Special Issue "Helicobacter Pylori Infection"

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A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marina de Bernard (Website)

Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Via Orus 2, Padova, Italy
Phone: +390497923223
Fax: +39 049 792 3250
Interests: host-pathogen interaction; bacterial toxins; bacterial immune modulating factors; Helicobacter pylori

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The story of Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium that infects half of the world’s population, begins in 1893, when the Italian Giulio Bizzozero described spiral microorganisms in the stomach of dogs. Subsequently, two German scientists, Salomon and Krieniz, confirmed the observation by Bizzozero, but none of them suspected that the spiral-shaped bacterium would turn out to be the most widespread infectious agent. Despite this evidence, the scientific community remained convinced that no bacterial life was possible in the stomach. The dogma was broken in the early eighties of the last century by Warren and Marshall, who went on to win the Nobel prize in the 2005 for the definitive demonstration that Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and peptic ulcer. From this extraordinary finding, an explosion of research followed, aimed at defining the role of H. pylori and its virulence factors in sustaining not only gastric inflammation but also gastric malignancies. Furthermore, in the more recent past, several studies have posed the possibility that H. pylori infection may be beneficial for human health and this opened a new and intriguing line of research.

This Special Issue provides an Open Access opportunity to publish research work and review articles related to Helicobacter pylori infection, with the aim of offering a comprehensive collection of the current knowledge on a bug whose name continues to claim interest in science and medicine.

Prof. Dr. Marina de Bernard
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • virulence factors
  • immunobiology
  • gastroduodenal diseases
  • chronic infection
  • Helicobacter and beneficial effect
  • vaccine

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: Changes towards the Future
Diseases 2015, 3(3), 122-135; doi:10.3390/diseases3030122
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
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Abstract
Since the first evidence demonstrating the dramatically high incidence of H. pylori infection and the subsequent medical challenges it incurs, health management of H. pylori infection has been a high priority for health authorities worldwide. Despite a decreasing rate of infection in [...] Read more.
Since the first evidence demonstrating the dramatically high incidence of H. pylori infection and the subsequent medical challenges it incurs, health management of H. pylori infection has been a high priority for health authorities worldwide. Despite a decreasing rate of infection in western countries, prevalence of H. pylori infection in developing and in some industrial countries is still very high. Whereas treatment and vaccination against H. pylori is a contemporary issue in medical communities, selective treatment and prior high-throughput screening of the subject population is a major concern of health organizations. So far, diagnostic tests are either elaborative and require relatively advanced medical care infrastructure or they do not fulfill the criteria recommended by the Maastricht IV/Florence consensus report. In this review, in light of recent scientific studies, we highlight current and possible future approaches for the diagnosis of H. pylori. We point out that novel non-invasive tests may not only cover the requirements of gold standard methods in H. pylori detection but also offer the potential for risk stratification of infection in a high throughput manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)
Open AccessReview Helicobacter pylori-Mediated Protection against Extra-Gastric Immune and Inflammatory Disorders: The Evidence and Controversies
Diseases 2015, 3(2), 34-55; doi:10.3390/diseases3020034
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A large number of studies link H. pylori infection with a reduced risk of developing extra-gastric conditions such as allergy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and multiple sclerosis. The strength of the evidence for these protective associations is quite variable, and [...] Read more.
A large number of studies link H. pylori infection with a reduced risk of developing extra-gastric conditions such as allergy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease and multiple sclerosis. The strength of the evidence for these protective associations is quite variable, and published studies often do not agree. This review article discusses some of the reasons for these discrepancies, and the difficulties faced when designing studies. Examples of some protective disease associations are described in detail, where the evidence is most abundant and thought to be more reliable. The most convincing of these are supported by published mechanistic data, for example with animal models, or incidence of disease exacerbation in humans following H. pylori eradication. Although controversial, this field is very important as the prevalence of H. pylori is decreasing throughout the world whilst many chronic diseases are becoming more common. These trends are likely to continue in the future, therefore it is important that we fully understand if and how H. pylori confers protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)
Open AccessReview Helicobacter-pylori Negative Gastritis in Children—A New Clinical Enigma
Diseases 2014, 2(4), 301-307; doi:10.3390/diseases2040301
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
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Abstract
The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the [...] Read more.
The decrease in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in children in the world gave rise to a new pathological finding termed as Hp-negative gastritis. Unfortunately, the term “Hp-negative gastritis” has not been identified as a pathological process and has the status of a “second cousin”; in most publications it was never mentioned as a subject to be dealt with, but was “left over” data that was never the topic of the manuscripts’ discussions. Only recently has the topic captured the attention of the pathologists who described this phenomenon in adults, yet the pathological and/or clinical spectrum or significance of this phenomenon has not been adequately investigated. In the current manuscript we describe Hp-negative gastritis in children, summarize its clinical prevalence and touch upon the possible etiology, pathology, and/or therapeutic implication. Overall, this review has concluded that Hp-negative gastritis is a pathological phenomenon in children that needs further investigation, and to date, as the title suggests, is a new clinical enigma that needs to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)
Open AccessReview Helicobacter pylori: A Brief History of a Still Lacking Vaccine
Diseases 2014, 2(2), 187-208; doi:10.3390/diseases2020187
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the human population worldwide. Soon after its discovery, the causative relationships between H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma were evidenced. Then, a [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the human population worldwide. Soon after its discovery, the causative relationships between H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma were evidenced. Then, a significantly increased risk of developing gastric cancer was found to be associated with H. pylori infection. The efficacy of the treatment for H. pylori, based on a proton pump inhibitor plus antibiotics, has dropped below 80%, mainly due to antibiotic resistance. Vaccination would overcome antibiotic resistance and would lead to the eradication of this pathogen; however, in spite of almost twenty-five years of investigation on H. pylori vaccine candidates and good protective results obtained in animal models, no vaccine is currently licensed. This review focuses on the studies on the efficacy of those H. pylori vaccine candidates that underwent clinical trials. Efficacy trials have given unsatisfactory results, so far, with bacterial colonization remaining unaffected by vaccination. However, a vaccine able to counteract H. pylori-induced diseases, such as gastric cancer, even without providing sterilizing immunity, could be considered valuable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)
Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanism of Gastric Carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Rodent Models
Diseases 2014, 2(2), 168-186; doi:10.3390/diseases2020168
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), many efforts have been made to establish animal models for the investigation of the pathological features and molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Among the animal models, Mongolian gerbils and mice are particularly [...] Read more.
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), many efforts have been made to establish animal models for the investigation of the pathological features and molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Among the animal models, Mongolian gerbils and mice are particularly useful for the analysis of H. pylori-associated inflammatory reactions and gastric cancer development. Inhibitors of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-κB, exert preventive effects on chronic gastritis and the development of adenocarcinomas in H. pylori-infected gerbils. Genetically-modified mouse models, including transgenic and knockout mice, have also revealed the importance of p53, COX-2/prostaglandin, Wnt/β-catenin, proinflammatory cytokines, gastrin and type III mucin in the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis. Microarray technology is available for comprehensive gene analysis in the gastric mucosa of mouse models, and epigenetics, such as DNA methylation, could be an alternative approach to correlate the observations in animal models with the etiology in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection)

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