Special Issue "Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity"

A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Rosa Rao

Department of Agriculture, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Università 100, Portici 80055, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plant biotechnology; genetic and genomic characterization of plant germplasm; molecular markers; ‘omics’ in plant defense studies
Guest Editor
Dr. Giandomenico Corrado

Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, Portici, 80055, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: crop biodiversity; landraces; genetic modification; DNA polymorphism; genetic fingerprinting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant biodiversity is central to the implementation of sustainable production systems, ensuring global food security, and increasing crop resistance and resiliance to climate change and invasive and native biotic stresses. Plant genetic resources (PGR) have been collected and exchanged for centuries, but the rapid development of novel tools for genetic analysis is changing the way we can uncover diversity and exploit its value in agriculture. The integration of novel analytical tools is currently crucial for translating research into a much-needed, more efficient management and use of PGR.

The forthcoming Special Issue aims to provide an overview of recent topics on plant genetics and biotechnology in biodiversity, with enphasis on agricultural genetic diversity. Papers will present current trends on genetic resources description, conservation, management and research, and will highlight how new approaches and methodogies can boost both our understanding and exploitation of PGR.

This Special Issue is launched to honor the memory of Prof. Gian Tommaso Scarascia Mugnozza, and in recognition of his many contributions to plant breeding and genetic resources.

Prof. Rosa Rao
Dr. Giandomenico Corrado
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diversity is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plant conservation genetics
  • plant biodiversity
  • plant biotechnology in conservation and bioprospecting
  • DNA markers
  • plant genomics
  • biodiversity in bio-based economy

