Special Issue "Selected Papers from 1st International Congress on Earth Sciences in SE Asia"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Basilios Tsikouras

Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
Website | E-Mail
Interests: petrogenesis of ophiolites; genesis of chromitites and associated platinum-group minerals; synthesis of abiotic methane in serpentinites; mechanical behaviour of ophiolitic rocks; hazard risk assessment of asbestos fibers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st International Congress on Earth Sciences (ICES 2017), in SE Asia http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/foscon/ envisions taking a further step in geosciences congresses, by creating uniquely emerged, topic-related sessions. It will take place at the University of Brunei Darussalam, from 15–18 November, 2017. Our main objective is to bring together geoscientists from all over the world to share and exchange ideas and to present recent advances in topics of Earth Sciences. ICES 2017 will be the place to foster collaborations and networking among peers. We expect young researchers to meet with senior scientists in an effort to meet experience and expertise. Highly respected keynote speakers will open the sessions.

Possible themes of ICES 2017 have been classified into four core topics, and include, but are not limited to:

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Selected papers (from oral and poster presentations, including ePoster) from ICES 2017 will be published in this Special Issue, aiming at gathering a number of peer-reviewed publications on new advances in Earth Sciences. Gratefully acknowledged by the Organising Committee of ICES 2017, the publication fees for the papers are kindly being sponsored by Geosciences.

It is our pleasure and honor to welcome all interested contributors to the 1st International Congress on Earth Sciences, in SE Asia, at Brunei Darussalam, and we look forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. Basilios Tsikouras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Applied Geology (Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, Urban Geology, etc.)
  • CO2 Sequestration
  • Earth Sciences and Society (Geotopes, Teaching and Education, Health, Sustainable Development, etc.)
  • Environmental Earth Sciences
  • Geochemistry, Isotope Geology
  • Geomorphology
  • Geophysics (pure and applied)
  • Global Climate Change
  • Karst and Speleology
  • Marine Geology and Oceanography
  • Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Environment
  • Mineral Sciences, Petrology and Volcanology
  • Ore Deposits
  • Ore Minerals
  • Petroleum Geology
  • Remote Sensing and Information Technologies in Earth Sciences
  • Sedimentology,
  • Seismology, Geophysics and Physics of the Earth’s Interior
  • Stratigraphy and Paleontology
  • Structural Geology and Tectonics

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Rock Magnetic, Petrography, and Geochemistry Studies of Lava at the Ijen Volcanic Complex (IVC), Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia
Geosciences 2018, 8(5), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8050183
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Lava has complex geochemical characteristics based on differences in eruption centers, eruptive events, and flow emplacement. Characterization of lava is useful for understanding the geological conditions of a volcanic region. To complement geochemical methods, rock magnetic methods are being used to analyze lava.
[...] Read more.
Lava has complex geochemical characteristics based on differences in eruption centers, eruptive events, and flow emplacement. Characterization of lava is useful for understanding the geological conditions of a volcanic region. To complement geochemical methods, rock magnetic methods are being used to analyze lava. To explore the potential uses of rock magnetic methods for lava characterization, a series of magnetic measurements were completed in lava samples from eight locations in the Ijen Volcanic Complex (IVC) in Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. These locations were grouped into two eruption centers: Ijen Crater and Mount Anyar. The magnetic measurements included frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, thermomagnetic, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), and hysteresis curve analyses. These measurements were supplemented using X-ray fluorescence, petrography analyses, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Based on their lithology, lava samples were categorized into basalt, basaltic andesite, and basaltic trachyandesite. The dominant magnetic mineral contained in the sample was iron-rich titanomagnetite and titanium-rich titanomagnetite with a magnetic pseudo-single-domain and small amounts of superparamagnetic grain minerals in some samples. The significant difference in mass specific susceptibility (χLF) is caused by differences in the crystallization process. The differences in susceptibility frequency dependence (χFD) highlighted the differences in the magma cooling rate, demonstrated by the differences in the percentage of opaque mineral groundmass. The rock magnetic method was proven to support the geochemistry and petrography methods used to characterize lava and identify the causes of differences in lava characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Major Strike-Slip Faults Identified Using Satellite Data in Central Borneo, SE Asia
Geosciences 2018, 8(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8050156
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
We use freely available Google satellite data, instrumental seismicity, fault plane solutions, and previously mapped structural and geological maps to identify new fault zones in central Borneo. We have mapped a number of ~NW-SE trending dextral strike-slip faults and ~NE-SW to ~N-S trending
[...] Read more.
