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Special Issue "Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Xiangzheng Deng

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, 100101, China
Website | E-Mail
Fax: 86-10-64856533
Guest Editor
Dr. Jinwei Dong

Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, and Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, 101 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, Oklahoma 73019-5300, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: land cover and land use change; ecological remote sensing; effects of global change on ecosystem services

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanization, biofuel production, deforestation, and agricultural expansion are just some examples of the large-scale land use and land cover changes (LUCC) that are expected to exert significantly direct and indirect impacts on ecosystem service, water balance, surface energy flux, and energy use, as well as human well-being. This Special Issue of Energies addresses the direct and indirect effects of large-scale LUCC. We invite papers that address any of the following four topics:

  1. Large-scale LUCC and impacts on surface energy flux
  2. Large-scale LUCC and impacts on regional water balance
  3. Large-scale LUCC and impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being
  4. Large-scale LUCC and impacts on energy use

We especially encourage papers that provide new methodological approaches and the use of novel datasets to model and forecast these relationships.

Prof. Dr. Xiangzheng Deng
Dr. Jinwei Dong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • land use and land cover change
  • energy flux
  • biofuel production
  • ecosystem service
  • water balance
  • energy use
  • energy policy
{snippet name="submission_info"}

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Responses of Ecosystem Service to Land Use Change in Qinghai Province
Energies 2016, 9(4), 303; doi:10.3390/en9040303
Received: 27 December 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Qinghai Province has a very fragile ecological environment and is an important component of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To understand the disturbance caused by human activities to the local ecological system, it is necessary to evaluate the response of ecological service functions to land
[...] Read more.
Qinghai Province has a very fragile ecological environment and is an important component of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To understand the disturbance caused by human activities to the local ecological system, it is necessary to evaluate the response of ecological service functions to land use change in Qinghai Province and to uncover the sensitivity of ecological service functions to land use change. This study uses a proxy-based method and proposes a sensitivity index to describe the degree of ecological service function response to the land use change in Qinghai Province. The findings were as follows. (1) From 1988 to 2008, the area of cultivated land, construction land and water in Qinghai Province increased, and forest land and grassland continuously decreased. The agricultural economy and the development of urbanization are the main driving factors in land use change in this area. Policies and eco-environmental engineering, such as the grain-for-green project, the Three-North shelterbelt project and the natural forest protection project, have certain effects on controlling the expansion of cultivated land. (2) The value of ecosystem services in Qinghai Province was 157.368 billion yuan, 157.149 billion yuan and 157.726 billion yuan in 1988, 2000 and 2008, respectively, decreasing and then increasing again. (3) The average sensitivity index values of ecological services in Qinghai Province for the periods 1988–2000 and 2000–2008 was 0.693 and 1.137, respectively. This means that for every 1% increase in land use change, the ecological service value fluctuated by 0.693% and 1.137% in those periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Climate Change and LUCC on Terrestrial Biomass in the Lower Heihe River Basin during 2001–2010
Energies 2016, 9(4), 260; doi:10.3390/en9040260
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 21 February 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
PDF Full-text (3342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ecosystem services are tightly coupled with availability of solar energy and its partition into energy fluxes, and biomass accumulation, which represents the energy flux in ecosystems, is a key aspect of ecosystem services. This study analyzed the effects of climate change and land
[...] Read more.
Ecosystem services are tightly coupled with availability of solar energy and its partition into energy fluxes, and biomass accumulation, which represents the energy flux in ecosystems, is a key aspect of ecosystem services. This study analyzed the effects of climate change and land use and land cover change (LUCC) on the biomass accumulation change in the Lower Heihe River Basin during 2001–2010. Biomass accumulation was represented with net primary productivity (NPP), which was estimated with the C-Fix model, and scenario analysis was carried out to investigate effects of climate change and LUCC on biomass accumulation change in a spatially explicit way. Results suggested climate change had an overall positive effect on biomass accumulation, mainly owning to changes in CO2 concentration and temperature. LUCC accounted for 70.61% of biomass accumulation change, but primarily owning to fractional vegetation change (FVCC) rather than land conversion, and there is a negative interactive effect of FVCC and climate change on biomass accumulation, indicating FVCC resulting from water diversion played a dominant in influencing biomass accumulation. These results can provide valuable decision support information for the local ecosystem managers and decision makers to guarantee sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Impacts of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on the Ecological Restoration of Wetlands in the Arid Regions of China
Energies 2016, 9(3), 166; doi:10.3390/en9030166
