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Special Issue "Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 June 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chang Wu Yu

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chung Hua University, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wireless networks, graph algorithms, distributed computing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wireless sensor networks have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their various applications in many fields. Due to limited power consumption, these sensor nodes may experience power shortages and thus lead to many problems including network disconnection. Most previous methods focused on providing energy-saving strategies to elevate the lifetime of sensor networks. Another aggressive but different approach is to wirelessly re-charge the sensor nodes to increase the lifetime of the sensor networks.

This Special Issue, entitled “Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks”, invites articles that address state-of-the-art technologies and new developments for wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs).

Articles that deal with the latest hot topics in WRSNs are particularly encouraged, such as charger deployment, charger scheduling, wireless energy transfer, mobile charger design, energy-harvesting technique, and energy provisioning. In addition, articles that discuss protocols, algorithms, and optimization in WRSN, are of particular interest.

Prof. Dr. Chang Wu Yu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • recharge scheduling
  • wireless energy transfer techniques
  • energy-harvesting technique
  • charger deployment
  • protocol design
  • mobile charger design
  • energy provisioning
  • wireless sensor networks

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Efficient Wireless Charger Deployment for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
Energies 2016, 9(9), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090696
Received: 11 June 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN) consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on
[...] Read more.
A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN) consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on grid points of a fixed height to propose two heuristic algorithms solving the following wireless charger deployment optimization (WCDO) problem: how to deploy as few as possible chargers to make the WRSN sustainable. Both algorithms model the charging space of chargers as a cone and calculate charging efficiency according power regression expressions complying with the Friis transmission equation. The two algorithms are the greedy cone covering (GCC) algorithm and the adaptive cone covering (ACC) algorithm. The GCC (respectively, ACC) algorithm greedily (respectively, adaptively) generates candidate cones to cover as many as possible sensor nodes. Both algorithms then greedily select the fewest number of candidate cones, each of which corresponds to the deployment of a charger, to have approximate solutions to the WCDO problem. We perform experiments, conduct simulations and do analyses for the algorithms to compare them in terms of the time complexity, the number of chargers deployed, and the execution time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
Energies 2016, 9(9), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090695
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes
[...] Read more.
Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD) method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle MMCS: Multi-Module Charging Strategy for Increasing the Lifetime of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks
Energies 2016, 9(9), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090664
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, wireless charging technology has provided an alternative to charging equipment. Wireless charging technology has already proved to be useful in our daily lives in phones, buses, restaurants, etc. Wireless charging technology can also be applied in energy-bounded wireless sensor networks
[...] Read more.
In recent years, wireless charging technology has provided an alternative to charging equipment. Wireless charging technology has already proved to be useful in our daily lives in phones, buses, restaurants, etc. Wireless charging technology can also be applied in energy-bounded wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and these are called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). The optimized charging path problem is the most widely discussed issue in employing WRSNs with wireless charging vehicles (WCVs). This problem involves determining the most efficient path for charging sensor nodes. Further, charging-scheduling problems also need to be considered in the optimized charging path problem. In this paper, we proposed a multi-module charging strategy (MMCS) used to prolong the lifetime of the entire WRSN. MMCS can be divided into three stages: the charging topology, charging scheduling, and charging strategy stages, with multiple modules in each stage. The best module combination of MMCS is the distance-based module in the charging topology stage, delay-based module in the charging schedule stage, and the average lifetime module in the charging strategy stage. The best module combination enables prolonging the lifetime efficiently, as it considers not only the priority of urgent nodes but also the travel distance of WCV; the delay-based module of the charging schedule stage considers the delay effect on the follow-up nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed MMCS can improve the lifetime of the entire WRSN and that it substantially outperforms the nearest job next with preemption (NJNP) method in terms of lifetime improvement of the entire WRSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Design of Radio Frequency Energy Relays on Power Transmission Lines
Energies 2016, 9(6), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9060476
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental influences on power transmission lines, a self-powered wireless energy relay is designed to meet the energy requirement of the passive RFID sensor tag. The relay can obtain the electric field energy from the transmission lines and wirelessly power the RFID sensor tags around for longer operating distance. A prototype of the energy relay is built and tested on a 110 kv line. The measurement results show that the energy relay can provide stable energy even with the influences of wind, noise and power outage. To our knowledge, it is the first work to power the RFID sensor tags on power transmission lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Reconfigurable Formation and Disjoint Hierarchical Routing for Rechargeable Bluetooth Networks
Energies 2016, 9(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050338
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a reconfigurable mesh-tree with a disjoint hierarchical routing protocol for the Bluetooth sensor network is proposed. First, a designated root constructs a tree-shaped subnet and propagates parameters k and c in its downstream direction to determine new roots. Each new
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a reconfigurable mesh-tree with a disjoint hierarchical routing protocol for the Bluetooth sensor network is proposed. First, a designated root constructs a tree-shaped subnet and propagates parameters k and c in its downstream direction to determine new roots. Each new root asks its upstream master to start a return connection to convert the first tree-shaped subnet into a mesh-shaped subnet. At the same time, each new root repeats the same procedure as the designated root to build its own tree-shaped subnet, until the whole scatternet is formed. As a result, the reconfigurable mesh-tree constructs a mesh-shaped topology in one densely covered area that is extended by tree-shaped topology to other sparsely covered areas. To locate the optimum k layer for various sizes of networks, a peak-search method is introduced in the designated root to determine the optimum mesh-tree configuration. In addition, the reconfigurable mesh-tree can dynamically compute the optimum layer k when the size of the network changes in the topology maintenance phase. In order to deliver packets over the mesh-tree networks, a disjoint hierarchical routing protocol is designed during the scatternet formation phase to efficiently forward packets in-between the mesh-subnet and the tree-subnet. To achieve the energy balance design, two equal disjoint paths are generated, allowing each node to alleviate network congestion, since most traffic occurs at the mesh-subnet. Simulation results show that the joint reconfigurable method and routing algorithm generate an efficient scatternet configuration by achieving better scatternet and routing performance than BlueHRT (bluetooth hybrid ring tree). Furthermore, the disjoint routing with rechargeable battery strategy effectively improves network lifetime and demonstrates better energy efficiency than conventional routing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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Other

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Open AccessLetter Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Bus-Stop-Powered Electric Vehicles
Energies 2016, 9(7), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070512
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for electric vehicles (EVs) based on EE-shaped ferrite cores. The issues of the IPT system such as efficiency, air gap, displacement, dislocation, and motion are discussed. Furthermore, finite element analysis software is utilized to
[...] Read more.
This study presents an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for electric vehicles (EVs) based on EE-shaped ferrite cores. The issues of the IPT system such as efficiency, air gap, displacement, dislocation, and motion are discussed. Furthermore, finite element analysis software is utilized to simulate the IPT system operated under large air gap conditions. Simulation and measurement results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed scheme and meet the requirements for bus-stop-powered EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks)
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