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Special Issue "Emerging Power Electronics Technologies for Power Systems and Machine Drives"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tomonobu Senjyu

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-98-895-8686
Fax: +81 895 8686
Interests: Renewable energy; Power systems; Power electronics; System control; Optimization; Smart grid; Smart house; Motor drives; Artificial intelligence; Electric vehicles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Guest Editor is inviting submissions for a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of "Emerging Power Electronics Technologies for Power Systems and Machine Drives". Power Electronic technologies are found in wide range of power systems and machine drives. The application areas of power electronics are small and/or large capacities for electric circuits, e.g., high-voltage DC transmission systems, large capacity energy storage systems, electric vehicles, power conditioners for photovoltaic systems, ship and train traction systems, etc. The applications of power electronic circuits are now increasing throughout various aspects of our lives.

This Special Issue will focus on emerging power electronic topologies, and applications for power systems and motor drives. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

• High voltage DC transmission systems;
• Novel renewable energy converter/inverter systems;
• Virtual synchronous generator;
• Electrical machines, drives, systems and applications;
• New topologies for high voltage inverter/converter;
• New applications for power electronics;
• Power electronics in smart grid;
• AC/DC converters and inverters;
• Control and optimization of power electronic circuit;
• Distributed generation for power electronics;
• Recent traction systems for vehicles, trains and ships;
• Demand side electrification and management of power electronics

Prof. Dr. Tomonobu Senjyu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

• Power Electronics
• Power Systems
• Motor Drives
• New Topologies for Converters/Inverters
• High Power Applications

Published Papers (41 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Reducing WCET Overestimations by Correcting Errors in Loop Bound Constraints
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2113; doi:10.3390/en10122113 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1027 KB)
Abstract
In order to reduce overestimations of worst-case execution time (WCET), in this article, we firstly report a kind of specific WCET overestimation caused by non-orthogonal nested loops. Then, we propose a novel correction approach which has three basic steps. The first step is
[...] Read more.
In order to reduce overestimations of worst-case execution time (WCET), in this article, we firstly report a kind of specific WCET overestimation caused by non-orthogonal nested loops. Then, we propose a novel correction approach which has three basic steps. The first step is to locate the worst-case execution path (WCEP) in the control flow graph and then map it onto source code. The second step is to identify non-orthogonal nested loops from the WCEP by means of an abstract syntax tree. The last step is to recursively calculate the WCET errors caused by the loose loop bound constraints, and then subtract the total errors from the overestimations. The novelty lies in the fact that the WCET correction is only conducted on the non-branching part of WCEP, thus avoiding potential safety risks caused by possible WCEP switches. Experimental results show that our approach reduces the specific WCET overestimation by an average of more than 82%, and 100% of corrected WCET is no less than the actual WCET. Thus, our approach is not only effective but also safe. It will help developers to design energy-efficient and safe real-time systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Novel Digital Control Method of a Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter Based on a Virtual Closed-Loop Circuit and Complex Vector Representation
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2068; doi:10.3390/en10122068
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
PDF Full-text (8348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid development of renewable energy generation, single-phase grid-connected inverters have been widely applied in modern power systems. Since the power output of the renewable sources is continuously changing, independent active/reactive power control and a rapid current tracking performance is supposed to
[...] Read more.
With the rapid development of renewable energy generation, single-phase grid-connected inverters have been widely applied in modern power systems. Since the power output of the renewable sources is continuously changing, independent active/reactive power control and a rapid current tracking performance is supposed to be achieved in a single-phase grid-connected inverter. However, the poor orthogonal-axis-constructing strategy and the ineffective decoupling in some widely-used controllers have severely weakened the dynamic performance of the single-phase inverter. To deal with the challenges above, this study proposes a comprehensive control strategy for current control in a single-phase grid-connected inverter. In the proposed control strategy, a virtual closed-loop is constructed to improve the dynamic performance and realize independent power control under a synchronous frame. Then, complex vector theory is used to model the virtual closed-loop based single-phase inverter, and a novel digital controller is designed based on zero-pole cancellation and minimum beat control to completely decouple the active/reactive components and achieve a supreme current tracking performance. Experimental results are shown to validate the feasibility of the proposed current controller. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Loss Model and Efficiency Analysis of Tram Auxiliary Converter Based on a SiC Device
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2018; doi:10.3390/en10122018
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
PDF Full-text (11098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now
[...] Read more.
Currently, the auxiliary converter in the auxiliary power supply system of a modern tram adopts Si IGBT as its switching device and with the 1700 V/225 A SiC MOSFET module commercially available from Cree, an auxiliary converter using all SiC devices is now possible. A SiC auxiliary converter prototype is developed during this study. The author(s) derive the loss calculation formula of the SiC auxiliary converter according to the system topology and principle and each part loss in this system can be calculated based on the device datasheet. Then, the static and dynamic characteristics of the SiC MOSFET module used in the system are tested, which aids in fully understanding the performance of the SiC devices and provides data support for the establishment of the PLECS loss simulation model. Additionally, according to the actual circuit parameters, the PLECS loss simulation model is set up. This simulation model can simulate the actual operating conditions of the auxiliary converter system and calculate the loss of each switching device. Finally, the loss of the SiC auxiliary converter prototype is measured and through comparison it is found that the loss calculation theory and PLECS loss simulation model is valuable. Furthermore, the thermal images of the system can prove the conclusion about loss distribution to some extent. Moreover, these two methods have the advantages of less variables and fast calculation for high power applications. The loss models may aid in optimizing the switching frequency and improving the efficiency of the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Three-Phase Four-Leg Inverter-Based Active Power Filter for Unbalanced Current Compensation Using a Petri Probabilistic Fuzzy Neural Network
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2005; doi:10.3390/en10122005
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
PDF Full-text (19056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A three-phase four-leg inverter-based shunt active power filter (APF) is proposed to compensate three-phase unbalanced currents under unbalanced load conditions in grid-connected operation in this study. Since a DC-link capacitor is required on the DC side of the APF to release or absorb
[...] Read more.
