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Special Issue "Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2009)

Keywords

  • global warming
  • climate change
  • atmospheric and climate modeling
  • biodiversity, adaptation, sustainability
  • fossil fuel sustainability
  • economics of sustainable engineering
  • energy policy
  • green technology
  • nanomaterials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions
Energies 2009, 2(4), 805-815; doi:10.3390/en20400805
Received: 10 September 2009 / Accepted: 25 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2095 KB)
Abstract
This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional
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This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Fixed Bed Reactor Network Configuration for the Efficient Recycling of CO2 into Methanol
Energies 2009, 2(2), 180-189; doi:10.3390/en20200180
Received: 19 February 2009 / Revised: 2 April 2009 / Accepted: 3 April 2009 / Published: 7 April 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An optimal design strategy of a network of fixed bed reactors for Methanol Production (MP) is proposed in this study. Both methanol production and profit spanning a production period of eight years have been set as objective functions to find the optimal production
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An optimal design strategy of a network of fixed bed reactors for Methanol Production (MP) is proposed in this study. Both methanol production and profit spanning a production period of eight years have been set as objective functions to find the optimal production network. The conservation of mass and energy laws on a heterogeneous model of a single industrial methanol reactor was first developed. The model was solved numerically and was validated with industrial plant data. Different reactor network arrangements were then simulated in order to find an optimal superstructure. It was found that a structure of four reactors (two in series in parallel with another two in series) provide maximum production rate. The application of the more realistic objective function of profit showed that a configuration of two parallel reactors is the best configuration. This optimal structure produces 92 tons/day more methanol than a single reactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)

Review

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Open AccessReview Calculation of Residual Electricity Mixes when Accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System) — the Need for a Harmonised System
Energies 2009, 2(3), 477-489; doi:10.3390/en20300477
Received: 31 May 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 26 June 2009 / Published: 1 July 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based
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According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)
Figures

Open AccessReview What You Should Know About Carbon Markets
Energies 2008, 1(3), 120-153; doi:10.3390/en1030120
Received: 15 October 2008 / Revised: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 17 December 2008
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European
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Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has been in continuous expansion. In this paper, we review the origins of carbon trading in order to understand how carbon trading works in Europe and, specifically, the functioning of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and the workings of several spot, futures and options markets where European Union Allowances are traded. As well, the linking of the EU ETS with the other United Nations carbon markets is also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Solutions in the Era of Climate Change)

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