Special Issue "Advances on Optical Fibers"

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A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Giancarlo C. Righini

Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
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Fax: +39 055 45226312
Interests: optical fibers; optical fiber sensors; biomedical applications of micro- and nano-tips of optical fibers
Guest Editor
Dr. Shibin Jiang

AdValue Photonics, Tucson (AZ), USA
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Guest Editor
Professor Dr. Francesco Prudenzano

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell’Informazione, Politecnico di Bari, Italy
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Phone: 390805963781

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 55 years have past since when Charles K. Kao (who received the Nobel Prize in Physics 2009) and George Hockham at STC Laboratories (STL), England, proposed to use the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication. Advances in fabrication methods and researchers’ ingenuity have since led to an impressive amount of new components and applications, with telecommunications and sensing areas at the forefront. Photonic crystal structures have later provided optical fibers with further properties and capabilities.
The aim of this special issue is to gather contributions from research groups worldwide in order to get an overview of the current status of theory and applications of optical fibers.
Topics would include: materials (silica and non-silica based), processing, fabrication technologies, measurements, propagation properties, modeling, fiber designs, microstructured and photonic-crystal fibers, fiber devices and passive components, fiber gratings and their applications, specialty fibers, micro and nano-fibers, fiber sensors, fiber optic probes, fiber amplifiers and lasers, novel applications.

Dr. Giancarlo C. Righini
Dr. Shibin Jiang
Professor Dr. Francesco Prudenzano
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • fiber optics
  • optical propagation in fibers
  • fiber characterization
  • photonic crystal fibers
  • micro and nano fibers
  • fiber sensors
  • fiber lasers
  • nonlinear processes in fibers
  • ultrafast processes in fibers