We use freely available Google satellite data, instrumental seismicity, fault plane solutions, and previously mapped structural and geological maps to identify new fault zones in central Borneo. We have mapped a number of ~NW-SE trending dextral strike-slip faults and ~NE-SW to ~N-S trending sinistral strike-slip fault zones. The geomorphic expression of faulting is shown by the well-developed triangular facets, fault rupture scarps, truncated sedimentary beds, topographic breaks, displaced ridges, deflected streams, faulted Plio-Pleistocene volcanic deposits, and back-tilted Holocene to Recent sedimentary deposits. Some of the mapped faults are actively growing, and show text-book examples of dextral and sinistral offset, which ranges from ~450 m to tens of km. The dextral strike-slip fault systems are clearly developed in the central and eastern portions of Borneo where they cut through the folded sedimentary sequences for >220 km. The ~NE-SW to ~N-S trending sinistral strike-slip faults are dominantly developed in the eastern portion of central Borneo for >230 km. The geomorphic expression of faulting is clear and the fault scarps are ~SE facing for the sinistral fault system, and ~NE facing for the dextral fault system. The age of the faulting is constrained by the cross-cutting relationship where the fault cuts through Plio-Pleistocene volcanic deposits for >30 km, which suggests a neotectonic nature of faulting. The strike-slip fault systems that we have mapped here provide the first geomorphic evidence of large-scale strike-slip faulting in Borneo and suggest the presence of a major sinistral strike-slip fault that runs for >900 km through the center of Borneo, and forms a backbone onto which most of the mapped structures root. The mapped structures clearly suggest that plate tectonic forces dominantly control the geological structures that we have mapped and support the regional oblique convergence that is oblique with respect to the major trend of the Crocker Range, which forms the spine of the Borneo Island. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Physical Study of the Effect of Groundwater Salinity on the Compressibility of the Semarang-DemakAquitard, Java Island
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040130
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
Semarang-Demak and other cities along the coast of North Java are vulnerable to land subsidence. The presence of saline groundwater in the coastal region is thought to affect the high subsidence rate, in this case the compressibility of the aquitard layer. We aimed
[...] Read more.
Semarang-Demak and other cities along the coast of North Java are vulnerable to land subsidence. The presence of saline groundwater in the coastal region is thought to affect the high subsidence rate, in this case the compressibility of the aquitard layer. We aimed to analyze the effects of groundwater salinity on the compression characteristics of the Semarang-Demak clay using physical analysis. Methods included the determination of groundwater salinity, clay mineralogy and fabrics, and consolidation tests under various salinity conditions. The Semarang-Demak clay is dominated by smectite of high activity, and saline clay exists at the depth of 10 to 35 m. Consolidation tests revealed that the increase insalinity increases the average consolidation rate and hydraulic conductivity up to 42% and 37.5%, respectively. Clay fabric analysis showed that the groundwater salinity modified the interconnectivity of pores by changing the fabric into parallel alignments, facilitating faster porewater dissipation, hence the clay is more readily compressed. These findings are useful for explaining the mechanism of the fast-subsiding coastal plains of North Java. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Map for Karst Aquifer Protection (Ziria Karst System, Southern Greece)
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040125
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
In recent years vulnerability maps have been used as a tool to highlight the areas with the greatest potential for groundwater pollution based on the hydrogeological conditions and their respective human impacts. Several regions of Greece depend completely or partially on drinking water
[...] Read more.
