Special Issue "Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment"

A special issue of Designs (ISSN 2411-9660).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dario Vangi

Department of Industrial Engineering of Florence, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50139 Florence, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: road safety; road accident analysis; Human-Machine Interaction (HMI); intelligent vehicle; ultrasonic non destructive evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Road vehicle safety tackles the multidisciplinary challenges faced by the vehicle industry in the 21st century, and brings together industry and academic communities under the strategy of Vision Zero.

In the near future, most road vehicles will travel, on almost the entirety of road networks, in an automated way, which foresees a huge improvement in road safety via elimination of the influence of human factors.

The total elimination of road accidents, however, is not possible at the moment. In the roadmap to fully-automated vehicles, a long period with old and new vehicles, in "mixed" traffic, is expected, with only intermediate levels of assistance through the implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS).

To be safer, new generations of road vehicles will need to incorporate different technologies, combining crash avoidance and crashworthiness. This can be achieved by changing the way we design and assess structures and advanced systems and equipment, including advance driving assistance systems, vehicle-to-vehicle, or road-to-vehicle communication technologies. Special attention should be given to the assessment of safety vehicle performance as a whole, and to the individual safety systems implemented.

Based on this focus, this Special Issue would be of interest to readers, in terms of having a good summary of the field of vehicle crashworthiness and crash avoidance, taking in to account both the design and assessment phases. We invite papers addressing these problems, in both fundamental and applied research, as important contributions to the state-of-the-art.

Prof. Dr. Dario Vangi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Designs is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • New developments in crashworthiness design and assessment
  • New developments in crash avoidance systems design and assessment
  • Advanced driver assistance system design and assessment
  • Wireless technologies for vehicle communication (V2V and V2R) design and assessment
  • New developments in vehicle crash test apparatuses
  • Mathematical modeling of vehicle crash dynamics
  • Computer-aided analyses for safety and crash assessments
  • Recent developments in impact analyses for vehicle systems
  • Road accident analysis for vehicle safety assessments
  • Rules and standards for vehicle safety assessments
  • Occupant crash protection
  • Child restraint systems
  • Head restraints
  • Side impact Protection
  • Roof crush resistance
  • Seat belt assemblies
  • Seating systems

