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Special Issue "Energy Management, Control, and System Architectures for Electric Vehicle Applications"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Jih-Sheng (Jason) Lai

Director, Future Energy Electronics Center, James S. Tucker Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, International Chair Professor, Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
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Interests: High Power Electronics Converter Topologies; Motor Drives; Utility Power Electronics Interfaces and Application Issues
Guest Editor
Prof. Kuohsiu David Huang

Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
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Interests: Vehicular Ultra-Low Carbon Energies and Systems; Electrical Vehicle; Hybrid Vehicle; Pneumatic Vehicle; Metal-Fuel Cell; and Micro Climate Control
Guest Editor
Assist Prof. Ching-Ming Lai

Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Vehicular Power Electronics; Hybrid Electric Vehicle; Battery Energy Storage System; Power Electronics Circuit: Design and Analysis; Power Converter and Its Control for EV and Microgrids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject of  “Energy Management, Control, and System Architectures for Electric Vehicle Applications”.

Electric vehicles play an important role in reducing fuel consumption and emissions with advanced control technologies. As critical parts of electric vehicles, energy management and control are important issues in order to achieve better performances. Furthermore, advances in system level modeling, simulations, charge/discharge techniques, power conversion techniques, and the Internet of vehicles will be hot topics in the research field.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel vehicular electrical power systems architectures and technologies;
  • Advanced energy storage technologies;
  • Battery management systems, charging and discharging techniques;
  • Vehicle to grid, vehicle to building interactions and control;
  • Modeling and control of electric vehicles;
  • Power electronic systems- converters and emerging technologies;
  • Modeling simulation and control, reliability and fault tolerance, safety critical operation;
  • Load management; power quality; distribution reliability; distributed and islanded power systems, sensor networks, communication and control;
  • Intelligent systems; optimization and advanced heuristics; adaptive systems; robust control.
  • Internet of vehicles

Prof. Jih-Sheng (Jason) Lai
Prof. Kuohsiu David Huang
Assist. Prof. Ching-Ming Lai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrical power and energy systems
  • energy management
  • electrical machines and drives
  • power electronics
  • energy conversion
  • power generation
  • distributed power systems
  • hybrid and electric vehicles
  • more-electric aircraft
  • all-electric aircraft
  • electrical propulsion and actuation
  • power distribution architectures
  • Internet of vehicles