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Side-Detecting Optical Fiber Doped with Tb3+ for Ultraviolet Sensor Application
Fibers 2014, 2(2), 150-157; doi:10.3390/fib2020150
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the article a novel construction of a side-detecting luminescent optical fiber for an UV sensor application has been presented. In the fiber, structure phosphate glass doped with 0.5 mol% Tb3+ ions was used as a UV sensitive core/ribbon. The luminescence spectrum
[...] Read more.
In the article a novel construction of a side-detecting luminescent optical fiber for an UV sensor application has been presented. In the fiber, structure phosphate glass doped with 0.5 mol% Tb3+ ions was used as a UV sensitive core/ribbon. The luminescence spectrum of glass and the optical fiber was measured under UV excitation using a deuterium lamp. It was found that  large energy gap between upper (metastable) and lower (ground) levels of terbium ions incorporated in phosphate matrix leads to the effective emission at wavelengths of 489, 543, 586 and 621 nm, which correspond to 5D47FJ, (J = 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions respectively. Phosphate glass doped with optimal (the strongest VIS emission) concentration of Tb3+ (0.5 mol%) was used as the active core/ribbon in the construction of UV side-detecting optical fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessCommunication Reliable Lifetime Prediction for Passivated Fiber Bragg Gratings for Telecommunication Applications
Fibers 2014, 2(1), 92-107; doi:10.3390/fib2010092
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is dedicated to the lifetime prediction of Type I Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and to problems that happen when stabilization (also called passivation) conditions or the industrial conditioning procedure depart from ageing ones (e.g., presence of hydrogen during the passivation process).
[...] Read more.
This paper is dedicated to the lifetime prediction of Type I Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and to problems that happen when stabilization (also called passivation) conditions or the industrial conditioning procedure depart from ageing ones (e.g., presence of hydrogen during the passivation process). For the first time, a reliable procedure to certify the predicted lifetime based on a “restricted” master curve built on real components (i.e., passivated FBG) is presented. It is worth noting that both procedures (master curve built on non-passivated or on passivated components) are based on the same model (demarcation energy approximation and the existence of a master curve) fed with ageing data (reflectivity decay vs. time and temperature). If the Master Curve (MC) build on passivated components can be derived from the original one, we can certify the lifetime prediction in a reliable manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Energy Transfer between Er3+ and Pr3+ for 2.7 μm Fiber Laser Material
Fibers 2014, 2(1), 24-33; doi:10.3390/fib2010024
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 8 January 2014
PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy transfer mechanisms between Er3+ and Pr3+ in Er3+/Pr3+ codoped germinate glass are investigated in detail. Under 980 nm LD pumping, 2.7 μm fluorescence intensity enhanced greatly. Meanwhile, 1.5 μm lifetime and fluorescence were suppressed deeply due to
[...] Read more.
Energy transfer mechanisms between Er3+ and Pr3+ in Er3+/Pr3+ codoped germinate glass are investigated in detail. Under 980 nm LD pumping, 2.7 μm fluorescence intensity enhanced greatly. Meanwhile, 1.5 μm lifetime and fluorescence were suppressed deeply due to the efficient energy transfer from Er3+:4I13/2 to Pr3+:3F3,4, which depopulates the 4I13/2 level and promotes the 2.7 μm transition effectively. The obvious change in J-O parameters indicates that Pr3+ influences the local environment of Er3+ significantly. The increased spontaneous radiative probability in Er3+/Pr3+ glass is further evidence for enhanced 4I11/2 4I13/2 transition. The Er3+:4I11/2→Pr3+:1G4 process is harmful to the population accumulation on 4I11/2 level, which inhibits the 2.7 μm emission. The microscopic energy transfer coefficient of Er3+:4I13/2→Pr3+:3F3,4 is 42.25 × 10−40 cm6/s, which is 11.5 times larger than that of Er3+:4I11/2→Pr3+:1G4. Both processes prefer to be non-phonon assisted, which is the main reason why Pr3+ is so efficient in Er3+:2.7 μm emission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle The Development of Advanced Optical Fibers for Long-Wave Infrared Transmission
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 110-118; doi:10.3390/fib1030110
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long-wave infrared fibers are used in an increasing number of applications ranging from thermal imaging to bio-sensing. However, the design of optical fiber with low-loss in the far-infrared requires a combination of properties including good rheological characteristics for fiber drawing and low phonon
[...] Read more.
Long-wave infrared fibers are used in an increasing number of applications ranging from thermal imaging to bio-sensing. However, the design of optical fiber with low-loss in the far-infrared requires a combination of properties including good rheological characteristics for fiber drawing and low phonon energy for wide optical transparency, which are often mutually exclusive and can only be achieved through fine materials engineering. This paper presents strategies for obtaining low loss fibers in the far-infrared based on telluride glasses. The composition of the glasses is systematically investigated to obtained fibers with minimal losses. The fiber attenuation is shown to depend strongly on extrinsic impurity but also on intrinsic charge carrier populations in these low band-gap amorphous semiconductor materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics and Laser Performance of Yb3+-Doped Silica Large Mode Area Fibers Prepared by Sol–Gel Method
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 93-100; doi:10.3390/fib1030093
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol%) core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF) with core diameter of 48 µm
