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Special Issue "Energy Policy on Climate Change"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kevin Anderson

Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK

Keywords

  • emission pathways, emission trajectories, carbon budgets, greenhouse gas budgets, mitigation, targets, cumulative emissions
  • Annex 1 & non-Annex 1, energy emissions
  • energy policy, economics, growth, carbon price, regulation
  • backcasting, forecasting, scenarios

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary
Energies 2012, 5(2), 494-517; doi:10.3390/en5020494
Received: 15 December 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency [...] Read more.
The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy on Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower
Energies 2012, 5(2), 305-322; doi:10.3390/en5020305
Received: 15 December 2011 / Revised: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (4976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate [...] Read more.
Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting regional variations in hydropower generation potential? This paper is a study that aims to evaluate the changes in global hydropower generation resulting from predicted changes in climate. The study uses an ensemble of simulations of regional patterns of changes in runoff, computed from global circulation models (GCM) simulations with 12 different models. Based on these runoff changes, hydropower generation is estimated by relating the runoff changes to hydropower generation potential through geographical information system (GIS), based on 2005 hydropower generation. Hydropower data obtained from EIA (energy generation), national sites, FAO (water resources) and UNEP were used in the analysis. The countries/states were used as computational units to reduce the complexities of the analysis. The results indicate that there are large variations of changes (increases/decreases) in hydropower generation across regions and even within regions. Globally, hydropower generation is predicted to change very little by the year 2050 for the hydropower system in operation today. This change amounts to an increase of less than 1% of the current (2005) generation level although it is necessary to carry out basin level detailed assessment for local impacts which may differ from the country based values. There are many regions where runoff and hydropower generation will increase due to increasing precipitation, but also many regions where there will be a decrease. Based on this evaluation, it has been concluded that even if individual countries and regions may experience significant impacts, climate change will not lead to significant changes in the global hydropower generation, at least for the existing hydropower system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy on Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Study on the Decomposition of Factors Affecting Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Guangdong Province, China
Energies 2011, 4(12), 2249-2272; doi:10.3390/en4122249
Received: 31 October 2011 / Revised: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 12 December 2011 / Published: 19 December 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guangdong is China’s largest province in terms of energy consumption. The energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong province are calculated, and two extended and improved decomposition models for energy-related carbon emissions are established with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method based on the [...] Read more.
Guangdong is China’s largest province in terms of energy consumption. The energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong province are calculated, and two extended and improved decomposition models for energy-related carbon emissions are established with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method based on the basic principle of Kaya identity. Main results are as follows: (1) the energy-related carbon emissions from the three strata of industry, except the primary industry, and household energy consumption in Guangdong province show increasing trend from 1995 to 2009; (2) the main driving and inhibiting factors which influence energy-related carbon emissions are economic output and energy intensity, respectively, while the contributions of energy mix, industrial structures, population size and living standards are not significant during the period of interest. It is concluded that optimizing the energy mix by exploiting new energy sources and cutting down energy intensity by developing low-carbon technologies are the two most effective approaches to reduce carbon emissions for Guangdong province in the future. The results and proposals in this paper provided reference for relevant administrative departments in the Government of Guangdong province to develop policies for energy conservation and emission reduction as well as to promote development of low-carbon economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy on Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage
Energies 2011, 4(12), 2151-2165; doi:10.3390/en4122151
Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 28 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 6 December 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Combined heat and power (CHP) systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where [...] Read more.
Combined heat and power (CHP) systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy on Climate Change)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Carbon Lock-Out: Advancing Renewable Energy Policy in Europe
Energies 2012, 5(2), 323-354; doi:10.3390/en5020323
Received: 1 November 2011 / Revised: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 8 February 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of its climate strategy, the EU aims at increasing the share of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in overall electricity generation. Attaining this target poses a considerable challenge as the electricity sector is “locked” into a carbon-intensive system, which [...] Read more.
As part of its climate strategy, the EU aims at increasing the share of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) in overall electricity generation. Attaining this target poses a considerable challenge as the electricity sector is “locked” into a carbon-intensive system, which hampers the adoption of RES-E technologies. Electricity generation, transmission and distribution grids as well as storage and demand response are subject to important path dependences, which put existing, non-renewable energy sources at an advantage. This paper examines how an EU framework for RES-E support policies should be designed to facilitate a carbon lock-out. For this purpose, we specify the major technological, economic and institutional barriers to RES-E. For each of the barriers, a policy review is carried out which assesses the performance of existing policy instruments and identifies needs for reform. The review reveals several shortcomings: while policies targeting generation are widely in place, measures to address barriers associated with electricity grids, storage and demand are still in their infancy and have to be extended. Moreover, the implementation of policies has been fragmented across EU Member States. In this respect, national policies should be embedded into an integrated EU-wide planning of the RES-E system with overarching energy scenarios and partially harmonized policy rules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy on Climate Change)

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