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Allelic Variants of Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase Genes in a Collection of Durum Wheat and Association with Grain Protein Content
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 52; doi:10.3390/d9040052
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Wheat is one of the most important crops grown worldwide. Despite the fact that it accounts for only 5% of the global wheat production, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a commercially important tetraploid wheat species, which originated and
[...] Read more.
Wheat is one of the most important crops grown worldwide. Despite the fact that it accounts for only 5% of the global wheat production, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a commercially important tetraploid wheat species, which originated and diversified in the Mediterranean basin. In this work, the candidate gene approach has been applied in a collection of durum wheat genotypes; allelic variants of genes glutamine synthetase (GS2) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were screened and correlated with grain protein content (GPC). Natural populations and collections of germplasms are quite suitable for this approach, as molecular polymorphisms close to a locus with evident phenotypic effects may be closely associated with their character, providing a better physical resolution than genetic mapping using ad hoc constituted populations. A number of allelic variants were detected both for GS2 and GOGAT genes, and regression analysis demonstrated that some variations are positively and significantly related to the GPC effect. Additionally, these genes map into homoeologous chromosome groups 2 and 3, where several authors have localized important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GPC. The information outlined in this work could be useful in breeding and marker-assisted selection programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Patterns of Spontaneous Nucleotide Substitutions in Grape Processed Pseudogenes
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 45; doi:10.3390/d9040045
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Pseudogenes are dead copies of genes. Owing to the absence of functional constraint, all nucleotide substitutions that occur in these sequences are selectively neutral, and thus represent the spontaneous pattern of substitution within a genome. Here, we analysed the patterns of nucleotide substitutions
[...] Read more.
Pseudogenes are dead copies of genes. Owing to the absence of functional constraint, all nucleotide substitutions that occur in these sequences are selectively neutral, and thus represent the spontaneous pattern of substitution within a genome. Here, we analysed the patterns of nucleotide substitutions in Vitis vinifera processed pseudogenes. In total, 259 processed pseudogenes were used to compile two datasets of nucleotide substitutions. The ancestral states of polymorphic sites were determined based on either parsimony or site functional constraints. An overall tendency towards an increase in the pseudogene A:T content was suggested by all of the datasets analysed. Low association was seen between the patterns and rates of substitutions, and the compositional background of the region where the pseudogene was inserted. The flanking nucleotide significantly influenced the substitution rates. In particular, we noted that the transition of G→A was influenced by the presence of C at the contiguous 5′ end base. This finding is in agreement with the targeting of cytosine to methylation, and the consequent methyl-cytosine deamination. These data will be useful to interpret the roles of selection in shaping the genetic diversity of grape cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Venetian Local Corn (Zea mays L.) Germplasm: Disclosing the Genetic Anatomy of Old Landraces Suited for Typical Cornmeal Mush Production
Diversity 2017, 9(3), 32; doi:10.3390/d9030032
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
Due to growing concern for the genetic erosion of local varieties, four of the main corn landraces historically grown in Veneto (Italy)—Sponcio, Marano, Biancoperla and Rosso Piave—were characterized in this work. A total of 197 phenotypically representative plants collected from field populations were
[...] Read more.
Due to growing concern for the genetic erosion of local varieties, four of the main corn landraces historically grown in Veneto (Italy)—Sponcio, Marano, Biancoperla and Rosso Piave—were characterized in this work. A total of 197 phenotypically representative plants collected from field populations were genotyped at 10 SSR marker loci, which were regularly distributed across the 10 genetic linkage groups and were previously characterized for high polymorphism information content (PIC), on average equal to 0.5. The population structure analysis based on this marker set revealed that 144 individuals could be assigned with strong ancestry association (>90%) to four distinct clusters, corresponding to the landraces used in this study. The remaining 53 individuals, mainly from Sponcio and Marano, showed admixed ancestry. Among all possible pairwise comparisons of individual plants, these two landraces exhibited the highest mean genetic similarity (approximately 67%), as graphically confirmed through ordination analyses based on PCoA centroids and UPGMA trees. Our findings support the hypothesis of direct gene flow between Sponcio and Marano, likely promoted by the geographical proximity of these two landraces and their overlapping cultivation areas. Conversely, consistent with its production mainly confined to the eastern area of the region, Rosso Piave scored the lowest genetic similarity (<59%) to the other three landraces and firmly grouped (with average membership of 89%) in a separate cluster, forming a molecularly distinguishable gene pool. The elite inbred B73 used as tester line scored very low estimates of genetic similarity (on average <45%) with all the landraces. Finally, although Biancoperla was represented at K = 4 by a single subgroup with individual memberships higher than 80% in almost all cases (57 of 62), when analyzed with an additional level of population structure for K = 6, it appeared to be entirely (100%) constituted by individuals with admixed ancestry. This suggests that the current population could be the result of repeated hybridization events between the two accessions currently bred in Veneto. The genetic characterization of these heritage landraces should prove very useful for monitoring and preventing further genetic erosion and genetic introgression, thus preserving their gene pools, phenotypic identities and qualitative traits for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Putting Plant Genetic Diversity and Variability at Work for Breeding: Hybrid Rice Suitability in West Africa
Diversity 2017, 9(3), 27; doi:10.3390/d9030027
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Rice is a staple food in West Africa, where its demand keeps increasing due to population growth. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify high yielding rice cultivars that fulfill this demand locally. Rice hybrids are already known to significantly increase productivity.
[...] Read more.
