describe karst features and to detect geological structures relevant to karst
[...] Read more.
Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) methods were used for karst research in the coastal area of Northwest Morocco near the city of Safi in order to identify karst landscapes, to describe karst features and to detect geological structures relevant to karst development. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different satellite data, such as Landsat, RapidEye and IKONOS imagery, as well as ASTER- and SRTM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) for the analysis of karst features. Dolines were identified by visual interpretations based on high resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs. Digital image processing of the satellite data, such as deriving vegetation and water index images, helped to identify regions with relatively higher surface water input, where karstification processes might be more intense than in surrounding areas. ArcGIS-integrated weighted overlay tools were used for this purpose as well by aggregating of morphometric, causal factors (lowest and flattest areas) influencing the susceptibility to higher surface water input. Lineament analysis based on the different satellite data contributed to the detection of near-surface fault and fracture zones with potential influence on dissolution processes in sub-terrain waterways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Continental Collision Structures and Post-Orogenic Geological History of the Kangerlussuaq Area in the Southern Part of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland
Geosciences 2014, 4(4), 316-334; doi:10.3390/geosciences4040316
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 23 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (19841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the
[...] Read more.
Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1) the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2) detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3) a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2) have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga) into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle appearance and are regarded to be considerably younger and probably related to post-orogenic tectonic events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Continental Collision Structures and Post Orogenic Geological History near Kangerlussuaq on the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland
Authors: Jon Engström and Knud Erik S. Klint
Abstract: This paper focuses on (1) the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical; topographic and aerial photo interpretation, (2) detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3) a tectonic structural model showing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession for the study area that recognizes seven tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2) are identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm 2050 Ma. Subsequently 5 pronounced lineaments extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting, covering both the collisional and post collisional tectonic history of the area. Two types of lineaments are especially studied; one semi-ductile type trending E-W with a dextral sense of shear and an impressive lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq-Russell thrust zone. These two pronounced features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the later lineaments have a more intermediate to younger age and are thus related to tectonic events taking place after the orogeny.

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