Special Issue "Neutron Diffractometers for Single Crystals and Powders"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018)
Neutron diffraction has long established itself as an extremely effective tool for studying atomic and magnetic structures, as well as the microstructure of crystalline materials—the knowledge of which is the basis for understanding their physical and engineering properties. Accordingly, at least one (and more often several) neutron diffractometers can be found at any research neutron source. Unlike X-ray diffractometers, the design of each neutron diffractometer is more or less original, and is dependent on the type of neutron source, and on the specific diffraction problem for which it is aimed.
At present, neutron experiments are conducted on two types of research sources: steady-state nuclear reactors (e.g. HFR of ILL (France) producing the most intense continuous flux in the world), and pulsed sources based on proton accelerators and a heavy metal target (e.g. ISIS at RAL (UK) and most recent ones SNS (USA) and J-PARC (Japan)). In addition, active work is carried out on two non-standard neutron sources: SINQ (PSI, Switzerland), which is based on proton accelerators, but steady-state; and IBR-2 (JINR, Russia), which is a nuclear reactor but pulsed. It should also be noted that in the nearest future the European Spallation Source (under construction) will operate in Lund, Sweden. Its high blilliance and long pulse structure shall open new possibilities in neutron diffraction.
The variety of structural and materials science problems solved with neutron diffraction is very large. The need to optimize the parameters for solving specific problems has determined the variety of constructions of neutron diffractometers. Somewhat arbitrary, it is possible to identify a dozen instrument types differing in their main characteristics (resolution, intensity, d-spacing range) and in the design of the detector system. For instance, the construction of diffractometers at steady-state and at pulsed sources, as well as for single crystals and powders differ radically. Among the latter, one can distinguish between high-resolution and high-intensity instruments, between diffractometers for texture analysis and for measuring internal stresses, etc.
Obviously, for the successful solution of a specific problem, a correct choice of diffractometer is necessary, and we hope that current and potential users of neutron diffraction will be correctly guided by this Special Issue of the journal.Dr. A.M. Balagurov
Dr. A.G. Goukassov
Dr. T.C. Hansen
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Neutron diffractometers
- Atomic structure
- Magnetic structure
- Crystal microstructure