Rice is a staple food in West Africa, where its demand keeps increasing due to population growth. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify high yielding rice cultivars that fulfill this demand locally. Rice hybrids are already known to significantly increase productivity. This study evaluated the potential of Asian hybrids with good adaptability to irrigated and rainfed lowland rice areas in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal. There were 169 hybrids from China included in trials at target sites during 2009 and 2010. The genotype × environment interaction was highly significant (p < 0.0001) for grain yield indicating that the hybrids’ and their respective cultivar checks’ performance differed across locations. Two hybrids had the highest grain yield during 2010 in Mali, while in Nigeria, four hybrids in 2009 and one hybrid in 2010 had higher grain yield and matured earlier than the best local cultivar. The milling recovery, grain shape and cooking features of most hybrids had the quality preferred by West African consumers. Most of the hybrids were, however, susceptible to African rice gall midge (AfRGM) and Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RMYV) isolate Ng40. About 60% of these hybrids were resistant to blast. Hybrids need to incorporate host plant resistant for AfRGM and RYMV to be grown in West Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
Open AccessArticle The Phylogeny and Biogeography of Phyla nodiflora (Verbenaceae) Reveals Native and Invasive Lineages throughout the World
Diversity 2017, 9(2), 20; doi:10.3390/d9020020
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phyla nodiflora is an herbaceous perennial and an enigmatic species. It is indigenous to the Americas but is considered a natural component of the flora in many areas and a weed in others. Our aim was to circumscribe the native range of P.
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Phyla nodiflora is an herbaceous perennial and an enigmatic species. It is indigenous to the Americas but is considered a natural component of the flora in many areas and a weed in others. Our aim was to circumscribe the native range of P. nodiflora, to explore dispersal mechanisms and routes and to test the hypothesis that P. nodiflora is native outside of the Americas. Determining whether distributions are natural or human-induced has implications for decisions regarding weed control or conservation. We undertook phylogenetic analyses using sequence variation in nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) for a global sample of 160 populations of P. nodiflora sourced from Asia, Australia, central America, the Mediterranean, southern North America, South America and Africa. Analyses included maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, a Bayesian estimation of phylogeny and a parsimony network analysis which provided a genealogical reconstruction of ribotypes. We evaluated phylogenies against extensive historical and biogeographical data. Based on the sequences, 64 ribotypes were identified worldwide within P. nodiflora and considerable geographic structure was evident with five clades: one unsupported and the remaining weakly supported (bootstrap support ranging from 52% to 71%). Populations from central and southern North America formed the core area in the indigenous range and we have detected at least three native lineages outside of this range. Within Australia P. nodiflora is represented by at least one native lineage and several post-European introductions. Phyla nodiflora is one of the few species in the family Verbenaceae to have a pan-tropical native distribution, probably resulting from natural dispersal from America to Africa then to Australasia. However, it has also undergone human-mediated dispersal, which has obscured the native-origin of some ribotypes. These introductions present a risk of diluting the pan-tropical structure evident in this species and therefore they have important conservation implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Harnessing Genetic Diversity of Wild Gene Pools to Enhance Wheat Crop Production and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 55; doi:10.3390/d9040055
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 26 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
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Abstract
Wild species are extremely rich resources of useful genes not available in the cultivated gene pool. For species providing staple food to mankind, such as the cultivated Triticum species, including hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 6x) and tetraploid durum wheat (
[...] Read more.
Wild species are extremely rich resources of useful genes not available in the cultivated gene pool. For species providing staple food to mankind, such as the cultivated Triticum species, including hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 6x) and tetraploid durum wheat (T. durum, 4x), widening the genetic base is a priority and primary target to cope with the many challenges that the crop has to face. These include recent climate changes, as well as actual and projected demographic growth, contrasting with reduction of arable land and water reserves. All of these environmental and societal modifications pose major constraints to the required production increase in the wheat crop. A sustainable approach to address this task implies resorting to non-conventional breeding strategies, such as “chromosome engineering”. This is based on cytogenetic methodologies, which ultimately allow for the incorporation into wheat chromosomes of targeted, and ideally small, chromosomal segments from the genome of wild relatives, containing the gene(s) of interest. Chromosome engineering has been successfully applied to introduce into wheat genes/QTL for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, quality attributes, and even yield-related traits. In recent years, a substantial upsurge in effective alien gene exploitation for wheat improvement has come from modern technologies, including use of molecular markers, molecular cytogenetic techniques, and sequencing, which have greatly expanded our knowledge and ability to finely manipulate wheat and alien genomes. Examples will be provided of various types of stable introgressions, including pyramiding of different alien genes/QTL, into the background of bread and durum wheat genotypes, representing valuable materials for both species to respond to the needed novelty in current and future breeding programs. Challenging contexts, such as that inherent to the 4x nature of durum wheat when compared to 6x bread wheat, or created by presence of alien genes affecting segregation of wheat-alien recombinant chromosomes, will also be illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Open AccessReview Towards the Genomic Basis of Local Adaptation in Landraces
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 51; doi:10.3390/d9040051
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Landraces are key elements of agricultural biodiversity that have long been considered a source of useful traits. Their importance goes beyond subsistence agriculture and the essential need to preserve genetic diversity, because landraces are farmer-developed populations that are often adapted to environmental conditions
[...] Read more.
Landraces are key elements of agricultural biodiversity that have long been considered a source of useful traits. Their importance goes beyond subsistence agriculture and the essential need to preserve genetic diversity, because landraces are farmer-developed populations that are often adapted to environmental conditions of significance to tackle environmental concerns. It is therefore increasingly important to identify adaptive traits in crop landraces and understand their molecular basis. This knowledge is potentially useful for promoting more sustainable agricultural techniques, reducing the environmental impact of high-input cropping systems, and diminishing the vulnerability of agriculture to global climate change. In this review, we present an overview of the opportunities and limitations offered by landraces’ genomics. We discuss how rapid advances in DNA sequencing techniques, plant phenotyping, and recombinant DNA-based biotechnology encourage both the identification and the validation of the genomic signature of local adaptation in crop landraces. The integration of ‘omics’ sciences, molecular population genetics, and field studies can provide information inaccessible with earlier technological tools. Although empirical knowledge on the genetic and genomic basis of local adaptation is still fragmented, it is predicted that genomic scans for adaptation will unlock an intraspecific molecular diversity that may be different from that of modern varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