A three-phase four-leg inverter-based shunt active power filter (APF) is proposed to compensate three-phase unbalanced currents under unbalanced load conditions in grid-connected operation in this study. Since a DC-link capacitor is required on the DC side of the APF to release or absorb the instantaneous apparent power, the regulation control of the DC-link voltage of the APF is important especially under load variation. In order to improve the regulation control of the DC-link voltage of the shunt APF under variation of three-phase unbalanced load and to compensate the three-phase unbalanced currents effectively, a novel Petri probabilistic fuzzy neural network (PPFNN) controller is proposed to replace the traditional proportional-integral (PI) controller in this study. Furthermore, the network structure and online learning algorithms of the proposed PPFNN are represented in detail. Finally, the effectiveness of the three-phase four-leg inverter-based shunt APF with the proposed PPFNN controller for the regulation of the DC-link voltage and compensation of the three-phase unbalanced current has been demonstrated by some experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Power Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Wind Power Using Decomposition Based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1991; doi:10.3390/en10121991
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
PDF Full-text (6067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intermittency of wind power and the large-scale integration of electric vehicles (EVs) bring new challenges to the reliability and economy of power system dispatching. In this paper, a novel multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) model is proposed considering the EVs and
[...] Read more.
The intermittency of wind power and the large-scale integration of electric vehicles (EVs) bring new challenges to the reliability and economy of power system dispatching. In this paper, a novel multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) model is proposed considering the EVs and uncertainties of wind power. The total fuel cost and pollutant emission are considered as the optimization objectives, and the vehicle to grid (V2G) power and the conventional generator output power are set as the decision variables. The stochastic wind power is derived by Weibull probability distribution function. Under the premise of meeting the system energy and user’s travel demand, the charging and discharging behavior of the EVs are dynamically managed. Moreover, we propose a two-step dynamic constraint processing strategy for decision variables based on penalty function, and, on this basis, the Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition (MOEA/D) algorithm is improved. The proposed model and approach are verified by the 10-generator system. The results demonstrate that the proposed DEED model and the improved MOEA/D algorithm are effective and reasonable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Model-Based Predictive Current Control Method with Constant Switching Frequency for Single-Phase Voltage Source Inverters
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1927; doi:10.3390/en10111927
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
PDF Full-text (8428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Voltage source inverters operated by predictive control methods generally lead to a variable switching frequency, because predictive control methods generate switching operation based on an optimal voltage state selected at every sampling period. Varying switching frequencies make it difficult to design output filters
[...] Read more.
Voltage source inverters operated by predictive control methods generally lead to a variable switching frequency, because predictive control methods generate switching operation based on an optimal voltage state selected at every sampling period. Varying switching frequencies make it difficult to design output filters of voltage source inverters. This paper proposes a predictive control algorithm with a constant switching frequency for the load current control of single-phase voltage source inverters. This method selects two future optimal voltage states used in the subsequent sampling period, which are a zero-voltage state and a future optimal voltage state, based on the slope of the reference current at each sampling period. After selecting the two future voltages, the proposed method distributes them to produce a constant switching frequency and symmetric switching pattern. The performance of the proposed method is validated with both simulation and experimental results for single-phase voltage source inverters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1875; doi:10.3390/en10111875
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
PDF Full-text (14892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state
[...] Read more.
A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other improved regenerative braking strategies. The performance simulation was performed using standard driving cycles (NEDC, LA92, and JP1015) and a real-world-based urban cycle in China. The tested braking strategies satisfied the general safety requirements of Europe (as specified in ECE-13H), and the emergency braking scenario and economic potential were tested. The simulation results demonstrated the differences in the braking force distribution performance of these three regenerative braking strategies, the feasibility of the braking methods for the proposed driving cycles and the energy economic potential of the three strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Case Library Construction Technology of Energy Loss in Distribution Networks Considering Regional Differentiation Theory
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1861; doi:10.3390/en10111861
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (3379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The grid structures, load levels, and running states of distribution networks in different supply regions are known as the influencing factors of energy loss. In this paper, the case library of energy loss is constructed to differentiate the crucial factors of energy loss
[...] Read more.
The grid structures, load levels, and running states of distribution networks in different supply regions are known as the influencing factors of energy loss. In this paper, the case library of energy loss is constructed to differentiate the crucial factors of energy loss in the different supply regions. First of all, the characteristic state values are selected as the representation of the cases based on the analysis of energy loss under various voltage classes and in different types of regions. Then, the methods of Grey Relational Analysis and the K-Nearest Neighbor are utilized to implement the critical technologies of case library construction, including case representation, processing, analysis, and retrieval. Moreover, the analysis software of the case library is designed based on the case library construction technology. Some case studies show that there are many differences and similarities concerning the factors that influence the energy loss in different types of regions. In addition, the most relevant sample case can be retrieved from the case library. Compared with the traditional techniques, constructing a case library provides a new way to find out the characteristics of energy loss in different supply regions and constitutes differentiated loss-reducing programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on Single-Phase PWM Converter with Reverse Conducting IGBT Based on Loss Threshold Desaturation Control
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1845; doi:10.3390/en10111845
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the application of vehicle power supply and distributed power generation, there are strict requirements for the pulse width modulation (PWM) converter regarding power density and reliability. When compared with the conventional insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module, the Reverse Conducting-Insulated Gate Bipolar
[...] Read more.
In the application of vehicle power supply and distributed power generation, there are strict requirements for the pulse width modulation (PWM) converter regarding power density and reliability. When compared with the conventional insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module, the Reverse Conducting-Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (RC-IGBT) with the same package has a lower thermal resistance and higher current tolerance. By applying the gate desaturation control, the reverse recovery loss of the RC-IGBT diode may be reduced. In this paper, a loss threshold desaturation control method is studied to improve the output characteristics of the single-phase PWM converter with a low switching frequency. The gate desaturation control characteristics of the RC-IGBT’s diode are studied. A proper current limit is set to avoid the ineffective infliction of the desaturation pulse, while the bridge arm current crosses zero. The expectation of optimized loss decrease is obtained, and the better performance for the RC-IGBTs of the single-phase PWM converter is achieved through the optimized desaturation pulse distribution. Finally, the improved predictive current control algorithm that is applied to the PWM converter with RC-IGBTs is simulated, and is operated and tested on the scaled reduced power platform. The results prove that the gate desaturation control with the improved predictive current algorithm may effectively improve the RC-IGBT’s characteristics, and realize the stable output of the PWM converter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Approach for Optimal Location and Parameters Setting of UPFC for Enhancing Power Systems Stability under Contingency Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1738; doi:10.3390/en10111738
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
PDF Full-text (10474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Operation of power system within specified limits of voltage and frequency are the major concerns in power system stability studies. As power system is always prone to disturbances, which consequently affect the voltage instability and optimal power flow, and therefore risks the power
[...] Read more.