In recent years vulnerability maps have been used as a tool to highlight the areas with the greatest potential for groundwater pollution based on the hydrogeological conditions and their respective human impacts. Several regions of Greece depend completely or partially on drinking water from karst aquifers; thus, the production of vulnerability maps for such karstic areas is considered essential. In the present study, an assessment of aquifer intrinsic vulnerability has been conducted applying the COP method in the Ziria karst system. The latter is located at the Northeast part of Peloponnese in South Greece and is used as a public resource for drinking water. This method, which has been developed for carbonate (karst) aquifers, uses the properties of the overlying layers above the water table (O factor), the concentration of flow (C factor) and the precipitation regime (P factor) over the aquifer. The COP method considers karstic landforms as factors that decrease the natural protection provided by the overlying layers of a karst aquifer. With the use of GIS tools, vulnerability maps were produced highlighting the different degrees of intrinsic vulnerability in the karst system of Ziria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formation MicroScanner Providing Better Answers for Carbonate Secondary Porosity in Alamein Dolomite Formation, NW Desert, Egypt
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040118
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
The use of borehole imaging tools has become widespread in recent years with more specialized studies of reservoir properties, particularly in highly-porous and fractured carbonate systems. In this study, the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) borehole imaging tool and conventional well log data have been
[...] Read more.
The use of borehole imaging tools has become widespread in recent years with more specialized studies of reservoir properties, particularly in highly-porous and fractured carbonate systems. In this study, the Formation MicroScanner (FMS) borehole imaging tool and conventional well log data have been used to study the secondary porosity of the dolomitic Alamein Formation in the Alamein Field, north Western Desert, Egypt. Based on well log analyses of the formation from Tourmaline-1X and N.Alamein-6X wells, we show that secondary porosity occurs across the formation, and is filled mostly with hydrocarbon. We also show that the formation has good average effective porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. FMS images of the Tourmaline-1X well confirms that the formation is intermittently vuggy with solution-filled channels from the top to its base. The vug pores are observed to be well-connected, which supports good effective porosity values interpreted from petrophysical data. An additional set of core photographs of the Alamein Formation from N.Alamein-5X well confirms the presence of secondary pores, which are filled by hydrocarbon, and exhibit intense fluorescence under UV light. Our results show that the abundance of secondary porosity in Alamein Formation would play a key role in evaluating its reservoir quality and reservoir performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lithogenic and Anthropogenic Components in Surface Sediments from Lake Limboto as Shown by Magnetic Mineral Characteristics, Trace Metals, and REE Geochemistry
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040116
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Lake Limboto is one of the major lakes in Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is currently undergoing serious degradation due to population pressure. As more residential areas have been established around the lake, the sedimentation rate has increased because of the contribution of anthropogenic particles.
[...] Read more.
Lake Limboto is one of the major lakes in Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is currently undergoing serious degradation due to population pressure. As more residential areas have been established around the lake, the sedimentation rate has increased because of the contribution of anthropogenic particles. In this study, the lithogenic and anthropogenic components in surface sediments from 17 points in the lake were studied and identified using a combination of magnetic and geochemical analyses. The results showed that although the magnetic susceptibility values in R (residential) and NR (non-residential) areas were relatively similar, the values of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) as well as those of SIRM/χLF differed significantly, implying that the magnetic characteristics of the lithogenic component (in the NR area) differ from those of the anthropogenic component (in the R area). The discrepancy between the anthropogenic and lithogenic contributions was further supported by trace metals and rare earth element (REE) contents. Sediment samples in the R area contained higher levels of Mn, La, Pr, and Gd, while in the NR area they contained higher levels of Fe, Sc, Nd, and Ce. The magnetic susceptibility also correlated strongly with Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn contents in the NR area. A similar correlation was not observed in the R area. The results above imply that a combination of magnetic and geochemical analyses can successfully differentiate lithogenic and anthropogenic components or contributions in lake sediments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Alteration of Aggregates on the Quality of the Concrete: A Case Study from Serpentinites and Andesites from Central Macedonia (North Greece)
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040115
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
This study aims at the interpretation of the adverse effects of the secondary products in two types of rocks during their performance as concrete aggregates. Serpentinised peridotites contain serpentine, as the dominant secondary phase, which creates low microroughness on the particles and therefore
[...] Read more.