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 5 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As an important part of the global ecosystem, wetlands and their dynamics greatly influence regional eco-environment systems. To understand the distributions, change processes and temporal-spatial characteristics of the wetlands of the inland river basin in an arid region (Heihe River Basin, HRB), this
[...] Read more.
As an important part of the global ecosystem, wetlands and their dynamics greatly influence regional eco-environment systems. To understand the distributions, change processes and temporal-spatial characteristics of the wetlands of the inland river basin in an arid region (Heihe River Basin, HRB), this paper employed multi-source remote sensing data to facilitate multi-temporal monitoring of the HRB wetland using a wetland information extraction method. First, we performed monitoring of these wetlands for the years 2000, 2007, 2011 and 2014; then, we analyzed the variation characteristics of the spatial-temporal dynamics of the wetlands in the HRB over the last 15 years via the landscape dynamic change model and the transformation matrix. In addition, we studied the possible driving mechanisms of these changes. The research results showed that the total area of the HRB wetlands had decreased by 2959.13 hectares in the last 15 years (Since 2000), and the annual average loss was −1.09%. The dynamics characterizing the HRB wetlands generally presented a trend of slow increase after an initial decrease, which can be classified into three stages. From 2000 to 2007, the total wetland area rapidly decreased; from 2007 to 2011, the area slowly decreased; and from 2011 to 2014, the area gradually increased. The dynamic changing processes characterizing the wetland resources were ascribed to a combination of natural processes and human activities. The main driving mechanisms of wetland dynamic changes include climatic conditions, upper reach water inflows, population, water resources, cultivated area, and policy. The findings of this study can served as reference and support for the conservation and management of wetland resources in the HRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Simulation of Forestland Dynamics in a Typical Deforestation and Afforestation Area under Climate Scenarios
Energies 2015, 8(10), 10558-10583; doi:10.3390/en81010558
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forestland dynamics can affect the ecological security of a country and even the global environment, and therefore it is of great practical significance to understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial variations of forestland. Taking Jiangxi Province as the study area, this study
[...] Read more.
Forestland dynamics can affect the ecological security of a country and even the global environment, and therefore it is of great practical significance to understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial variations of forestland. Taking Jiangxi Province as the study area, this study first explored the driving mechanism of the natural environment and social economy on deforestation and afforestation using a simultaneous equation model. The results indicate that population size, topographic and geomorphologic factors, climate, and location play leading roles in influencing forestland density fluctuations. Specifically, the population size, economic development level, gross value of forestry production, climate conditions, and government policies are key influencing factors of afforestation. Deforestation is mainly influenced by agricultural population, non-agricultural economy, forestry production, forestry density, location, transportation, and climate. In addition, this study simulated the spatial distribution of land use and analyzed the spatial characteristics and variation trends of forestland area and quality under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) climate scenarios from 2010 to 2030 using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects (CLUE) model. The results indicate that forestland declines under the Asia-Pacific integrated model (AIM) climate scenario. The environment tends to be heavily damaged under this kind of scenarios, and measures should be taken in order to protect the environment. Although the model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impact (MESSAGE) scenario is to some extent better than the AIM scenario, destruction of the environment will still occur, and it is necessary to restrain deforestation and convert shrub land into forestland or garden land. These results can provide significant information for environmental protection, forest resource exploitation, and utilization in the areas experiencing deforestation and afforestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Ejin Oasis Land Use and Vegetation Change between 2000 and 2011: The Role of the Ecological Water Diversion Project
Energies 2015, 8(7), 7040-7057; doi:10.3390/en8077040
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ejin Oasis, located in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), has experienced severe ecosystem decline between the 1960s and 1990s. In response, the Chinese Government implemented the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) in 2000. To evaluate the effects of the
[...] Read more.
Ejin Oasis, located in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), has experienced severe ecosystem decline between the 1960s and 1990s. In response, the Chinese Government implemented the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) in 2000. To evaluate the effects of the EWDP, this study monitored changes in land use and vegetation in the Ejin Oasis since 2000 and examined driving factors behind such changes. Results demonstrated that the Ejin Oasis ecosystem generally improved between 2000 and 2011. Water body area significantly increased. Lake area of once dried-up Sogo Nuur increased to 45 km2. Accordingly, vegetation cover restoration has also significantly increased. For example, the Seasonally Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (SINDVI) has shown that 31.18% of the entire study area experienced an increase in vegetation area. On the other hand, even though the EWDP has been successful in driving vegetation recovery and lake restoration, farmland reclamation has counteracted such restoration initiatives. Farmland area almost doubled between 2000 and 2011. Thus, farmland expansion management is necessary for the full restoration of the Ejin Oasis ecosystems as well as HRB sustainable development. The results of this study can provide a reference for the management of the HRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5678-5693; doi:10.3390/en8065678