Operation of power system within specified limits of voltage and frequency are the major concerns in power system stability studies. As power system is always prone to disturbances, which consequently affect the voltage instability and optimal power flow, and therefore risks the power systems stability and security. In this paper, a novel technique based on the “Artificial Algae Algorithm” (AAA) is introduced, to identify the optimal location and the parameters setting of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) under N-1 contingency criterion. In the first part, we have carried out a contingency operation and ranking process for the most parlous lines outage contingencies while taking the transmission lines overloading (NOLL) and voltage violation of buses (NVVB) as a performance parameter (PP = NOLL + NVVB). As UPFC possesses too much prohibitive cost and larger size, its optimal location and size must be identified before the actual deployment. In the second part, we have applied a novel AAA technique to identify the optimal location and parameters setting of UPFC under the discovered contingencies. The simulations have been executed on IEEE 14 bus and 30 bus networks. The results reveals that the location of UPFC is significantly optimized using AAA technique, which has improved the stability and security of the power system by curtailing the overloaded transmission lines and limiting the voltage violations of buses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Core Loss Analysis of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines under SVPWM Excitation with Considering Saturation
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1716; doi:10.3390/en10111716
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
PDF Full-text (5446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Core loss is one of the significant factors affecting the high power density of permanent magnet machines; thus, it is necessary to consider core loss in machine design. This paper presents a novel method for calculating the core loss of permanent magnet synchronous
[...] Read more.
Core loss is one of the significant factors affecting the high power density of permanent magnet machines; thus, it is necessary to consider core loss in machine design. This paper presents a novel method for calculating the core loss of permanent magnet synchronous machines under space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) excitation, taking magnetic saturation and cross coupling into account. In order to accurately obtain the direct and quadrature (d-q) axis, current in the given load condition, the permanent magnet motor model under SVPWM excitation has been modified, so as to consider the influence of magnetic saturation and cross coupling effects on the d-q axis flux-linkage. Based on the magnetic field distribution caused by permanent magnet and armature reactions, the stator core loss can be calculated with the core loss analytical model, corresponding to the rotational magnetic field. In this study, the method has been applied to analyze core loss in an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, and has been validated by the experimental results. The influence of pole/slot number combinations on core loss in the same on-load condition is also investigated. This study provides a potential method to guide motor design optimization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1684; doi:10.3390/en10111684
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
PDF Full-text (4315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of
[...] Read more.
Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Topology of Hybrid HVDC Circuit Breaker for VSC-HVDC Application
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1675; doi:10.3390/en10101675
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuit breakers (CBs) with the capabilities of bidirectional fault interruption, reclosing, and rebreaking can improve the reliable and safe operation of HVDC grids. Although several topologies of CBs have been proposed to perform these capabilities,
[...] Read more.
The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuit breakers (CBs) with the capabilities of bidirectional fault interruption, reclosing, and rebreaking can improve the reliable and safe operation of HVDC grids. Although several topologies of CBs have been proposed to perform these capabilities, the limitation of these topologies is either high on-state losses or long time interruption in the case bidirectional fault current interruption. Long time interruption results in the large magnitude of the fault current in the voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) system due to the high rate of rise of fault current. This paper proposes a new topology of hybrid CB (HCB) with lower conduction loss and lower interruption time to solve the problems. The proposed topology is based on the inverse current injection method, which uses the capacitor to enforce the fault current to zero. In the case of the bidirectional fault current interruption, the capacitor does not change its polarity after identifying the direction of fault current, which can reduce the interruption time accordingly. A switching control algorithm for the proposed topology is presented in detail. Different operation modes of proposed HCB, such as normal current mode, breaking fault current mode, discharging, and reversing capacitor voltage modes after clearing the fault, are considered in the proposed algorithm. The proposed topology with the switching control algorithm is tested in a simulation-based system. Different simulation scenarios such as temporary and permanent faults are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed topology. The simulation is performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grid-Connected Control Strategy of Five-level Inverter Based on Passive E-L Model
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1657; doi:10.3390/en10101657
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
PDF Full-text (3584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, the research on five-level inverters mainly involves the modulation algorithm and topology, and few articles study the five-level inverter from the control strategy. In this paper, the nonlinear passivity-based control (PBC) method is proposed for single-phase uninterruptible power supply inverters. The
[...] Read more.
At present, the research on five-level inverters mainly involves the modulation algorithm and topology, and few articles study the five-level inverter from the control strategy. In this paper, the nonlinear passivity-based control (PBC) method is proposed for single-phase uninterruptible power supply inverters. The proposed PBC method is based on an energy shaping and damping injection idea, which is performed to regulate the energy flow of an inverter to a desired level and to assure global asymptotic stability, respectively. Furthermore, this paper presents a control algorithm based on the theory of passivity that gives an inverter in a photovoltaic system additional functions: power factor correction, harmonic currents compensation, and the ability to stabilize the system under varying injection damping. Finally, the effectiveness of the PBC method in terms of both stability and harmonic distortion is verified by the simulation and experiments under resistive and inductive loads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Method for the Realization of an Interruption Generator Based on Voltage Source Converters
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1642; doi:10.3390/en10101642
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
PDF Full-text (10669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we described the structure and working principle of an interruption generator based on voltage source converters (VSCs). The main circuit parameters of the VSCs are determined according to the target of power transfer capability, harmonic suppression, and dynamic response capability.
[...] Read more.