This study aims at the interpretation of the adverse effects of the secondary products in two types of rocks during their performance as concrete aggregates. Serpentinised peridotites contain serpentine, as the dominant secondary phase, which creates low microroughness on the particles and therefore unfavorable surfaces for cement paste to adequately adhere to. Moreover, its soft and platy nature contributes to the development of platy defects along the contacts of the aggregate particles with the cement paste. Poor adherence of the paste, failures along the contacts of the aggregate particles and potential propagation of the defects into the concrete during curing (and perhaps subsequently in-service) explain the poor performance of highly serpentinised rocks as concrete aggregates. Andesites show a different composition with a variety of secondary products including albite, chlorite, calcite, Fe-oxides and clay minerals. The role of all these products was investigated and it appears that only smectite is important, as even small amounts of it may be detrimental to the quality of the rocks as concrete aggregates. It is likely that abnormal hydration reactions and considerable swelling of the smectite result in the appearance of defects in the concrete, hence contributing to its low performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Properties of Iron Sand from the Tor River Estuary, Sarmi, Papua
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040113
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Information about the strategic mineral balance, published in 2013, presumed a significant amount of iron sand deposited in Sarmi, Papua, Indonesia. However, the magnetic properties of these iron sands have never been studied. Our preliminary study on the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of
[...] Read more.
Information about the strategic mineral balance, published in 2013, presumed a significant amount of iron sand deposited in Sarmi, Papua, Indonesia. However, the magnetic properties of these iron sands have never been studied. Our preliminary study on the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of iron sand from the Sarmi Coast area has revealed that the iron sand from the Tor River estuary had the highest mass-specific magnetic susceptibility values with an χLF average of 3.083 ×10−5 m3/kg. We extracted the raw sand from the Tor River estuary using a mechanical magnetic extraction method and analyzed the magnetic properties and mineral composition. The magnetic susceptibility values increased significantly with an χLF average of 27.496 ×10−5 m3/kg. The chemical composition acquired from both the X-ray fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed that the magnetic properties of the extracted sample originated from the high percentage of iron oxide. The hysteresis curve showed high saturation magnetization about 24.7 (emu/g), remanent magnetization of about 6.1 (emu/g) and a low coercive field of about 20 (Oe). The X-ray diffraction patterns identified a magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4) mineral structure. This result showed the novelty of iron sand from Sarmi, Papua when compared with that from Java Island. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geochemistry and Structure of Krakatoa Volcano in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040111
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
The violent eruption of Krakatoa Volcano located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, in 1883 represents one of the deadliest eruptions in human civilization. Although lots of data have been reported, the trajectory of the subducted slab and the upper mantle structure beneath this
[...] Read more.
The violent eruption of Krakatoa Volcano located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, in 1883 represents one of the deadliest eruptions in human civilization. Although lots of data have been reported, the trajectory of the subducted slab and the upper mantle structure beneath this volcano are still rather poorly known. We combined geochemical data, major, trace and rare earth elements with seismic tomograms to characterize the deep structure of Krakatoa Volcano at the junction of Sumatra and Java subduction systems. Geochemical data are in agreement with the partial melting of mantle wedge in these subduction systems, based on previous studies, and this conclusion is also supported by inferences from P-wave tomographic model. Whereas, the tomographic image of S-wave suggests that subducted slab has been intruded by hot material of mantle upwelling. The presence of both partial melting of mantle wedge and mantle upwelling in the upper mantle might be caused by the thinning of subducted slab beneath Krakatoa Volcano. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interpretation of the Factors Defining Groundwater Quality of the Site Subjected to the Wildfire of 2007 in Ilia Prefecture, South-Western Greece
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040108
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The present study examines the factors that define groundwater quality of a site subjected to the wildfire of 2007 in Ilia Prefecture, Peloponnese. This wildfire was the most severe in Greece in the last decade. An extensive sampling was carried out three months
[...] Read more.
