Special Issue "Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Daniel Cozzolino

Central Queensland University, School of Health, Rockhampton, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: infrared; sensors; chemometrics; food; beverages

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the food industry has had a clear need for simple, rapid, and cost-effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality and composition of the foods that we produce and consume. Several methods and techniques, such as spectroscopy (e.g., near- and mid-infrared), biosensors, and electronic noses and tongues have been used to monitor and assess the bioprocesses and fermentation of several foods, such as meat, wine, and other agricultural products. This Special Issue invites researchers and industry to submit short communications, reviews or full research papers addressing novel applications related to bioprocessing and monitoring fermentation.

Dr. Daniel Cozzolino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioprocess
  • Monitoring
  • Sensors
  • Chemometrics
  • Instrumental methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Preventing Overflow Metabolism in Crabtree-Positive Microorganisms through On-Line Monitoring and Control of Fed-Batch Fermentations
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030079
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
At specific growth rates above a particular critical value, Crabtree-positive microorganisms exceed their respiratory capacity and enter diauxic growth metabolism. Excess substrate is converted reductively to an overflow metabolite, resulting in decreased biomass yield and productivity. To prevent this scenario, the cells can
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At specific growth rates above a particular critical value, Crabtree-positive microorganisms exceed their respiratory capacity and enter diauxic growth metabolism. Excess substrate is converted reductively to an overflow metabolite, resulting in decreased biomass yield and productivity. To prevent this scenario, the cells can be cultivated in a fed-batch mode at a growth rate maintained below the critical value, µcrit. This approach entails two major challenges: accurately estimating the current specific growth rate and controlling it successfully over the course of the fermentation. In this work, the specific growth rate of S. cerevisiae and E. coli was estimated from enhanced on-line biomass concentration measurements obtained with dielectric spectroscopy and turbidity. A feedforward-feedback control scheme was implemented to maintain the specific growth rate at a setpoint below µcrit, while on-line FTIR measurements provided the early detection of the overflow metabolites. The proposed approach is in line with the principles of Bioprocess Analytical Technology (BioPAT), and provides a means to increase the productivity of Crabtree-positive microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Open AccessCommunication Computing the Composition of Ethanol-Water Mixtures Based on Experimental Density and Temperature Measurements
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030072
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Two correlations were developed to calculate the composition of binary ethanol-water solutions from experimental temperature and density inputs. The first correlation is based on a Redlich-Kister (R-K) expansion and computes mixture composition within an average accuracy of ±0.45 wt.%. The R-K model is
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Two correlations were developed to calculate the composition of binary ethanol-water solutions from experimental temperature and density inputs. The first correlation is based on a Redlich-Kister (R-K) expansion and computes mixture composition within an average accuracy of ±0.45 wt.%. The R-K model is a non-linear function of composition and therefore requires the use of an iterative solving tool. A polynomial correlation was additionally developed which utilizes a direct solving method, and computes ethanol composition over a range of 0–100 wt.% [283.15–313.15 K] with an accuracy better than ±0.37 wt.%. The polynomial model is particularly advantageous as it can be tailored to specific composition ranges for increased accuracy. Both correlations are intended to provide a method for monitoring ethanol concentration within a chemical process in real time without off-line sample analysis, allowing for precise in-situ system control and optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Gas Fermentation Enhancement for Chemolithotrophic Growth of Cupriavidus necator on Carbon Dioxide
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030063
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Cupriavidus necator, a facultative hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, was grown on carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and oxygen for value-added products. High cell density and productivity were the goal of gas fermentation, but limited by gas substrates because of their low solubility in the aqueous medium
[...] Read more.
Cupriavidus necator, a facultative hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, was grown on carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and oxygen for value-added products. High cell density and productivity were the goal of gas fermentation, but limited by gas substrates because of their low solubility in the aqueous medium solution. Enhancement of gas fermentation was investigated by (i) adding n-hexadecane as a gas vector to increase the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) and gas solubility, (ii) growing C. necator under a raised gas pressure, and (iii) using cell mass hydrolysates as the nutrients of chemolithotrophic growth. In contrast to previous studies, little positive but negative effects of the gas vector were observed on gas mass transfer and cell growth. The gas fermentation could be significantly enhanced under a raised pressure, resulting in a higher growth rate (0.12 h−1), cell density (18 g L−1), and gas uptake rate (200 mmole L−1 h−1) than a fermentation under atmospheric pressure. The gain, however, was not proportional to the pressure increase as predicted by Henry’s law. The hydrolysates of cell mass were found a good source of nutrients and the organic nitrogen was equivalent to or better than ammonium nitrogen for chemolithotrophic growth of C. necator on carbon dioxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Performances of Different Metabolic Lactobacillus Groups During the Fermentation of Pizza Doughs Processed from Semolina