In this paper we described the structure and working principle of an interruption generator based on voltage source converters (VSCs). The main circuit parameters of the VSCs are determined according to the target of power transfer capability, harmonic suppression, and dynamic response capability. A state feedback linearization method in nonlinear differential geometry theory was used for dq axis current decoupling, based on the mathematical model used in the dq coordinate system of VSCs. The direct current control strategy was adopted to achieve the independent regulation of active power and reactive power. The proportional integral (PI) link was used to optimize the dynamic performance of the controller, and PI parameters were adjusted. Disturbance voltage waves were generated by the regular sampling method. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation results and physical prototype experiments showed that the device could generate various disturbance voltage waveforms steadily, and had good dynamic and steady-state performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated BMS-MMC Balancing Technique Highlighted by a Novel Space-Vector Based Approach for BEVs Application
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1628; doi:10.3390/en10101628
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
PDF Full-text (2415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a new mathematical model of modular multilevel converters for battery electric vehicles with space-vectors enabling a critical analysis of cell balancing for the battery management system. In particular, the requirements for power balancing and the actual number of degrees of
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new mathematical model of modular multilevel converters for battery electric vehicles with space-vectors enabling a critical analysis of cell balancing for the battery management system. In particular, the requirements for power balancing and the actual number of degrees of freedom of the control are investigated. The paper shows that the traditional approach of cell balancing is a special case of the proposed control methodology. Numerical analyses with Matlab/Simulink™ highlight the reasons of the slow response of the standard balancing technique for specific operating conditions of the battery electric vehicle. The paper suggests potential improvements that could be introduced through the proposed generalised approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thrust Force Ripple Reduction of Two C-Core Linear Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machines of High Thrust Force Capability
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1608; doi:10.3390/en10101608
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
PDF Full-text (4711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Linear flux-switching permanent magnetic (LFSPM) machines are good choices for long stroke applications. These machines deliver high thrust force density in addition to the machine structure where permanent magnetics (PMs) and windings are all on the short mover. For LFSPM machines, their performance
[...] Read more.
Linear flux-switching permanent magnetic (LFSPM) machines are good choices for long stroke applications. These machines deliver high thrust force density in addition to the machine structure where permanent magnetics (PMs) and windings are all on the short mover. For LFSPM machines, their performance is always affected by big thrust force ripple. In this paper, for two C-core LFSPM machines of high thrust force capability, including a 6/13 C-core LFSPM (6/13LFSPM-C) machine and a sandwiched C-core LFSPM (SLFSPM-C) machine, and a thrust force ripple reduction method is proposed. The proposed method is developed by reducing the slot effect component of the cogging force based on staggered stator tooth, and suppressing the thrust force ripple caused by unbalanced three phase back-electromagnetic forces (EMFs) based on two end PMs. Based on finite element analysis (FEA) results, both C-core LFSPM machines can achieve small thrust force ripples as well as high sinusoidal back-EMFs, and at the same time, maintain high thrust force capability with the proposed method. It was also found that, the improved SLFSPM-C machine exhibited the same thrust force capability as the improved 6/13LFSPM-C machine, but with a much smaller thrust force ripple. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Position and Speed Estimation of Permanent Magnet Machine Sensorless Drive at High Speed Using an Improved Phase-Locked Loop
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1571; doi:10.3390/en10101571
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
PDF Full-text (12230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In conventional position sensorless permanent magnet (PM) machine drives, the rotor position is obtained from the phase-locked loop (PLL) with the regulation of spatial signal in estimated back electromotive force (EMF) voltages. Due to the sinusoidal distribution of back-EMF voltages, a small-signal approximation
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In conventional position sensorless permanent magnet (PM) machine drives, the rotor position is obtained from the phase-locked loop (PLL) with the regulation of spatial signal in estimated back electromotive force (EMF) voltages. Due to the sinusoidal distribution of back-EMF voltages, a small-signal approximation is assumed in the PLL in order to estimate the position. That is, the estimated position is almost equal to the actual position per sample instant. However, at high speed when the ratio of sampling frequency, fsample, over the rotor operating frequency, fe, is low, this approximation might not be valid during the speed and load transient. To overcome this limitation, a position estimation is proposed specifically for the high-speed operation of a PM machine drive. A discrete-time EMF voltage estimator is developed to obtain the machine spatial signal. In addition, an arctangent calculation is cascaded to the PLL in order to remove this small-signal approximation for better sensorless drive performance. By using the discrete-time EMF estimation and modified PLL, the drive is able to maintain the speed closed-loop at 36 krpm with only 4.2 sampling points per electrical cycle on a PM machine, according to experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Stable and Fast-Transient Performance Switched-Mode Power Amplifier for a Power Hardware in the Loop (PHIL) System
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1569; doi:10.3390/en10101569
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Power Hardware in the Loop (PHIL) systems are used to test a power system with the help of combined software and hardware. Generally, to construct a PHIL system, a switched-mode power amplifier that has a stable performance is used, because of their large,
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Power Hardware in the Loop (PHIL) systems are used to test a power system with the help of combined software and hardware. Generally, to construct a PHIL system, a switched-mode power amplifier that has a stable performance is used, because of their large, linear signal control-to-output characteristics. However, the fundamental limitations of a switch-mode power amplifier (PA) are the dynamic performance and output bandwidth. In this paper, a compound controller has been used for the rectifier part of a PA, which can ensure the stability of a PA under transient or fault operating conditions. Moreover, a compound controller, which involves a feed-forward controller, a proportional controller and a repetitive controller, is proposed in the inverter part of a PA, and it can be used for PHIL applications. Experimental results are obtained under various operating conditions, such as transient responses under load step change, and output voltage bandwidth testing for a PHIL system, it is concluded that a proposed switched-mode power amplifier is useful for the PHIL system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Harmonic Resonance Suppression Strategy for a High-Speed Railway Traction Power Supply System with a SHE-PWM Four-Quadrant Converter Based on Active-Set Secondary Optimization
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1567; doi:10.3390/en10101567
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Pulse width modulation (PWM) technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS). This paper first analyzes the
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Pulse width modulation (PWM) technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS). This paper first analyzes the mechanism of resonance, when the characteristic harmonic frequency of a four-quadrant converter (4QC) current that injects into the traction grid matches the resonant frequency of the traction grid, which may result in resonance in the system. To suppress resonance, this paper adopts specific harmonic elimination–pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM) technology combined with a transient direct current control strategy to eliminate the harmonics in the resonant frequency, which may suppress the grid–train coupling resonance. Due to the fact that the SHE-PWM process with multiple switching angles contains complex transcendental equations, the initial value is difficult to provide, and is difficult to solve using ordinary iterative algorithms. In this paper, an active-set secondary optimization method is used to solve the equation. The algorithm has the benefits of low dependence on initial values, fast convergence and high solution accuracy. Finally, the feasibility of the resonant suppression algorithm is verified by means of Matlab simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Control Method for a Bi-Directional Phase-Shift-Controlled DC-DC Converter with an Extended Load Range