The present study examines the factors that define groundwater quality of a site subjected to the wildfire of 2007 in Ilia Prefecture, Peloponnese. This wildfire was the most severe in Greece in the last decade. An extensive sampling was carried out three months after the fire. Ninety-nine samples were analyzed in the Hydrogeology Laboratory of University of Patras for major and trace elements. The groundwater samples were classified into three hydrochemical types: Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Na-HCO3. The hydrochemical results, processed using R-type factor analysis, resulted in a three-factor model that did not indicate any wildfire impact. The values of pH and electrical conductivity ranged between the expected levels for the area. The most abundant cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and trace elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, V) in the ash, occurred in the majority of the groundwater samples at concentrations below the potable limits set by the European Council. The concentrations of NO3, NO2, NH4+, phosphates, and sulphates, where present, were attributed to agricultural land uses of the area. No hydrochemical disturbances were found that could indicate a fire-retardant effect. It is likely that the prominent thickness of the unsaturated zone, of the granular aquifers that prevail in the area, limited the infiltration of the elements and trace elements usually found in abundance in fire ash. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Reservoir Characterization Study of the McKee Formation, Onshore Taranaki Basin, New Zealand
Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040105
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The Late Eocene onshore McKee Formation is a producing reservoir rock in Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. An integrated petrophysical, sedimentological, and petrographical study was conducted to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the McKee sandstone. A petrographic study of the McKee Formation classified the
[...] Read more.
The Late Eocene onshore McKee Formation is a producing reservoir rock in Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. An integrated petrophysical, sedimentological, and petrographical study was conducted to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the McKee sandstone. A petrographic study of the McKee Formation classified the sandstone as arkose based on the Pettijohn classification. Porosity analysis showed predominantly intergranular porosity, as elucidated by the thin section photomicrographs. The good reservoir quality of McKee sandstone was suggested to be the result of the presence of secondary dissolution pores interconnected with the primary intergranular network. Mineral dissolution was found to be the main process that enhanced porosity in all the studied wells. On the other hand, the presence of clay minerals, cementation, and compaction were identified as the main porosity-reducing agents. These features, however, were observed to occur only locally, thus having no major impact on the overall reservoir quality of the McKee Formation. For a more detailed reservoir characterization, well log analysis was also applied in the evaluation of the McKee Formation. The result of the well log analysis showed that the average porosity ranged from 11.8% to 15.9%, with high hydrocarbon saturation ranging from 61.8% to 89.9% and clay volume content ranging from 14.9 to its highest value of 34.5%. Based on the well log analysis, the derived petrophysical and reservoir parameters exhibited good porosity, low clay content, and high hydrocarbon saturation, which indicates that the McKee Formation is a promising reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combined Use of Remote Sensing Data, Mineralogical Analyses, Microstructure Studies and Geographic Information System for Geological Mapping of Antiparos Island (Greece)
Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030096
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
This study presents the combined use of field mapping, remote sensing data analysis, mineralogy, spectroscopy and GIS techniques for the geological mapping of Antiparos Island. Antiparos is part of the Cyclades Blueschist Belt located in central Aegean, where gneisses, schists and Pliocene volcanic
[...] Read more.