Open AccessReview International Instruments for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: An Historical Appraisal
Diversity 2017, 9(4), 50; doi:10.3390/d9040050
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper critically reviews the evolution of concepts and principles that inspired the adoption and enforcement of international instruments related to the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including agreements, governance and programs. The review spans
[...] Read more.
This paper critically reviews the evolution of concepts and principles that inspired the adoption and enforcement of international instruments related to the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including agreements, governance and programs. The review spans from the pioneering attempts to regulate this matter, to the negotiations that led to the current regulatory framework, covering the creation of the Panel of Experts on Plant Exploration and Introduction of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 1965, the establishment of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) in 1974 and the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in 1983, the adoption of the International Undertaking in 1983 and, more recently (2001), the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The conceptual contribution, offered by Prof. Scarascia Mugnozza and other visionary scholars, to the establishment of these international instruments, is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
Open AccessReview NGS-Based Genotyping, High-Throughput Phenotyping and Genome-Wide Association Studies Laid the Foundations for Next-Generation Breeding in Horticultural Crops
Diversity 2017, 9(3), 38; doi:10.3390/d9030038
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Demographic trends and changes to climate require a more efficient use of plant genetic resources in breeding programs. Indeed, the release of high-yielding varieties has resulted in crop genetic erosion and loss of diversity. This has produced an increased susceptibility to severe stresses
[...] Read more.
Demographic trends and changes to climate require a more efficient use of plant genetic resources in breeding programs. Indeed, the release of high-yielding varieties has resulted in crop genetic erosion and loss of diversity. This has produced an increased susceptibility to severe stresses and a reduction of several food quality parameters. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are being increasingly used to explore “gene space” and to provide high-resolution profiling of nucleotide variation within germplasm collections. On the other hand, advances in high-throughput phenotyping are bridging the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crop selection. The combination of allelic and phenotypic data points via genome-wide association studies is facilitating the discovery of genetic loci that are associated with key agronomic traits. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the latest NGS-based and phenotyping technologies and on their role to unlocking the genetic potential of vegetable crops; then, we discuss the paradigm shift that is underway in horticultural crop breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Open AccessReview Barley Developmental Mutants: The High Road to Understand the Cereal Spike Morphology
Diversity 2017, 9(2), 21; doi:10.3390/d9020021
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
A better understanding of the developmental plan of a cereal spike is of relevance when designing the plant for the future, in which innovative traits can be implemented through pre-breeding strategies. Barley developmental mutants can be a Mendelian solution for identifying genes controlling
[...] Read more.
A better understanding of the developmental plan of a cereal spike is of relevance when designing the plant for the future, in which innovative traits can be implemented through pre-breeding strategies. Barley developmental mutants can be a Mendelian solution for identifying genes controlling key steps in the establishment of the spike morphology. Among cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the best investigated crop plants and is a model species for the Triticeae tribe, thanks to several characteristics, including, among others, its adaptability to a wide range of environments, its diploid genome, and its self-pollinating mating system, as well as the availability of its genome sequence and a wide array of genomic resources. Among them, large collections of natural and induced mutants have been developed since the 1920s, with the aim of understanding developmental and physiological processes and exploiting mutation breeding in crop improvement. The collections are not only comprehensive in terms of single Mendelian spike mutants, but with regards to double and triple mutants derived from crosses between simple mutants, as well as near isogenic lines (NILs) that are useful for genetic studies. In recent years the integration of the most advanced omic technologies with historical mutation-genetics research has helped in the isolation and validation of some of the genes involved in spike development. New interrogatives have raised the question about how the behavior of a single developmental gene in different genetic backgrounds can help in understanding phenomena like expressivity, penetrance, phenotypic plasticity, and instability. In this paper, some genetic and epigenetic studies on this topic are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative title: The concept of centers of origin and domestication in Phaseolus, a case of multiple domestications
Tentative authors: Andrea Ariani, Jorge Berny Mier y Teran, Paul Gepts
Tentative abstract:
The genus Phaseolus constitutes an interesting case study into the process of domestication. In this review, we will describe the geographic and, wherever possible, the ecological extent of the distributions of the wild progenitors of the five domesticated species of the genus, with particular emphasis on common bean (P. vulgaris). Such analysis was made possible through the successive collections during many decades by several noteworthy explorers, giving us an overall picture of the adaptation of these wild relatives. There is a positive correlation between the economic importance of the five domesticates and the distribution of their respective wild ancestor. Two species – common bean and lima bean (P. lunatus) – have extraordinarily large distributions, of some 10,000 km long. Genomic analysis suggest that these distributions arose through multiple, possibly bird-mediated dispersal events from hitherto unknown ancestors. Furthermore, these different events led to different climatic adaptations. In these different areas, gene flow between wild ancestors and domesticated descendants has predominated in the direction from domesticated to wild, while maintaining the contrasting phenotypes of wild vs. domesticated types. We end by discussing further necessities in the exploration of wild ancestors and species in the genus Phaseolus.