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1532; doi:10.3390/en10101532
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Phase-shifted converters are practically important to provide high conversion efficiencies through soft-switching techniques. However, the limitation on a resonant inductor current in the converters often leads to a non-fulfillment of the requirement of minimum load current. This paper presents a new power electronics
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Phase-shifted converters are practically important to provide high conversion efficiencies through soft-switching techniques. However, the limitation on a resonant inductor current in the converters often leads to a non-fulfillment of the requirement of minimum load current. This paper presents a new power electronics control technique to enable the dual features of bi-directional power flow and an extended load range for soft-switching in phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converters. The proposed technique utilizes two identical full bridge converters and inverters in conjunction with a new control logic for gate-driving signals to facilitate both Zero Current Switching (ZCS) and Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) in a single phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converter. The additional ZCS is designed for light load conditions at which the minimum load current cannot be attained. The bi-directional phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converter can implement the function of synchronous rectification. Its fast dynamic response allows for quick energy recovery during the regenerative braking of traction systems in electrified trains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Nonlinearity in Input Filter on the Dynamic Behavior of an Interleaved Boost PFC Converter
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1530; doi:10.3390/en10101530
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
A power factor correction (PFC) converter with interleaved multi-channel topology is gaining increasing attention due to its ability in reducing input and output current ripples, but an Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) noise filter is still required for suppressing the large high-frequency switching noise that
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A power factor correction (PFC) converter with interleaved multi-channel topology is gaining increasing attention due to its ability in reducing input and output current ripples, but an Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) noise filter is still required for suppressing the large high-frequency switching noise that could potentially degrade the input power quality of the supplying grid and cause malfunctions to other grid-connected systems. In this paper, a magnetic modeling of an interleaved PFC converter with an input differential mode (DM) EMI filter has been successfully implemented, which considers the nonlinear behavior of the inductive component in the EMI filter. The Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model is applied to describe the filtering inductor whose core displays saturation and hysteresis. The simulation results are verified with the experimental test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feature Selection for Partial Discharge Severity Assessment in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Based on Minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1516; doi:10.3390/en10101516
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract
Scientific evaluation of partial discharge (PD) severity in gas-insulation switchgear (GIS) can assist in mastering the insulation condition of in-service GIS. Limited theoretical research on the laws of PD deterioration leads to a finite number of evaluation features extracted and subjective features selected
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Scientific evaluation of partial discharge (PD) severity in gas-insulation switchgear (GIS) can assist in mastering the insulation condition of in-service GIS. Limited theoretical research on the laws of PD deterioration leads to a finite number of evaluation features extracted and subjective features selected for PD severity assessment. Therefore, this study proposes a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevance (mRMR) algorithm-based feature optimization selection method to realize the scientific and reasonable choice of PD severity features. PD ultra-high frequency data of varying severities are produced by simulating four typical insulation defects in GIS, which are then collected in the lab. A 16-dimension feature set describing PD original characteristics is abstracted in phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD) mode, and the more informative evaluation feature set characterizing PD severity is further excavated by the mRMR method. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is employed as the classifier for intelligent evaluation to compare the evaluation effects of PD severity between the feature set selected by mRMR and the feature set is composed of discharge times, amplitude value, and time intervals obtained traditionally based on discharge change theory. The proposed comparison test showed the effectiveness of the mRMR method in informative feature selection and the accuracy of PD severity assessment for all defined defects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Improved Commutation Prediction Algorithm to Mitigate Commutation Failure in High Voltage Direct Current
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1481; doi:10.3390/en10101481
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Commutation failure is a common fault for line-commutated converters in the inverter. To reduce the possibility of commutation failure, many prediction algorithms based on alternating current (AC) voltage detection have already been implemented in high voltage direct current (HVDC) control and protection systems.
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Commutation failure is a common fault for line-commutated converters in the inverter. To reduce the possibility of commutation failure, many prediction algorithms based on alternating current (AC) voltage detection have already been implemented in high voltage direct current (HVDC) control and protection systems. Nevertheless, there are currently no effective methods to prevent commutation failure due to transformer excitation surge current. In this paper, an improved commutation failure prediction algorithm based on the harmonic characteristics of the converter bus voltage during transformer charging is proposed. Meanwhile, a sliding-window iterative algorithm of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) is developed for detecting the voltage harmonic in real time. This method is proved to be an effective solution, which prevents commutation failure in cases of excitation surge current, through experimental analysis. This method is already implemented into TianShan-ZhongZhou (TianZhong) ± 800 kV ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC) system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Static Analysis of Primary Consequent-Pole Tubular Transverse-Flux Flux-Reversal Linear Machine
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1479; doi:10.3390/en10101479
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
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Abstract
A novel primary consequent-pole tubular transverse-flux flux-reversal linear machine (TTFFRLM) is proposed in this paper. The permanent magnets (PMs) of the machine are located on the inner surface of the short teeth of the primary iron cores for reducing the amount of PM
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A novel primary consequent-pole tubular transverse-flux flux-reversal linear machine (TTFFRLM) is proposed in this paper. The permanent magnets (PMs) of the machine are located on the inner surface of the short teeth of the primary iron cores for reducing the amount of PM in long stroke drive systems, and the primary is easily manufactured. The structure and principle of this machine are analyzed in detail. Based on the unit machine, a no-load equivalent magnetic circuit model is established by using the magnetic circuit method. Then, the equations of the no-load back electromotive force (back-EMF) and the electromagnetic thrust force are deduced. The simulation models of the unit machine are established by equivalent 2D finite element method (FEM) for saving computation time, and the static characteristics, including the flux field, the no-load back-EMF, and the electromagnetic thrust force, are analyzed. Detailed simulation and experimental results of a three-phase 4-poles 12-slots machine are given. The results verify the correctness and effectiveness of topology, model, and analysis method of the proposed TTFFRLM. Compared with the conventional TTFFRLM, the proposed prototype has the advantages of a lower cost and smaller electromagnetic thrust force ripple. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Tower Aided Coal-Fired Power Generation System
