Special Issue "Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ryszard Amarowicz

Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food analysis; functional foods; bioactive compounds; phenolic compounds; antioxidants; chromatography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Legumes are an important source of nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, water soluble vitamins, minerals). They play important role in chronic disease prevention. The beneficial effects of legumes are attributed to the presence of legume seeds starch with a low glycemic index, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble), several classes of phenolic compounds, and oligosaccharides. Phenolic compounds of legumes possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Oligosaccharides, acting as prebiotics, modify intestinal microbiota.

Some of the bioactive compounds present in legumes (e.g., trypisin inhibitors, condensed tannins, lectins, phytates) also exhibit antinutritional effects—decreased protein digestibility and availability of mineral compounds. Technological processes (non-thermal and thermal processing, hydrolysis, fractionation) can modify the functional properties (emulsifying activity and stability, foaming properties, water holding capacity) of legumes and legume products, as well as modify the activity of bioactive compounds present in legume seeds.

Prof. Ryszard Amarowicz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nutritional composition of legumes
  • Phenolic compound and their activity
  • Oligosacchaccharides and fiber
  • Antinutrients
  • Legume processing
  • Physicochemical properties of legume starch and proteins
  • Effect of processing on nutrients and bioactives

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential of Grass Pea Seeds from European Countries
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Phenolic compounds were extracted from seeds of 30 varieties of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) into 80% (v/v) methanol. The total phenolics compounds content of the extracts and their antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and
[...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds were extracted from seeds of 30 varieties of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) into 80% (v/v) methanol. The total phenolics compounds content of the extracts and their antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods, respectively. Total phenolic contents ranged from 1.88 to 7.12 mg/g extract and 20.3 to 70.3 mg/100 g seeds. The extracts and seeds were characterized using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values of 0.015–0.037 mmol Trolox/g extract and 0.158–0.372 mmol Trolox/100 g seeds, and FRAP values of 0.045–0.120 mmol Fe2+/g extract and 0.487–1.189 Fe2+/100 g seeds. The total phenolics content of grass pea extract was correlated with the results of the ABTS (r = 0.881) and FRAP (r = 0.781) assays. The same correlation was observed between the results of both assays (r = 0.842). Two derivatives of p-coumaric acid were the dominant phenolic compounds of the Derek cultivar of grass pea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Production, Quality, and Acceptance of Tempeh and White Bean Tempeh Burgers
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The food industry has been challenged to develop new healthy food products. Tempeh, originating in Indonesia and produced by fungal fermentation, would be an alternative healthy food for the Brazilian population. This study was designed to produce white bean (cv BRS Ártico)
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The food industry has been challenged to develop new healthy food products. Tempeh, originating in Indonesia and produced by fungal fermentation, would be an alternative healthy food for the Brazilian population. This study was designed to produce white bean (cv BRS Ártico) tempeh burger, to determine and compare its nutritional and sensory properties with conventional soybean-based tempeh burger. The production and the analyses of proximal composition and microbiological contamination were determined in the tempeh, following reference methods. For the sensory analysis, a nine-point hedonic scale test was performed with 82 untrained evaluators, and at the end, a question of purchase intent was answered. The results indicated significant differences in the nutritional value of the tempehs, which is justified by the difference in the composition of the raw materials used. The samples did not present a risk of microbiological contamination for consumption. The white bean tempeh burgers showed similar appearance and crispy consistency, but received lower scores for flavor, compared to the soybean burgers, probably due to their residual beany flavor. The beany flavor could be minimized by increasing the cooking time of the beans. White bean tempeh can be a good alternative for healthy eating, and its manufacture could promote the production of new products made from beans, giving a new focus to the Brazilians’ traditional food. It is still necessary to improve the techniques of production and test new ingredients for the preparation of tempeh burgers to obtain higher acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Characterization of Prosopis laevigata Legume Tree (Mesquite) Seed Flour and the Effect of Extrusion Cooking on its Bioactive Components
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) is a legume tree widely distributed in Aridoamerica. The mature fruit of this legume is a pod, which is currently underutilized and has high nutritional potential. In the present work, mesquite seed flour is described in terms of
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Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) is a legume tree widely distributed in Aridoamerica. The mature fruit of this legume is a pod, which is currently underutilized and has high nutritional potential. In the present work, mesquite seed flour is described in terms of its nutritional value, as well as the effect of extrusion cooking on its bioactive components. Mesquite seed flour is rich in fiber (7.73 g/100 g) and protein (36.51 g/100 g), with valine as the only limiting amino acid. Total phenolic compound contents in raw and extruded seed flour were 6.68 and 6.46 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g (mg GAE/g), respectively. 2-2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity values in raw and extruded seed flour were 9.11 and 9.32 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g (mg AAE/g), respectively. The absorbance at 290 nm, as an indicator of generation of Maillard reaction product (MRP), was the same for raw and extruded samples. Apigenin was the only flavonoid found in mesquite seed flour (41.6 mg/kg) and was stable in the extrusion process. The water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) were changed significantly during extrusion. The expansion of mesquite seed flour extrudates was null due to the high protein and fiber content in the sample. Extrusion cooking of mesquite seed flour is a useful form of technology for the industrialization of this underutilized and nutritionally valuable legume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Traditional Household Processes on Iron, Zinc and Copper Bioaccessibility in Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking
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Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking is unanimously recommended, but this can result in mineral loss. Data on the consequences for mineral bioaccessibility is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility in black beans cooked (regular pan, pressure cooker) with and without the soaking water. For that, three batches of black beans were investigated in triplicate, each split in nine parts (raw grains and four different household processes in duplicate) and analyzed by applying the quarter technique, resulting in a grand total of 164 samples. Minerals were quantified by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), myo-inositol phosphates (InsP5, InsP6) by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) ion-pair chromatography, total polyphenols using Folin-Denis reagent and condensed tannins using Vanillin assay. Mineral bioaccessibility was determined by in vitro digestion and dialysis. All treatments resulted in a statistically significant reduction of total polyphenols (30%) and condensed tannins (20%). Only when discarding the soaking water a loss of iron (6%) and copper (30%) was observed, and InsP6 was slightly decreased (7%) in one treatment. The bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were low (about 0.2% iron and 35% zinc), but copper presented high bioaccessibility (about 70%). Cooking beans under pressure without discarding the soaking water resulted in the highest bioaccessibility levels among all household procedures. Discarding the soaking water before cooking did not improve the nutritional quality of the beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Detection, Purity Analysis, and Quality Assurance of Adulterated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Oils
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
The intake of adulterated and unhealthy oils and trans-fats in the human diet has had negative health repercussions, including cardiovascular disease, causing millions of deaths annually. Sadly, a significant percentage of all consumable products including edible oils are neither screened nor monitored for
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The intake of adulterated and unhealthy oils and trans-fats in the human diet has had negative health repercussions, including cardiovascular disease, causing millions of deaths annually. Sadly, a significant percentage of all consumable products including edible oils are neither screened nor monitored for quality control for various reasons. The prospective intake of adulterated oils and the associated health impacts on consumers is a significant public health safety concern, necessitating the need for quality assurance checks of edible oils. This study reports a simple, fast, sensitive, accurate, and low-cost chemometric approach to the purity analysis of highly refined peanut oils (HRPO) that were adulterated either with vegetable oil (VO), canola oil (CO), or almond oil (AO) for food quality assurance purposes. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the pure oils and adulterated HRPO samples were measured and subjected to a partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis. The obtained PLS regression figures-of-merit were incredible, with remarkable linearity (R2 = 0.994191 or better). The results of the score plots of the PLS regressions illustrate pattern recognition of the adulterated HRPO samples. Importantly, the PLS regressions accurately determined percent compositions of adulterated HRPOs, with an overall root-mean-square-relative-percent-error of 5.53% and a limit-of-detection as low as 0.02% (wt/wt). The developed PLS regressions continued to predict the compositions of newly prepared adulterated HRPOs over a period of two months, with incredible accuracy without the need for re-calibration. The accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness of the protocol make it desirable and potentially adoptable by health departments and local enforcement agencies for fast screening and quality assurance of consumable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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Open AccessArticle Multistep Optimization of β-Glucosidase Extraction from Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merril) and Recovery of Isoflavone Aglycones
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Epicotyls from germinated soybeans (EGS) have great potential as sources of endogenous β-glucosidase. Furthermore, this enzyme may improve the conversion of isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones. β-Glucosidase may also increase the release of aglycones from the cell wall of the plant materials. Therefore,
[...] Read more.
Epicotyls from germinated soybeans (EGS) have great potential as sources of endogenous β-glucosidase. Furthermore, this enzyme may improve the conversion of isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones. β-Glucosidase may also increase the release of aglycones from the cell wall of the plant materials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to optimize both the extraction of β-glucosidase from EGS and to further examine its application in defatted soybean cotyledon to improve the recovery of aglycones, which were evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). A multistep optimization was carried out and the effects of temperature and pH were investigated by applying a central composite design. The linear effect of pH and the quadratic effect of pH and temperature were significant for the extraction of β-glucosidase and recovery aglycones, respectively. Optimum extraction of β-glucosidase from EGS occurred at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Furthermore, the maximum recovery of aglycones (98.7%), which occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.0–7.6 during 144 h of germination, increased 8.5 times with respect to the lowest concentration. The higher bioaccessibility of aglycones when compared with their conjugated counterparts is well substantiated. Therefore, the data provided in this contribution may be useful for enhancing the benefits of soybean, their products, and/or their processing by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Legumes: Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties)
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