Type of the paper: Review
Title: The functional impact of transposable elements on the diversity of plant genomes
Authors: Dariusz Grzebelus
Affiliations: Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, al. 29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Krakow, Poland
Abstract: Transposable elements (TEs) are self-mobilized DNA sequences that constitute a large portion of plant genomes. Being selfish DNA, they utilize different mobilization mechanisms to persist and proliferate in host genomes. It is important that new TE insertions generate de novo variability, most of which is likely to be deleterious, but some can be advantageous. Also, a growing body of evidence shows that TEs were continually recruited by their hosts to provide additional functionality – a process called molecular domestication. Here, we review potential ways in which transposable elements can provide novel functions to host genomes, from simple gene knock-outs to complex rewiring of gene expression networks. We discuss possible implications of TE presence and activity in crop genomes to agricultural production.

Type of the paper: Review paper
Tentative title: Exploitation Of Rice Landraces - A Feasible Option For Crop Improvement?
Authors: Smitha P, Maya K, Jeena R, Manickavelu A
Affiliations: Dept. of Genomic Science, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
Abstract: Crop domestication is a complex process mediated by a series of fruitful phenotypic changes to modify a wild species suitable for cultivation, harvest as well as consumption. Rice Landraces are good source of genetic variability which can be used to complement and broaden the gene pool of advanced genotypes. They played a very important role in the local food security and sustainable development of agriculture. Genome wide association study (GWAS) examines the associations between markers and trait. GWAS makes it possible to simultaneously screen a very large number of accessions for variation underlying complex traits. Study of selection sweep in landraces can able to find the nature of selection by farmers and possible fixation of alleles. Whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies could identify millions of variants in a rapid, efficient and cost effective manner. The results from these studies will help in understanding the genetic diversity among rice landraces and will be shared with plant breeders in order to incorporate in their breeding program.

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