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Vehicle Accident Databases: Correctness Checks for Accident Kinematic Data
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Data collection procedures allow to obtain harmonization of in-depth road accident databases. Plausibility of calculable accident-related kinematic parameters depends on the constraints imposed on calculation, making their uncertainty degree higher than the one for measurable parameters (i.e., traces, airbag activation, etc.).
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Data collection procedures allow to obtain harmonization of in-depth road accident databases. Plausibility of calculable accident-related kinematic parameters depends on the constraints imposed on calculation, making their uncertainty degree higher than the one for measurable parameters (i.e., traces, airbag activation, etc.). Uncertainty translates in information loss, making the statistics based on databases analysis less consistent. Since kinematic parameters describe the global accident dynamics, their correctness assessment has a fundamental importance; (2) Methods: the paper takes as reference data collected in the Initiative for the GLobal harmonisation of Accident Data (IGLAD) database for vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. The procedure, however, has general nature and applies identically for other databases and multiple impacts between vehicles. To highlight issues which can arise in accident-related data collection, 3 different checks are proposed for parameters correctness assessment; (3) Results: by 4 examples, 1 with correct and 3 with incorrect parameters reported, the paper demonstrates that errors can go beyond simple calculation uncertainty, implying that a deeper analysis is desirable in data collection; (4) Conclusions: the step-by-step guidelines described in this paper will help in increasing goodness of collected data, providing for a methodology which can be used by each individual involved in accident data collection, both for collection itself and subsequent verification analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Structurally Enhanced, Ergonomically and Human–Computer Interaction Improved Intelligent Seat’s System
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
PDF Full-text (17744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Modern technology advances airplane seat design with better ergonomics and new HCI (human-computer interaction). However, airline companies are not motivated to replace the seat system due to the cost consideration. Hence, a series of re-optimized design in ergonomics and HCI should be carried
[...] Read more.
Modern technology advances airplane seat design with better ergonomics and new HCI (human-computer interaction). However, airline companies are not motivated to replace the seat system due to the cost consideration. Hence, a series of re-optimized design in ergonomics and HCI should be carried out by designers. This paper describes a novel intelligent seat’s system, which is designed to be used for the airplanes or similar conditions. This system consists of redesigned ergonomics and HCI compared with original seat’s systems. The mainly redesigned parts are the aesthetics and visual modeling for people to receive visual information, the ergonomics part for people to receive tactile information, new users’ action innovation for people to receive and output information, the redesign of the structure of the system with low weight and cost, and the functional system environment for people to receive information from humans through movement in multiple environments. Structural analysis supports the redesign. The purpose of the redesign is to improve the HCI system with new tech and interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Platform with Multiple Head-Mounted Displays for Advanced Training in Modern Driving Schools
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
PDF Full-text (4069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle systems, such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), to increase traffic safety and driving comfort. ADAS are technologies that provide drivers with essential information or take over demanding driving tasks. More complex and intelligent vehicle systems
[...] Read more.
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle systems, such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), to increase traffic safety and driving comfort. ADAS are technologies that provide drivers with essential information or take over demanding driving tasks. More complex and intelligent vehicle systems are being developed toward fully autonomous and cooperative driving. Apart from the technical development challenges, training of drivers with these complex vehicle systems represents an important concern for automotive manufacturers. This paper highlights the new evolving requirements concerning the training of drivers with future complex vehicle systems. In accordance with these requirements, a new training concept is introduced, and a prototype of a training platform is implemented for utilization in future driving schools. The developed training platform has a scalable and modular architecture so that more than one driving simulator can be networked to a common driving instructor unit. The participating driving simulators provide fully immersive visualization to the drivers by utilizing head-mounted displays instead of conventional display screens and projectors. The driving instructor unit consists of a computer with a developed software tool for training session control, monitoring, and evaluation. Moreover, the driving instructor can use a head-mounted display to participate interactively within the same virtual environment of any selected driver. A simulation model of an autonomous driving system was implemented and integrated in the participating driving simulators. Using this simulation model, training sessions were conducted with the help of a group of test drivers and professional driving instructors to prove the validity of the developed concept and show the usability of the implemented training platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle An Application-Oriented Design Method for Networked Driving Simulation
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (27801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems represent a key priority in the automotive realm. Networked driving simulation can be utilized as a safe, cost-effective experimental replica of real traffic environments in order to support and accelerate the development of such systems. In networked driving
[...] Read more.
Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems represent a key priority in the automotive realm. Networked driving simulation can be utilized as a safe, cost-effective experimental replica of real traffic environments in order to support and accelerate the development of such systems. In networked driving simulation, different independent systems collaborate to achieve a common task: multi-driver traffic scenario simulation. Yet distinct system complexity levels are necessary to fulfill the requirements of various application scenarios, such as development of vehicle systems, analysis of driving behavior, and training of drivers. With myriad alternatives of available systems and components, developers of networked driving simulation are typically confronted with high design complexity. There are no systematic approaches to date for the design of networked driving simulation in accordance with the specific requirements of the concerned application scenarios. This paper presents a novel design method for networked driving simulation. The method consists mainly of a procedure model that is accompanied by a configuration software. The procedure model includes the necessary phases for the systematic design of application-oriented platforms for networked driving simulation. The configuration software embeds supportive decision-making processes that enable developers to apply the design method and easily create different system models. The design method was validated by generating system models and developing platforms of networked driving simulation for three different application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Interest Manager for Networked Driving Simulation Based on High-Level Architecture
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In networked driving simulation, two or more human drivers participate interactively within a shared virtual environment. Thereby, typical applications of driving simulation can be extended to consider multi-driver scenarios, where a much closer approximation of reality with its unpredictability is achieved. However, the
[...] Read more.
In networked driving simulation, two or more human drivers participate interactively within a shared virtual environment. Thereby, typical applications of driving simulation can be extended to consider multi-driver scenarios, where a much closer approximation of reality with its unpredictability is achieved. However, the utilized network is typically prone to a considerable amount of message traffic. In addition to restricted system scalability, the resulting degradation of network performance leads to invalid simulation outcomes or unacceptable system behavior. High-Level Architecture (HLA) is the IEEE standard 1516 that provides specific guidelines for networked simulation. Data distribution management (DDM) is one of the service groups provided by the HLA standard. The aim of the DDM service is to reduce network traffic and to save effort required to process unnecessary received data. However, existing approaches for current DDM implementations show major drawbacks in terms of utilization complexity, inefficiency, and yet added network overhead. This paper presents a new concept of an interest manager that takes over the DDM functionality and avoids these drawbacks. Simulation data is exchanged between the participating driving simulators only when it is necessary according to the driving situations. The interest manager was implemented and its efficient functionality was validated by analyzing the network load of two driving maneuvers with and without the interest manager. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Transmission Range Evaluations for Connected Vehicles at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
PDF Full-text (837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluates the transmission range requirements of Connected Vehicles (CVs) at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) in terms of safety improvement. The safety improvement of HRGCs is evaluated by using a reliability-based risk analysis that calculates risk of collision for CVs and non-CVs.
[...] Read more.
This study evaluates the transmission range requirements of Connected Vehicles (CVs) at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) in terms of safety improvement. The safety improvement of HRGCs is evaluated by using a reliability-based risk analysis that calculates risk of collision for CVs and non-CVs. Trains are assumed to have onboard units that transmit train location and speed information to CVs via vehicle to vehicle communications. The stopping distance and time to collision of a vehicle are the demand functions in reliability-based risk analysis. The demand functions consist of probability density functions of a vehicle’s initial speed, perception-reaction time, initial deceleration rate, final speed, and final deceleration rate. Train arrival time depending on the train speed and transmission range is the supply threshold for calculating the CV’s risk of collision at passive HRGCs. The transmission range’s projected highway distance is the supply threshold for CVs at active HRGCs. After deriving probability density functions of demand functions from the published data, Monte Carlo simulations generate the probabilities or risks that a CV would fail to stop within the transmission range or train arrival time. With the provision of a 600 m transmission range, the risk of collision for the CV is lower than that for the non-CV with a 300 m sight distance to the train at the passive HRGC. The CV’s risk of collision is lower than the non-CV’s with a 300 m transmission range at active HRGCs. The CV application at HRGCs can improve safety by reducing CVs’ risk of collision. A 600 m transmission range is desirable at passive HRGCs. A 300 m transmission is sufficient for CVs at active HRGCs. Overall, a 600 m transmission range is feasible to improve the safety at passive and active HRGCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Networked Driving Simulation: Applications, State of the Art, and Design Considerations
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle technologies to increase traffic safety and transportation efficiency. Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems are crucial examples of such advanced technologies. The hustle to deploy these fascinating systems onto public roads increases as customer’s expectations rise. Networked
[...] Read more.
Automotive manufacturers and suppliers develop new vehicle technologies to increase traffic safety and transportation efficiency. Autonomous and cooperative vehicle systems are crucial examples of such advanced technologies. The hustle to deploy these fascinating systems onto public roads increases as customer’s expectations rise. Networked driving simulation represents an effective virtual prototyping tool that can support the development, and hence, accelerate system deployment. In networked driving simulation, two or more human-driven virtual vehicles share the same environment and form a very close approximation of real-world traffic interactions. This emerged multi-interactive virtual environment can serve various applications related to the new vehicle technologies and the ever increasing traffic complexity. This paper introduces the promising applications of networked driving simulation and outlines the necessary system design requirements. In addition, the work presents an extensive literature review and evaluation of utilizations of networked driving simulation. Furthermore, three compelling systems of networked driving simulation are analyzed regarding their technical specifications and application scopes. The systems are compared and evaluated using the derived requirements. Finally, potential future work is revealed regarding the design of resilient networked driving simulation systems that can be tailored for possible changes of application requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Road Vehicle Safety: Design and Assessment)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top