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1392; doi:10.3390/en10091392
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of a 1000 MWe solar tower aided coal-fired power generation system for the whole life cycle. Firstly, the power output (from coal and solar thermal energy) under variable direct normal irradiance and grid demand are
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In this paper, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of a 1000 MWe solar tower aided coal-fired power generation system for the whole life cycle. Firstly, the power output (from coal and solar thermal energy) under variable direct normal irradiance and grid demand are studied. Secondly, a financial assessment is performed, including profits and losses of the plant project. Thirdly, sensitivity analysis is taken on some external factors that can affect the cost or profits and losses of the plant project. The results indicate that the project has high profits with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 8.7%. In addition, the effects of solar tower field cost, power purchase agreement (PPA) price of solar thermal electricity, coal price, and the interest rate of debt on the main criteria decrease gradually. Therefore, it is better to improve solar tower technology first, and then look for low-interest debts from banks to cope with the reduction of PPA price of solar thermal electricity and the increase of coal price. Despite the introduction of solar tower field increasing levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), it contributes to the reduction of CO2 capture cost compared to the case of standard coal-fired power plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proportional-Type Performance Recovery DC-Link Voltage Tracking Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1387; doi:10.3390/en10091387
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
This study proposes a disturbance observer-based proportional-type DC-link voltage tracking algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The proposed technique feedbacks the only proportional term of the tracking errors, and it contains the nominal static and dynamic feed-forward compensators coming from the first-order
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This study proposes a disturbance observer-based proportional-type DC-link voltage tracking algorithm for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The proposed technique feedbacks the only proportional term of the tracking errors, and it contains the nominal static and dynamic feed-forward compensators coming from the first-order disturbance observers. It is rigorously proved that the proposed method ensures the performance recovery and offset-free properties without the use of the integrators of the tracking errors. A wind power generation system has been simulated to verify the efficacy of the proposed method using the PSIM (PowerSIM) software with the DLL (Dynamic Link Library) block. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Reactive Current Detection Method of SVG
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1374; doi:10.3390/en10091374
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 10 September 2017
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Abstract
The static VAR generator (SVG) is an important device in flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) for the development of smart grids. Based on the basis principle of SVG and instantaneous reactive power theory, the conventional ip–iq and dq methods have
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The static VAR generator (SVG) is an important device in flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) for the development of smart grids. Based on the basis principle of SVG and instantaneous reactive power theory, the conventional ip–iq and dq methods have a certain error when the three phase voltages are unbalanced. In this paper, the current detection algorithm is improved in cases of three-phase power asymmetry by using the fundamental positive-sequence reactive current instead of the voltage as the input of phase locked loop (PLL). So the problems caused by unbalanced three-phase voltages could be avoided. In addition, a moving average filter is designed to improve the performance of the detection accuracy and dynamic response. Experiments verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Torque Error Compensation Algorithm for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Respect to Magnet Temperature Variations
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1365; doi:10.3390/en10091365
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) through real time permanent magnet (PM) flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs
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This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) through real time permanent magnet (PM) flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs varies with the thermal conditions. Since a maximum torque per ampere look up table, a control method used for copper loss minimization, is developed based on estimated PM flux linkage, variation of PM flux linkage results in undesired torque development of SPMSM drives. In this paper, PM flux linkage is estimated through a stator flux linkage observer and the torque error is compensated in real time using the estimated PM flux linkage. In this paper, the proposed torque error compensation algorithm is verified in simulation and experiment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Analysis of the Common Mode Voltage in a Cascaded H-Bridge Electronic Power Transformer
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1357; doi:10.3390/en10091357
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Electronic power transformers (EPTs) have been identified as emerging intelligent electronic devices in the future smart grid, e.g., the Energy Internet, especially in the application of renewable energy conversion and management. Considering that the EPT is directly connected to the medium-voltage grid, e.g.,
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Electronic power transformers (EPTs) have been identified as emerging intelligent electronic devices in the future smart grid, e.g., the Energy Internet, especially in the application of renewable energy conversion and management. Considering that the EPT is directly connected to the medium-voltage grid, e.g., a10 kV distribution system, and its cascaded H-bridges structure, the common mode voltage (CMV) issue will be more complex and severe. The CMV will threaten the insulation of the entire EPT device and even produce common mode current. This paper investigates the generated mechanism and characteristics of the CMV in a cascaded H-bridge EPT (CHB-EPT) under both balanced and fault grid conditions. First, the CHB-EPT system is introduced. Then, a three-phase simplified circuit model of the high-voltage side of the EPT system is presented. Combined with a unipolar modulation strategy and carrier phase shifting technology by rigorous mathematical analysis and derivation, the EPT internal CMV and its characteristics are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation dead time is considered and discussed based on analytical calculation. Finally, the simulation results are provided to verify the validity of the aforementioned model and the analysis results. The proposed theoretical analysis method is also suitable for other similar cascaded converters and can provide a useful theoretical guide for structural design and power density optimization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Design Method for Making an LCC Compensation Two-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System More Energy Efficient Than an SS Counterpart
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1346; doi:10.3390/en10091346
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
A new design approach is presented in this paper to show that under certain conditions, in a two-coil wireless power transfer system, the double-sided inductor-capacitor-capacitor (LCC) compensated wireless power transfer (LCC-WPT) system can be more energy efficient than the series-series (SS) compensated wireless
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A new design approach is presented in this paper to show that under certain conditions, in a two-coil wireless power transfer system, the double-sided inductor-capacitor-capacitor (LCC) compensated wireless power transfer (LCC-WPT) system can be more energy efficient than the series-series (SS) compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system for the same load power, with special attention being paid to the effect that the parasitic coil and capacitor resistances have on the system efficiency. To make a fair comparison between the SS and LCC WPT systems, the direct current (DC) link voltage was adjusted to set equal load power for the two systems whilst using identical transmit and receive coils, coil-to-coil distance and load resistance. The system performance in terms of the system efficiency, the voltage stresses on the components, and the losses in the power devices were analysed for a practical system, comparing the LCC-WPT system and the SS-WPT system with respect to the load resistance. The effect of coil misalignment on the transferred power and efficiency for the two systems was compared. The theoretical proof and the conditions for meeting the objective are derived and practically verified in a two-coil WPT practical prototype, showing good agreement between analysis and experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Safety Analysis of Grounding Resistance with Depth of Water for Floating PVs