This study presents the combined use of field mapping, remote sensing data analysis, mineralogy, spectroscopy and GIS techniques for the geological mapping of Antiparos Island. Antiparos is part of the Cyclades Blueschist Belt located in central Aegean, where gneisses, schists and Pliocene volcanic rocks occurred. During the extended field work, a number of volcanic rock samples were collected from the southern part of Antiparos. The sampling strategy was to collect samples from the primary as well as the altered rocks in specific areas in which they were previously located from the remote sensing data processing. In this study, high resolution satellite images have been carried out in order to detect, allocate and separate the different geological formations. Furthermore, the existing geological map was georeferenced and all the tectonic lines and boundaries were digitized. All these features were implemented in a Mobile Mapper CE GPS using Arcpad GIS and checked in situ. The collected samples were analyzed in the laboratory using various techniques including XRD, Petrographic Microscopy and SEM. The qualitative mineralogical analyses were conducted by using XRD. The study was supplemented by the petrographic observations providing a detailed characterization of rock textures. In addition, SEM study and SEM-EDS analyses of the samples were emphasized on the genetic relations of the minerals. The laboratory results revealed that specific corrections should be made in the previous geological map of Antiparos concerning the volcanic rocks, especially at the southern part of the island. A significant conclusion is that the rock described as volcanic in the previous map proved to be a fossiliferous limestone which includes micritic matrix of calcite with an insignificant amount of fossils. All the analogical and digital data and the results of the petrographic analysis were imported in a geodatabase specially designed for geological data. After the necessary topological control and corrections, the data were unified and processed in order to create the final layout at 1/25.000 scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Application of Seismic Attributes and Wheeler Transformations for the Geomorphological Interpretation of Stratigraphic Surfaces: A Case Study of the F3 Block, Dutch Offshore Sector, North Sea
Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030079
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
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Abstract
This study was carried out in the Pliocene interval of the southern North Sea F3 Block in the Netherlands. This research paper demonstrates how an integrated interpretation of geological information using seismic attributes, sequence stratigraphic interpretation and Wheeler transformation methods allow for the
[...] Read more.
This study was carried out in the Pliocene interval of the southern North Sea F3 Block in the Netherlands. This research paper demonstrates how an integrated interpretation of geological information using seismic attributes, sequence stratigraphic interpretation and Wheeler transformation methods allow for the accurate interpretation of the depositional environment of a basin, as well as locating seismic geomorphological features. The methodology adopted here is to generate a 3D dip-steered HorizonCube followed by chronostratigraphic analysis, 3D Wheeler transformation, and system tract interpretation. A dip-steered seismic attribute (similarity, dip, and curvature) was performed on each stratigraphic surface of interest and the isopach maps were generated for each stratigraphic surface to help identify the maximum deposition. The results of this study show that the similarity attribute is able to identify distinct stratigraphic features such as sand-waves and deep marine meandering channels. However, its lateral continuity is poorly understood, as the similarity attribute does not take into account the true geological dip and curvature of the surfaces. Structural features such as faults are not easily recognizable due to these reasons. However, the dip-apparent attributes are found to be very useful in identifying both the structural and stratigraphic features. The seismic dip map is then improved by rotating the dip measurements to user-defined azimuths. Such optimization has revealed the structural and stratigraphic features that are not clearly evident on the similarity and curvature attributes. The maximum curvature attribute is found to be useful in delineating faults and predicting the orientation and distribution of fractures and also in subtle structural features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Study of Lithofacies Identification—A Case Study in X Field, Sabah, Malaysia
Geosciences 2018, 8(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8020075
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
Understanding subsurface geology is essential for oil and gas exploration. Seismic facies interpretation is very useful in investigating this concept. The interpretation of the depositional setting of the X Field is achieved by integrating the seismic facies characteristics on 3D seismic data and
[...] Read more.