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Hybrid Photovoltaic Systems with Accumulation—Support for Electric Vehicle Charging
Energies 2017, 10(7), 834; doi:10.3390/en10070834
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
The paper presents the concept of a hybrid power system with additional energy storage to support electric vehicles (EVs) charging stations. The aim is to verify the possibilities of mutual cooperation of individual elements of the system from the point of view of
[...] Read more.
The paper presents the concept of a hybrid power system with additional energy storage to support electric vehicles (EVs) charging stations. The aim is to verify the possibilities of mutual cooperation of individual elements of the system from the point of view of energy balances and to show possibilities of utilization of accumulation for these purposes using mathematical modeling. The description of the technical solution of the concept is described by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. Individual elements of the assembled model are described in detail, together with the algorithm of the control logic of charging the supporting storage system. The resulting model was validated via an actual small-scale hybrid system (HS). Within the outputs of the mathematical model, two simulation scenarios are presented, with the aid of which the benefits of the concept presented were verified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Charging and Discharging Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in a Parking Station with Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage System
Energies 2017, 10(4), 550; doi:10.3390/en10040550
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
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Abstract
The economic and environmental benefits brought by electric vehicles (EVs) cannot be fully delivered unless these vehicles are fully or partially charged by renewable energy sources (RES) such as photovoltaic system (PVS). Nevertheless, the EV charging management problem of a parking station integrated
[...] Read more.
The economic and environmental benefits brought by electric vehicles (EVs) cannot be fully delivered unless these vehicles are fully or partially charged by renewable energy sources (RES) such as photovoltaic system (PVS). Nevertheless, the EV charging management problem of a parking station integrated with RES is challenging due to the uncertain nature of local RES generation. This paper aims to address these difficulties by deploying an energy storage system (ESS) in parking stations and exploiting the charging and discharging scheduling of EVs to achieve better utilization of intermittent PVS for EV charging. A real-time charging optimization scheme is also formulated, using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) to coordinate the charging or discharging power of EVs along with the power dispatches of power grid and ESS based on the vehicles’ charging or discharging priorities and electricity price preferences. Extensive simulations show that the proposed approach not only maximizes the satisfaction of EV owners in terms of fulfilling all charging and discharging requests, but also minimizes the overall operational cost of the parking station by prioritizing the utilization of energy from PVS, ESS, and scheduling of every EV’s charging and discharging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Battery Pack Grouping and Capacity Improvement for Electric Vehicles Based on a Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2017, 10(4), 439; doi:10.3390/en10040439
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes an optimal grouping method for battery packs of electric vehicles (EVs). Based on modeling the vehicle powertrain, analyzing the battery degradation performance and setting up the driving cycle of an EV, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize the
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes an optimal grouping method for battery packs of electric vehicles (EVs). Based on modeling the vehicle powertrain, analyzing the battery degradation performance and setting up the driving cycle of an EV, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize the battery grouping topology with the objective of minimizing the total cost of ownership (TCO). The battery capacity and the serial and parallel amounts of the pack can thus be determined considering the influence of battery degradation. The results show that the optimized pack grouping can be solved by GA within around 9 min. Compared with the results of maximum discharge efficiency within a fixed lifetime, the proposed method can not only achieve a higher discharge efficiency, but also reduce the TCO by 2.29%. To enlarge the applications of the proposed method, the sensitivity to driving conditions is also analyzed to further prove the feasibility of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design Methodology of a Power Split Type Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Drivetrain Losses
Energies 2017, 10(4), 437; doi:10.3390/en10040437
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes a design methodology for a power split type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by considering drivetrain losses. Selecting the input split type PHEV with a single planetary gear as the reference topology, the locations of the engine, motor and generators
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a design methodology for a power split type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by considering drivetrain losses. Selecting the input split type PHEV with a single planetary gear as the reference topology, the locations of the engine, motor and generators (MGs), on the speed lever were determined by using the mechanical point considering the system efficiency. Based on the reference topology, feasible candidates were selected by considering the operation conditions of the engine, MG1, and a redundant element. To evaluate the fuel economy of the selected candidates, the loss models of the power electronic system and drivetrain components were obtained from the mathematical governing equation and the experimental results. Based on the component loss model, a comparative analysis was performed using a dynamic programming approach under the presence or absence of the drivetrain losses. It was found that the selection of the operating mode and the operation time of each mode vary since the drivetrain loss affects the system efficiency. In addition, even if the additional modes provide the flexibility of selecting the operating mode that results in a higher system efficiency for the given driving condition, additional drivetrain elements for realizing the modes can deteriorate the fuel economy due to their various losses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Management of Parallel-Connected Cells in Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Logic Control
Energies 2017, 10(3), 404; doi:10.3390/en10030404
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
Inconsistencies that are associated with parallel-connected cells used in electric vehicles induce varied states of charge (SOCs) in each cell. Thus, loop current in the battery pack is inevitable, and this reduces overall capacity, energy utilization rate, and pack lifetime. However,
[...] Read more.