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1304; doi:10.3390/en10091304
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Underwater grounding methods could be applied in deep water for grounding a floating PV (photovoltaic) system. However, the depth at which the electrodes should be located is a controversial subject. In this study, grounding resistance was measured for the first time by analyzing
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Underwater grounding methods could be applied in deep water for grounding a floating PV (photovoltaic) system. However, the depth at which the electrodes should be located is a controversial subject. In this study, grounding resistance was measured for the first time by analyzing the water temperature at different water depths in an area where a floating PV system is installed. The theoretical calculation of the grounding resistance has a maximum error range of 8% compared to the experimentally measured data. In order to meet the electrical safety standards of a floating PV system, a number of electrodes were connected in parallel. In addition, the distance between electrodes and number of electrodes were considered in the test to obtain a formula for the grounding resistance. In addition, the coefficient of corrosion was obtained from an electrode installed underwater a year ago, and it was added to the formula. Through this analysis, it is possible to predict the grounding resistance prior to installing the floating PV system. Furthermore, the electrical safety of the floating PV system could be achieved by considering the seasonal changes in water temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extended Kalman Filter-Based State of Charge and State of Power Estimation Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Li-Po Battery Packs
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1237; doi:10.3390/en10081237
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Customer requirements for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with long flight times are increasing exponentially in the personal, commercial, and military use areas. Due to their limited payload, large numbers of on-board battery packs cannot be used and this is the main reason behind
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Customer requirements for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with long flight times are increasing exponentially in the personal, commercial, and military use areas. Due to their limited payload, large numbers of on-board battery packs cannot be used and this is the main reason behind the need for battery management software (BMS) packages with state of charge (SOC) estimation functions to increase the flight time. At the same time, as the UAV application range has extended widely, the size of UAVs has increased and heavy-duty UAVs are slowly appearing. As a result, the system operating power of the UAVs has been increased tremendously and their safe system power operation has become an issue. This is the main reason for the need of BMS having state of power (SOP) estimation functions. In this work a 6 S Li-Po battery pack is simulated with two ladder equivalent circuit models (ECMs) considering an impedance effect whose parameters are found using hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) current patterns with parameter determination using the table-based linear interpolation (TBLI) method. Two state estimation methods, including the current integration method and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method are developed and the estimation accuracies of SOC and SOP are compared. Results show that the most accurate SOC estimation turns out to be 0.1477% (indoor test with HPPC), 0.1324% (outdoor test with 0 kg payload), and 0.2021% (outdoor test with 10 kg payload). Also, the most accurate SOP estimation error turns out to be 1.2% (indoor test with HPPC), 3.6% (outdoor test with 0 kg payload), and 4.2% (outdoor test with 10 kg payload). Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Back-EMF Estimation Error Compensation Method for Accurate Rotor Position Estimation of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1160; doi:10.3390/en10081160
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes a back electromotive force estimation error compensation method for accurate rotor position estimation of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors. When estimating the rotor position of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor sensorless drives, a direct current offset error component
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This paper proposes a back electromotive force estimation error compensation method for accurate rotor position estimation of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors. When estimating the rotor position of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor sensorless drives, a direct current offset error component occurs in the voltage sensor. As a result, the rotor position is distorted and the sensorless control in surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor is degraded. In addition, the dq-axis voltages in the synchronous reference frame have the direct current offset error component, ripples compared with the motor frequency under the distorted rotor position. In this paper, the effects of the direct current offset errors are analyzed based on the synchronous reference frame phase locked loop. To remove this direct current offset error component, a d-axis voltage is converted into a synchronous reference frame again to compensate. In other words, it is a dual synchronous coordinate conversion compensation method. The compensator utilizes a proportional-integral controller that compensates by estimating the direct current offset error component. The proposed method is useful for the improvement of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor sensorless control and operating performance. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified through PSIM simulation and experimental results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Study of Hybrid Magnetic Coupler Based on Magneto Thermal Coupled Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1148; doi:10.3390/en10081148
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Specific to a problem of large vibro-impact aris ing from the cutting unit of the hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM), a hybrid magnetic coupler based on soft start was proposed in this paper. The mathematical model for total eddy current losses of
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Specific to a problem of large vibro-impact aris ing from the cutting unit of the hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM), a hybrid magnetic coupler based on soft start was proposed in this paper. The mathematical model for total eddy current losses of such a coupler was established by field-circuit method. Then, magnetic-thermal coupling simulation was performed by virtue of three-dimensional finite element software. In addition, an experimental prototype was independently designed; by comparing the model with experimental data, validity of the above mathematical model was verified. The relevant research results indicated that calculated values were consistent with experimental values, and the magneto thermal coupling method could be applied to accurately analyze temperature distribution of the hybrid magnetic coupler. By contrast to the existing magnetic coupling of the same dimension, output efficiency of the hybrid magnetic coupler was improved by 1.2%. Therefore, this research technique can provide references for designing the cutting unit of hard rock TBM with a high start impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Virtual Synchronous Generator Based Auxiliary Damping Control Design for the Power System with Renewable Generation
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1146; doi:10.3390/en10081146
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Aiming for large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) integrated to power systems with power electronic devices, the technology of virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been developed and studied in recent years. It is necessary to analyze the damping characteristics of the power system with
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Aiming for large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) integrated to power systems with power electronic devices, the technology of virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been developed and studied in recent years. It is necessary to analyze the damping characteristics of the power system with RES generation based on VSG and develop its corresponding damping controller to suppress the possible low frequency oscillation. Firstly, the mathematical model of VSG in a per unit (p.u) system is presented. Based on the single-machine infinite bus system integrated with an RES power plant, the influence of VSG on the damping characteristics of the power system is studied qualitatively by damping torque analysis. Furthermore, the small-signal model of the considered system is established and the damping ratio of the system is studied quantitatively by eigenvalue analysis, which concluded that adjusting the key control parameters has limited impacts on the damping ratio of the system. Consequently, referring to the configuration of traditional power system stabilizer (PSS), an auxiliary damping controller (ADC) for VSG is designed to suppress the low frequency oscillation of the power system. Finally, simulations were performed to verify the validity of theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of designed ADC. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Polar Fuzzy Control Scheme for Hybrid Power System Using Vehicle-To-Grid Technique