Understanding subsurface geology is essential for oil and gas exploration. Seismic facies interpretation is very useful in investigating this concept. The interpretation of the depositional setting of the X Field is achieved by integrating the seismic facies characteristics on 3D seismic data and well log data. Both the seismic and well log data are widely used in hydrocarbon exploration to map the subsurface, as they complement each other. Well logs yield the vertical resolution of the subsurface geology at the drilled well, whereas seismic data reveal the lateral continuity. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of 3D seismic data and well log data for lithofacies identification. Interpretation and analysis of lithofacies is carried out through the integration of the characteristics of seismic reflections with well information (logs). Horizons are interpreted based on the variation in seismic reflections on the seismic section, which is caused by the change in geology within seismic sequences. Well logs give detailed information at the points where the wells were drilled. Interpolating between these points and extrapolating away from the points into undrilled areas can be helpful in providing a better geological knowledge of an area. The result of this integrated study depicts the lithofacies in the area. This integrated study will provide a better insight with higher degree of reliability to the facies distribution and depositional setting of the X Field. The geological and geophysical aspects of the field will be documented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diffraction Enhancement Through Pre-Image Processing: Applications to Field Data, Sarawak Basin, East Malaysia
Geosciences 2018, 8(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8020074
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
The future exploration plans of the industry is to find a small-scale reservoir for possible economic hydrocarbon reserves. These reserves could be illuminated by the super-resolution of full seismic data, including fractured zones, pinch-outs, channel edges, small-scale faults, reflector unconformities, salt flanks, karst,
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The future exploration plans of the industry is to find a small-scale reservoir for possible economic hydrocarbon reserves. These reserves could be illuminated by the super-resolution of full seismic data, including fractured zones, pinch-outs, channel edges, small-scale faults, reflector unconformities, salt flanks, karst, caves and fluid fronts, which are generally known as small scattering objects. However, an imaging approach that includes the diffraction event individually and images it constitutes a new approach for the industry; it is known as diffraction imaging. This paper documents results of a seismic processing procedure conducted to enhance diffractions in Sarawak Basin, using datasets from the Malaysian Basin to which no diffraction processing has been applied. We observed that the diffraction amplitude achieves maximum value when the detector is positioned vertically above the end point of the reflector, but drops off with increasing offset-distance from the point. Furthermore, the rate of attenuation of the diffracted wave energy is greater than that of the normal reflected wave energy in the same medium. In addition, the results indicate that the near offset and far angle stack data provide better diffraction events. In the other hand far offset and near angle stack provides the poor diffraction response. These results were revealed by angle-stacking of near-, mid-, and far-offsets data (4.5, 22.5 and 31.5 degrees) that was conducted to study amplitude and phase change of the diffraction curve. The final imaged data provides better faults definition in the carbonate field data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of SQp and SQs Attributes Application for Facies Classification
Geosciences 2018, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8010010
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
Formation evaluation is a critical requirement in oil and gas exploration and development projects. Although it may be costly, wireline logs need to be acquired to evaluate and understand the subsurface formation. Gamma ray and resistivity are the two main well-log data used
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Formation evaluation is a critical requirement in oil and gas exploration and development projects. Although it may be costly, wireline logs need to be acquired to evaluate and understand the subsurface formation. Gamma ray and resistivity are the two main well-log data used for formation evaluation purposes. However, outside the well, formation evaluation becomes difficult, as these logs are not available. Hence, it is important to have other data equivalent to the gamma ray or resistivity logs, which can be derived from other technique, such as seismic data. As a consequence, the dependency on well-log data can be avoided. Thus, the complexity in formation evaluation outside the well, such as the determination of facies, lithology, and fluid content, as well as petrophysical properties can be solved accurately even without well-log data. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate an application of the SQp and SQs attributes for facies classification. These attributes were derived from attenuation attributes through rock physics approximation by using basic elastic properties: P-wave, S-wave, and density. A series of tests were carried out to show the applicability of these attributes on well-logs and real seismic data from offshore the Malaysia Peninsular. Simultaneous inversion was used in the data sets to produce the three-dimensional (3D) SQp and SQs attributes required as inputs of a neural network engine in defining the facies distribution. The results showed that the SQp attribute was very similar to the gamma ray, while the SQs attribute was similar to the resistivity responses even in different reservoir conditions, including low resistivity low contrast and coal masking environment. In conclusion, the SQp motif, which is similar to the gamma ray motif, can potentially be used for facies classification/identification. Together with the SQs attribute, the SQp attribute can be used as input for the facies classification workflow. The application of the SQp and SQs attributes successfully identified the gas sand distribution and separated it clearly from the brine distribution in an offshore Malaysian field. Full article
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