Inconsistencies that are associated with parallel-connected cells used in electric vehicles induce varied states of charge (SOCs) in each cell. Thus, loop current in the battery pack is inevitable, and this reduces overall capacity, energy utilization rate, and pack lifetime. However, no method is available to address loop current. To reduce loop current and the resulting battery inconsistency, a parallel-connected cell pack (PCCP) model that considers thermal effects is established, and a novel Simscape model that is based on PCCP is successfully constructed. Furthermore, the strategy of parallel-connected cell energy management (PCCEM) is proposed to utilize fuzzy logic control (FLC) strategy, which automatically adjusts the number of cells in a circuit in accordance with the load demand, and turns on the first N switches in the corresponding SOC order. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) driving cycle simulation shows that the PCCEM strategy considerably reduces loop current and improves the consistency of battery performance and the utilization rate of battery power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accurate and Efficient Torque Control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicles Based on Hall-Effect Sensors
Energies 2017, 10(3), 410; doi:10.3390/en10030410
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, an effective method to achieve accurate and efficient torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, based on low-resolution Hall-effect sensors, is proposed. The high-resolution rotor position is estimated by a proportional integral
[...] Read more.
Abstract: In this paper, an effective method to achieve accurate and efficient torque control of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) in electric vehicles, based on low-resolution Hall-effect sensors, is proposed. The high-resolution rotor position is estimated by a proportional integral (PI) regulator using the deviation between actual output power and reference output power. This method can compensate for the Hall position sensor mounting error, and estimate rotor position continuously and accurately. The permanent magnetic flux linkage is also estimated based on a current PI controller. Other important parameters, such as the d-axis and q-axis inductances, stator resistance, and energy loss, are measured offline by experiments. The measured parameters are saved as lookup tables which cover the entire current operating range at different current levels. Based on these accurate parameters, a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control strategy, combined with the feedforward parameter iteration method, can be achieved for accurate and efficient torque control. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both simulation and experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel High Step-Up DC-DC Converter with Coupled Inductor and Switched Clamp Capacitor Techniques for Photovoltaic Systems
Energies 2017, 10(3), 378; doi:10.3390/en10030378
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a novel high step-up DC-DC converter was successfully integrated using coupled inductor and switched capacitor techniques. High step-up DC-DC gain was achieved using a coupled inductor when capacitors charged and discharged energy, respectively. In addition, energy was recovered from the
[...] Read more.
In this study, a novel high step-up DC-DC converter was successfully integrated using coupled inductor and switched capacitor techniques. High step-up DC-DC gain was achieved using a coupled inductor when capacitors charged and discharged energy, respectively. In addition, energy was recovered from the leakage inductance of the coupled inductor by using a passive clamp circuit. Therefore, the voltage stress of the main power switch was almost reduced to 1/7 Vo (output voltage). Moreover, the coupled inductor alleviated the reverse-recovery problem of the diode. The proposed circuit efficiency can be further improved and high voltage gain can be achieved. The operation principle and steady-state analysis of the proposed converter were discussed. Finally, a hardware prototype circuit with input voltage of 24 V, output voltage of up to 400 V, and maximum power of 150 W was constructed in a laboratory; the maximum efficiency was almost 96.2%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Control Strategy Optimization for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a Memetic Algorithm
Energies 2017, 10(3), 305; doi:10.3390/en10030305
Received: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust
[...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) control strategy is a management approach for generating, using, and saving energy. Therefore, the optimal control strategy is the sticking point to effectively manage hybrid electric vehicles. In order to realize the optimal control strategy, we use a robust evolutionary computation method called a “memetic algorithm (MA)” to optimize the control parameters in parallel HEVs. The “local search” mechanism implemented in the MA greatly enhances its search capabilities. In the implementation of the method, the fitness function combines with the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) and is set up according to an electric assist control strategy (EACS) to minimize the fuel consumption (FC) and emissions (HC, CO, and NOx) of the vehicle engine. At the same time, driving performance requirements are also considered in the method. Four different driving cycles, the new European driving cycle (NEDC), Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Economic Commission for Europe + Extra-Urban driving cycle (ECE + EUDC), and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) are carried out using the proposed method to find their respectively optimal control parameters. The results show that the proposed method effectively helps to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as guarantee vehicle performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of a High Efficiency, Low Component Voltage Stress, Single-Switch High Step-Up Voltage Converter for Vehicular Green Energy Systems
Energies 2016, 9(10), 772; doi:10.3390/en9100772
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 25 September 2016
PDF Full-text (3241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a novel, non-isolated, cascade-type, single-switch, high step-up DC/DC converter was developed for green energy systems. An integrated coupled inductor and voltage lift circuit were applied to simplify the converter structure and satisfy the requirements of high efficiency and high voltage
[...] Read more.
In this study, a novel, non-isolated, cascade-type, single-switch, high step-up DC/DC converter was developed for green energy systems. An integrated coupled inductor and voltage lift circuit were applied to simplify the converter structure and satisfy the requirements of high efficiency and high voltage gain ratios. In addition, the proposed structure is controllable with a single switch, which effectively reduces the circuit cost and simplifies the control circuit. With the leakage inductor energy recovery function and active voltage clamp characteristics being present, the circuit yields optimizable conversion efficiency and low component voltage stress. After the operating principles of the proposed structure and characteristics of a steady-state circuit were analyzed, a converter prototype with 450 W, 40 V of input voltage, 400 V of output voltage, and 95% operating efficiency was fabricated. The Renesas MCU RX62T was employed to control the circuits. Experimental results were analyzed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations
Energies 2016, 9(9), 744; doi:10.3390/en9090744
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS) cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV) on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS) for EVs: on the
[...] Read more.
To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS) cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV) on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS) for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS) were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00), charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS), with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive. Full article
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