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Special Issue "Energy-sustainable Development"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Richard A. Fenner

Center for Sustainable Development, Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK
E-Mail
Fax: +44 12 2376 5625
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vic Hanby

The Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, Queens Building, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
E-Mail
Fax: +44 11 6257 7977

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A major readjustment to the generation and use of energy is urgently needed to address the challenges posed by anthropomorphic climate change and wider issues of sustainable development relating to energy security and equitable access, as well as meeting the needs of growing populations in both urban and rural areas many of whom are in the developing world. It is likely that to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector many separate initiatives will have to be implemented, including measures to retrofit existing building stock, to seek alternative transport systems, to develop generation capacity from renewable energy resources and to implement clean energy technologies to ensure wider environmental protection. The provision of energy services can also be seen as part of an integrated component of a wider system of urban infrastructure through system scale efficiencies and demand side savings (for example through the smart design of future building stock and water provision).

Dr. Richard A. Fenner
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Vic Hanby
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • energy resources
  • energy demand
  • energy efficiency
  • renewable energy technologies
  • energy policy (for developed and developing countries)
  • energy security
  • energy integration with other services
  • energy systems
  • environmental impact of energy supply
  • energy poverty and access
  • clean energy
  • energy generation
  • energy use (for buildings, transport, industry)

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1691-1703; doi:10.3390/en3101691
Received: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel
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Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Use of an Integrated Approach to Support Energy and Climate Policy Formulation and Evaluation
Energies 2010, 3(9), 1604-1621; doi:10.3390/en3091604
Received: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 10 September 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 national leaders have started investigating options for reducing carbon emissions within national borders [1]. Despite confronting similar energy issues, every country that adopted the Kyoto Protocol has a unique energy strategy [1,2] -being characterized
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With the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 national leaders have started investigating options for reducing carbon emissions within national borders [1]. Despite confronting similar energy issues, every country that adopted the Kyoto Protocol has a unique energy strategy [1,2] -being characterized by a different context, social, economic or environmental that influences the way different nations deal with climate change and other energy-related issues. Finding that currently available energy models are often too detailed or narrowly focused to inform longer-term policy formulation and evaluation holistically [3], the present study proposes the utilization of an integrated cross-sectoral medium to longer-term research and modeling approach, incorporating various methodologies to minimize exogenous assumptions and endogenously represent the key drivers of the system analyzed. The framework proposed includes feedback, delays and non-linearity and focuses on structure, scenarios and policies, requires a profound customization of the model that goes beyond a new parameterization. The inclusion of social and environmental factors, in addition to economic ones, all unique to the geographical area analyzed, allows for a wider analysis of the implication of policies by identifying potential side effect or longer-term bottlenecks for socio-economic development and environmental preservation arising from cross-sectoral relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach
Energies 2010, 3(8), 1472-1484; doi:10.3390/en3081472
Received: 9 July 2010 / Revised: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 26 July 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work.
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Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-sustainable Development)

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