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1083; doi:10.3390/en10081083
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
A novel polar fuzzy (PF) control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists
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A novel polar fuzzy (PF) control approach for a hybrid power system is proposed in this research. The proposed control scheme remedies the issues of system frequency and the continuity of demand supply caused by renewable sources’ uncertainties. The hybrid power system consists of a wind turbine generator (WTG), solar photovoltaics (PV), a solar thermal power generator (STPG), a diesel engine generator (DEG), an aqua-electrolyzer (AE), an ultra-capacitor (UC), a fuel-cell (FC), and a flywheel (FW). Furthermore, due to the high cost of the battery energy storage system (BESS), a new idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) control is applied to use the battery of the electric vehicle (EV) as equivalent to large-scale energy storage units instead of small batteries to improve the frequency stability of the system. In addition, EV customers’ convenience is taken into account. A minimal-order observer is used to estimate the supply error. Then, the area control error (ACE) signal is calculated in terms of the estimated supply error and the frequency deviation. ACE is considered in the frequency domain. Two PF approaches are utilized in the intended system. The mission of each controller is to mitigate one frequency component of ACE. The responsibility for ACE compensation is shared among all parts of the system according to their speed of response. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared to the conventional fuzzy logic control (FLC). The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control technique are verified by numerical simulations under various scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Configuration Synthesis of Novel Series-Parallel Hybrid Transmission Systems with Eight-Bar Mechanisms
Energies 2017, 10(7), 1044; doi:10.3390/en10071044
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a design approach for the configuration synthesis of series-parallel hybrid transmissions with eight-bar mechanisms. The final design consists of 54 mechanisms with eight members and twelve joints including a simple planetary gear train (PGT) and a double planet PGT. Then,
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This paper presents a design approach for the configuration synthesis of series-parallel hybrid transmissions with eight-bar mechanisms. The final design consists of 54 mechanisms with eight members and twelve joints including a simple planetary gear train (PGT) and a double planet PGT. Then, by using the techniques of power and clutch arrangements, new series-parallel hybrid transmissions are synthesized. The power arrangement process generates 97 clutchless hybrid systems. The clutch arrangement process generates 100 corresponding series-parallel transmissions. To demonstrate the feasibility of the synthesized configurations, a new hybrid transmission is selected as an example to analyze the working principle with operation modes and power flow paths. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Loss Characteristics of 6.5 kV RC-IGBT Applied to a Traction Converter
Energies 2017, 10(7), 891; doi:10.3390/en10070891
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
6.5 kV level IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) modules are widely applied in megawatt locomotive (MCUs) traction converters, to achieve an upper 3.5 kV DC link, which is beneficial for decreasing power losses and increasing the power density. Reverse Conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT) constructs
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6.5 kV level IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) modules are widely applied in megawatt locomotive (MCUs) traction converters, to achieve an upper 3.5 kV DC link, which is beneficial for decreasing power losses and increasing the power density. Reverse Conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT) constructs the conventional IGBT function and freewheel diode function in a single chip, which has a greater flow ability in the same package volume. In the same cooling conditions, RC-IGBT allows for a higher operating temperature. In this paper, a mathematic model is developed, referring to the datasheets and measurement data, to study the 6.5 kV/1000 A RC-IGBT switching features. The relationship among the gate desaturated pulse, conducting losses, and recovery losses is discussed. Simulations and tests were carried out to consider the influence of total losses on the different amplitudes and durations of the desaturated pulse. The RC-IGBT traction converter system with gate pulse desaturated control is built, and the simulation and measurements show that the total losses of RC-IGBT with desaturated control decreased comparing to the RC-IGBT without desaturated control or conventional IGBT. Finally, a proportional small power platform is developed, and the test results prove the correction of the theory analysis. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Overview of AC Microgrid Controls with Inverter-Interfaced Generations
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1300; doi:10.3390/en10091300
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Distributed generation (DG) is one of the key components of the emerging microgrid concept that enables renewable energy integration in a distribution network. In DG unit operation, inverters play a vital role in interfacing energy sources with the grid utility. An effective interfacing
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Distributed generation (DG) is one of the key components of the emerging microgrid concept that enables renewable energy integration in a distribution network. In DG unit operation, inverters play a vital role in interfacing energy sources with the grid utility. An effective interfacing can successfully be accomplished by operating inverters with effective control techniques. This paper reviews and categorises different control methods (voltage and primary) for improving microgrid power quality, stability and power sharing approaches. In addition, the specific characteristics of microgrids are summarised to distinguish from distribution network control. Moreover, various control approaches including inner-loop controls and primary controls are compared according to their relative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, future research trends for microgrid control are discussed pointing out the research opportunities. This review paper will be a good basis for researchers working in microgrids and for industry to implement the ongoing research improvement in real systems. Full article
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Open AccessReview Frequency Regulation Strategies in Grid Integrated Offshore Wind Turbines via VSC-HVDC Technology: A Review
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1244; doi:10.3390/en10091244
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
The inclusion of wind energy in a power system network is currently seeing a significant increase. However, this inclusion has resulted in degradation of the inertia response, which in turn seriously affects the stability of the power system’s frequency. This problem can be
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The inclusion of wind energy in a power system network is currently seeing a significant increase. However, this inclusion has resulted in degradation of the inertia response, which in turn seriously affects the stability of the power system’s frequency. This problem can be solved by using an active power reserve to stabilize the frequency within an allowable limit in the event of a sudden load increment or the loss of generators. Active power reserves can be utilized via three approaches: (1) de-loading method (pitching or over-speeding) by a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT); (2) stored energy in the capacitors of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission; and (3) coordination of frequency regulation between the offshore wind farms and the VSC-HVDC transmission. This paper reviews the solutions that can be used to overcome problems related to the frequency stability of grid- integrated offshore wind turbines. It also details the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with full-scale back to back (B2B) converters, its corresponding control strategies, and a typical VSC-HVDC system with an associated control system. The control methods, both on the levels of a wind turbine and the VSC-HVDC system that participate in a system’s primary frequency control and emulation inertia, are discussed. Full article
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