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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Workshop on Compressed Air Driven Engine"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chao-An Lin (Website)

Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsu University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
Interests: turbulence flow physics; numerical methods; energy systems

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Design of a Hydraulic Motor System Driven by Compressed Air
Energies 2013, 6(7), 3149-3166; doi:10.3390/en6073149
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design of a highly efficient pneumatic motor system. The air engine is currently the most generally used device to convert potential energy of compressed air into mechanical energy. However, the efficiency of the air engines is too low to provide sufficient operating range for the vehicle. In this study, the energy contained in compressed air/pressurized hydraulic oil is transformed by a hydraulic motor to mechanical energy to enhance the efficiency of using air power. To evaluate the theoretical efficiency, the principle of balance of energy is applied. The theoretical efficiency of converting air into hydraulic energy is found to be a function of pressure; thus, the maximum converting efficiency can be determined. To confirm the theoretical evaluation, a prototype of the pneumatic hydraulic system is built. The experiment verifies that the theoretical evaluation of the system efficiency is reasonable, and that the layout of the system is determined by the results of theoretical evaluation. Full article
Open AccessArticle System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves
Energies 2013, 6(4), 1843-1862; doi:10.3390/en6041843
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during [...] Read more.
The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Intake Manifold Boosting of Turbocharged Spark-Ignited Engines
Energies 2013, 6(3), 1746-1763; doi:10.3390/en6031746
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Downsizing and turbocharging is a widely used approach to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignited engines while retaining the maximum power output. However, a substantial loss in drivability must be expected due to the occurrence of the so-called turbo lag. The [...] Read more.
Downsizing and turbocharging is a widely used approach to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignited engines while retaining the maximum power output. However, a substantial loss in drivability must be expected due to the occurrence of the so-called turbo lag. The turbo lag results from the additional inertia that the turbocharger adds to the system. Supplying air by an additional valve, the boost valve, to the intake manifold can be used to overcome the turbo lag. This turbo lag compensationmethod is referred to as intakemanifold boosting. The aims of this study are to show the effectiveness of intake manifold boosting on a turbocharged spark-ignited engine and to show that intake manifold boosting can be used as an enabler of strong downsizing. Guidelines for the dimensioning of the boost valve are given and a control strategy is presented. The trade-off between additional fuel consumption and the consumption of pressurized air during the turbo lag compensation is discussed. For a load step at 2000 rpm the rise time can be reduced from 2.8 s to 124ms, requiring 11.8 g of pressurized air. The transient performance is verified experimentally by means of load steps at various engine speeds to various engine loads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on the Performance of a Compressed-Air Driven Piston Engine
Energies 2013, 6(3), 1731-1745; doi:10.3390/en6031731
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents an experimental investigation of a piston engine driven by compressed air. The compressed air engine was a modified 100 cm3 internal combustion engine obtained from a motorcycle manufacturer. The experiments in this study used a test bench to [...] Read more.
This study presents an experimental investigation of a piston engine driven by compressed air. The compressed air engine was a modified 100 cm3 internal combustion engine obtained from a motorcycle manufacturer. The experiments in this study used a test bench to examine the power performance and pressure/temperature variations of the compressed air engine at pressures ranging from 5 to 9 bar (absolute pressure). The engine was modified from a 4-stroke to a 2-stroke engine using a cam system driven by a crankshaft and the intake and exhaust valves have a small lift due to this modification. The highest power output of 0.95 kW was obtained at 9 bar and 1320 rpm. The highest torque of 9.99 N·m occurred at the same pressure, but at 465 rpm. The pressure-volume (P-V) diagram shows that cylinder pressure gradually increases after the intake valve opens because of the limited lift movement of the intake valve. Similar situations occurred during the exhaust process, restricting the power output of the compressed air engine. The pressure and temperature variation of the air at engine inlet and outlet were recorded during the experiment. The outlet pressure increased from 1.5 bar at 500 rpm to 2.25 bar at 2000 rpm, showing the potential of recycling the compressed air energy by attaching additional cylinders (split-cycle engine). A temperature decrease (from room temperature to 17 °C) inside the cylinder was observed. It should be noted that pressures higher than that currently employed can result in lower temperatures and this can cause poor lubrication and sealing issues. The current design of a compressed air engine, which uses a conventional cam mechanism for intake and exhaust, has limited lift movement during operation, and has a restricted flow rate and power output. Fast valve actuation and a large lift are essential for improving the performance of the current compressed air engine. This study presents a power output examination with the pressure and temperature measurements of a piston-type compressed air engine to be installed in compact vehicles as the main or auxiliary power system. Full article

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