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030061
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
The main hypothesis of this work is that facultative and obligate heterofermentative Lactobacillus species can differently impact the final characteristics of pizza. The objective was to evaluate separately the behavior of the facultative heterofermentative species (FHS), such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillu brevis
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The main hypothesis of this work is that facultative and obligate heterofermentative Lactobacillus species can differently impact the final characteristics of pizza. The objective was to evaluate separately the behavior of the facultative heterofermentative species (FHS), such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillu brevis, and Lactobacillus rossiae, and to obligate the heterofermentative species (OHS), including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, and Lactobacillus curvatus, in the sourdoughs to be used for pizza production. The production of the experimental pizzas was carried out with semolina (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). The acidification process, followed by pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) development indicated for all of the experimental trials kinetics is comparable to those of the controls. The fermentation quotient of the FHS trial was particularly higher than that of the other trials, including the control production performed with a sourdough inoculum used in an artisanal bakery. The dominance of the added strains indicated the clear persistence of L. sanfranciscensis PON 100336, L. brevis 200571, and L. plantarum PON 100148 in the obligate–facultative heterofermentative species (OFHS) trial. The pizzas were baked without seasoning in order to investigate weight loss, color, morphology, and a generation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The data showed the differences among trials regarding the inocula. Eight classes of VOCs were detected in the pizza samples with aldehydes, esters, alcohols, and acids as major compounds. The sensory attributes were significantly different for the judges and the pizzas. The multivariate statistical approach found marked differences among the trials. The results indicated that the application of mixed cultures of the facultative heterofermentative species of Lactobacillus determined high quality pizzas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of the Efficiency of Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae via Gradually Batch-Wise and Fed-Batch Increasing the Glucose Concentration
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020045
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
High initial glucose concentrations may inhibit glucose utilization and decrease ethanol fermentation efficiency. To minimize substrate inhibition, the effects of feeding yeast with different glucose concentrations on the ethanol production by batch and fed-batch cultures in a 5-L fermentor were investigated. When a
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High initial glucose concentrations may inhibit glucose utilization and decrease ethanol fermentation efficiency. To minimize substrate inhibition, the effects of feeding yeast with different glucose concentrations on the ethanol production by batch and fed-batch cultures in a 5-L fermentor were investigated. When a batch culture system with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for ethanol fermentation with glucose concentrations ranging 10–260 g/L, as a result, 0.2–7.0 g/L biomass and 5.1–115.0 g/L ethanol were obtained. However, substrate inhibition was observed with the initial glucose concentrations greater than 200 g/L in the fermentative media. When a fed-batch culture system (an initial glucose concentration of 180 g/L and total glucose concentration of 260 g/L) was performed, the maximum ethanol concentrations and ethanol yield were significantly higher than those of the batch cultures. The cell biomass, maximum ethanol concentration, and ethanol yields for the fed-batch fermentation cultures were 8.3 g/L, 130.1 g/L and 51% (100% of the theoretical value), respectively. The results indicated that high ethanol concentration and ethanol yield could be achieved by the fed-batch cultures with total glucose concentrations up to 260 g/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Use of UV-Vis Spectroscopy in Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring
Fermentation 2018, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4010018
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
Real-time analytical tools to monitor bioprocess and fermentation in biological and food applications are becoming increasingly important. Traditional laboratory-based analyses need to be adapted to comply with new safety and environmental guidelines and reduce costs. Many methods for bioprocess fermentation monitoring are spectroscopy-based
[...] Read more.
Real-time analytical tools to monitor bioprocess and fermentation in biological and food applications are becoming increasingly important. Traditional laboratory-based analyses need to be adapted to comply with new safety and environmental guidelines and reduce costs. Many methods for bioprocess fermentation monitoring are spectroscopy-based and include visible (Vis), infrared (IR) and Raman. This paper describes the main principles and recent developments in UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor bioprocess and fermentation in different food production applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioprocess and Fermentation Monitoring)
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