[...] Read more.
Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol%) core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF) with core diameter of 48 µm and large mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA PCF) with core diameter of 90 µm were prepared from this core glass. Transmission loss at 1200 nm is 0.41 dB/m. Refractive index fluctuation is less than 2 × 10−4. Pumped by 976 nm laser diode LD pigtailed with silica fiber (NA 0.22), the slope efficiency of 54% and “light-to-light” conversion efficiency of 51% were realized in large mode area double cladding fiber, and 81 W laser power with a slope efficiency of 70.8% was achieved in the corresponding large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Photodarkening of Infrared Irradiated Yb3+-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glasses: Effect on UV Absorption Bands and Fluorescence Spectra
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 101-109; doi:10.3390/fib1030101
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 10 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The photodarkening phenomenon in alumino-silicate glass preforms, doped with different ytterbium concentrations, was studied. The UV band, comprised between 180 and 350 nm, was examined before and after irradiation at 976 nm. The non-linear dependence of 240 nm band with concentration after infra-red
[...] Read more.
The photodarkening phenomenon in alumino-silicate glass preforms, doped with different ytterbium concentrations, was studied. The UV band, comprised between 180 and 350 nm, was examined before and after irradiation at 976 nm. The non-linear dependence of 240 nm band with concentration after infra-red irradiation was demonstrated and ascribed predominantly to Yb3+ pair’s interaction. The emission spectrum after the excitation in UV spectral region showed increased intensity after photodarkening, probably due to Yb2+ ions creation. Phenomenological photodarkening model and the possible existence of several defect types are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Heavily Tm3+-Doped Silicate Fiber for High-Gain Fiber Amplifiers
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 82-92; doi:10.3390/fib1030082
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser
[...] Read more.
We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the absorption/emission cross-sections, upper-state lifetime, fiber background loss, and photodarkening resistance. We show through numerical simulations that a signal gain-per-unit-length of 3.78 dB/cm at 1950 nm can be achieved in a watt-level core-pumped Tm3+-doped silicate fiber amplifier. In addition, an 18-dB 2013-nm amplifier is demonstrated in a 50-cm 7 wt% Tm3+-doped double-clad silicate fiber. Finally, we experimentally confirm that the reported silicate host exhibits no observable photodarkening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Towards Water-Free Tellurite Glass Fiber for 2–5 μm Nonlinear Applications
Fibers 2013, 1(3), 70-81; doi:10.3390/fib1030070
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report our recent progress on fabricating dehydrated tellurite glass fibers. Low OH content (1 ppm in weight) has been achieved in a new halogen-containing lead tellurite glass fiber. Low OH-induced attenuation of 10 dB/m has been confirmed in the range of 3–4
[...] Read more.
We report our recent progress on fabricating dehydrated tellurite glass fibers. Low OH content (1 ppm in weight) has been achieved in a new halogen-containing lead tellurite glass fiber. Low OH-induced attenuation of 10 dB/m has been confirmed in the range of 3–4 µm using three measurement methods. This shows the dehydrated halo-tellurite glass fiber is a promising candidate for nonlinear applications in a 2–5 µm region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)
Open AccessArticle Er3+/Ho3+-Codoped Fluorotellurite Glasses for 2.7 µm Fiber Laser Materials
Fibers 2013, 1(2), 11-20; doi:10.3390/fib1020011
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work reports the enhanced emission at 2.7 µm in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass upon a conventional 980 nm laser diode. The significantly reduced green upconversion and 1.5 µm emission intensity in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped samples are observed.
[...] Read more.
This work reports the enhanced emission at 2.7 µm in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass upon a conventional 980 nm laser diode. The significantly reduced green upconversion and 1.5 µm emission intensity in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped samples are observed. The results suggest that the Er3+: 4I13/2 state can be efficiently depopulated via energy transfer from Er3+ to Ho3+ and the detailed energy transfer mechanisms are discussed qualitatively. The energy transfer efficiency from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Ho3+: 5I7 is calculated to be as high as 67.33%. The calculated emission cross-section in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass is 1.82 × 1020 cm2. This suggests that Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass is a potential material for 2.7 µm fiber laser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Advances on Optical Fiber Sensors
Fibers 2014, 2(1), 1-23; doi:10.3390/fib2010001
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review paper some recent advances on optical fiber sensors are reported. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), long period gratings (LPGs), evanescent field and hollow core optical fiber sensors are mentioned. Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of
[...] Read more.
In this review paper some recent advances on optical fiber sensors are reported. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), long period gratings (LPGs), evanescent field and hollow core optical fiber sensors are mentioned. Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and the determination of methadone, hydrocarbons, ethanol, and sucrose are briefly described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Optical Fibers)

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