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Special Issue "Biological Invasions"

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A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Zoltán Botta-Dukát (Website)

MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Institute of Ecology and Botany, H-2163, Vácrátót, Alkotmány u. 2-4., Hungary
Fax: +36 28360147
Interests: Interests: functional diversity; assembly rules; plant invasion; applied statistics; phytosociology; macroecology

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diversity is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Grazer Functional Roles, Induced Defenses, and Indirect Interactions: Implications for Eelgrass Restoration in San Francisco Bay
Diversity 2014, 6(4), 751-770; doi:10.3390/d6040751
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera [...] Read more.
Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera marina, eelgrass) beds, finding that some species (a native opisthobranch, Phyllaplysia taylori; a native isopod, Idotea resecata; and an introduced gastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta) enhanced eelgrass growth through removal of epiphytic algae, as is often predicted for small invertebrate grazers on seagrasses, while one (an introduced caprellid amphipod, Caprella cf. drepanochir) had neutral effects. In contrast, the putatively-introduced gammaridean amphipod, Ampithoe valida, had strong negative effects on eelgrass (in addition to epiphytes) through consumption, as we had previously observed in the field during restoration programs. We tested whether other common grazer species could influence the effects of the eelgrass-grazing Ampithoe, and found that Idotea induced production of phenolic compounds and limited eelgrass damage by Ampithoe, without affecting Ampithoe abundance. These results have implications for restoration strategies, and contribute to a growing awareness of the importance of trait-mediated indirect grazer interactions through grazer-induced changes in plant traits, providing the first example in a seagrass system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions)
Open AccessArticle Phytoplankton Communities in Green Bay, Lake Michigan after Invasion by Dreissenid Mussels: Increased Dominance by Cyanobacteria
Diversity 2014, 6(4), 681-704; doi:10.3390/d6040681
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis [...] Read more.
Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels. Responses to mussel invasions have included increased water clarity, and decreased chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance. Although not all systems have responded similarly, in general, mussels have changed nutrient dynamics and physical habitat conditions. Therefore examination of different impacts can help us further understand mechanisms that underlie ecosystem responses to biological invasions. To aid our understanding of ecosystem impacts, we sampled established locations along a well-studied trophic gradient in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, after the 1993 zebra mussel invasion. A strong trophic gradient remained during the period sampled after the mussel invasion (2000–2012). However, mean summer chlorophyll increased and other measures of phytoplankton biomass (microscope and electronic cell counting) did not change significantly. Multivariate analyses of phytoplankton community structure demonstrate a significant community shift after the invasion. Cyanobacteria increased in dominance, with Microcystis becoming the major summer taxon in lower Green Bay. Diatom diversity and abundance also increased and Chlorophyta became rare. Phytoplankton responses along the trophic gradient of Green Bay to zebra mussel invasion highlight the importance of mussel effects on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton diversity and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions)
Open AccessArticle Invasion of Eastern Texas Forestlands by Chinese Privet: Efficacy of Alternative Management Strategies
Diversity 2014, 6(4), 652-664; doi:10.3390/d6040652
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 1 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) was the most prevalent invasive shrub in the forestlands of Eastern Texas in 2006. We analyzed extensive field data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the U.S. Forest Service to quantify the range [...] Read more.
Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) was the most prevalent invasive shrub in the forestlands of Eastern Texas in 2006. We analyzed extensive field data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the U.S. Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Chinese privet from 2006 to 2011. Our results indicated the presence of Chinese privet on sampled plots increased during this period. Chinese privet spread extensively in the north. Results of logistic regression, which classified 73% of the field plots correctly with regard to species presence and absence, indicated probability of invasion was correlated positively with elevation, adjacency (within 300 m) to water bodies, and site productivity, and was correlated negatively with stand age, site preparation (including clearing, slash burning, chopping, disking, bedding, and other practices clearly intended to prepare a site for regeneration), artificial regeneration (which refers to planting or direct seeding that results in at least 50% of the stand being comprised of stocked trees), and distance to the nearest road. Habitats most at risk to further invasion (likelihood of invasion > 40%) under current conditions occurred primarily in Northeast Texas. Practicing site preparation and artificial regeneration reduced the estimated probabilities of further invasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review
Diversity 2014, 6(3), 500-523; doi:10.3390/d6030500
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions)

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