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to
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Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM) and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%), nutrient cycling (–31.91%), gas regulation (−7.18%), and organic production (–7.18%), while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%). Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5516-5537; doi:10.3390/en8065516
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into
[...] Read more.
Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into two intervals (2001–2006 and 2006–2011) and categorized the 30 provinces of China into eight zones. Results indicated that construction land expansion exerted the second largest positive effect on carbon emission growth in China and in the 30 provinces from 2001 to 2011. The north, east, and south coastal regions as well as the middle Yellow River region, were the highly affected regions in the same period. Between the two study intervals, the effect of construction land expansion on carbon emissions decreased in China and in the coastal regions, but increased in inland regions. The Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Chongqing, Ningxia, and Xinjiang provinces, which are concentrated in the north, east, and south coastal regions, were selected for the reduction of carbon emissions by controlling construction land expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Using a Cellular Automata-Markov Model to Reconstruct Spatial Land-Use Patterns in Zhenlai County, Northeast China
Energies 2015, 8(5), 3882-3902; doi:10.3390/en8053882
Received: 16 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 5 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decadal to centennial land use and land cover change has been consistently singled out as a key element and an important driver of global environmental change, playing an essential role in balancing energy use. Understanding long-term human-environment interactions requires historical reconstruction of past
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Decadal to centennial land use and land cover change has been consistently singled out as a key element and an important driver of global environmental change, playing an essential role in balancing energy use. Understanding long-term human-environment interactions requires historical reconstruction of past land use and land cover changes. Most of the existing historical reconstructions have insufficient spatial and thematic detail and do not consider various land change types. In this context, this paper explored the possibility of using a cellular automata-Markov model in 90 m × 90 m spatial resolution to reconstruct historical land use in the 1930s in Zhenlai County, China. Then the three-map comparison methodology was employed to assess the predictive accuracy of the transition modeling. The model could produce backward projections by analyzing land use changes in recent decades, assuming that the present land use pattern is dynamically dependent on the historical one. The reconstruction results indicated that in the 1930s most of the study area was occupied by grasslands, followed by wetlands and arable land, while other land categories occupied relatively small areas. Analysis of the three-map comparison illustrated that the major differences among the three maps have less to do with the simulation model and more to do with the inconsistencies among the land categories during the study period. Different information provided by topographic maps and remote sensing images must be recognized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
Open AccessArticle Application of a Backfilling Method in Coal Mining to Realise an Ecologically Sensitive “Black Gold” Industry
Energies 2015, 8(5), 3628-3639; doi:10.3390/en8053628
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China, as the largest coal-producing and -consuming country in the world, is highly dependent on its coal industry, or “Black Gold” industry, for the national energy and economy. The consequent environmental crises, however, have persisted for decades, and the most serious effect is
[...] Read more.
China, as the largest coal-producing and -consuming country in the world, is highly dependent on its coal industry, or “Black Gold” industry, for the national energy and economy. The consequent environmental crises, however, have persisted for decades, and the most serious effect is surface subsidence induced by underground mining. Underground coal excavation in China has ignored this problem for thousands of years, even though it causes conspicuous damage to the surface ecosystem and construction projects due to the subsidence of overlying strata. This study recommends paste backfilling to replace the space originally occupied by coal resources to avoid such subsidence and proposes backfilling schemes for two mainstream mining methods used in China’s collieries, namely, continuous mining and fully mechanised coal mining. These methodologies have been successfully implemented in some collieries, and the gob area can be backfilled immediately to prevent surface subsidence. To promote an ecological ideology when conflict exists between economic profits and environmental protection, experience from developed countries should be considered, support and appropriate legislation from the government are essential, and the perspective of colliery managers should be taken into account, and further in-depth study on strata subsidence and backfilling material must be pursued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Scale LUCC, Ecosystem Service, Water Balance and Energy Use)
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