Special Issue "Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Filippo Giannazzo

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche –Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (CNR-IMM), Strada VIII, 5 I-95121 Catania, Italy
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Interests: graphene and other 2D materials; wide bandgap semiconductors; scanning probe microscopy; micro and nano-electronics
Guest Editor
Dr. Samuel Lara Avila

Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 2D materials; nanoelectronics; quantum transport in graphene
Guest Editor
Dr. Jens Eriksson

Applied Sensor Science, IFM, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE 58183, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 2D materials; silicon carbide; sensors
Guest Editor
Dr. Sushant Sonde

Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Eckhardt Research Center, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: 2D materials; scanning probe microscopy; device applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Two-dimensional (2D) crystals and their vertical/lateral heterostructures are currently the subject of massive research interests, both for fundamental science and for technological applications in diverse fields, such as electronics, optoelectronics, quantum metrology, spintronics, membranes, energy conversion/storage, and sensing.

Integration of 2D materials within real device structures currently represents the main challenge to move from the laboratory stage to industrial applications, especially in the fields of electronics/optoelectronics. This implies addressing several complex material science and processing issues, including: (i) the growth of high electronic quality 2D crystals on large area, and non-destructive transfer to the target substrate, when needed; (ii) the fabrication of contacts for optimal current injection at 3D/2D materials interface; and (iii) the deposition of thin dielectric films on the chemically inert surface of Van der Waals crystals.

This Special Issue will be dedicated to discussing recent developments associated with 2D material integration for electronics applications. Contributions are invited on these topics, with special emphasis on (but not limited to):

  • Controlled synthesis of high electronic quality 2D materials (including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, phosphorene, silicene, germanene, stanene) and van der Waals heterostructures on large area.
  • Processing issues for the fabrication of devices based on 2D materials and heterostructures (contacts, dielectrics, passivation) both on conventional and flexible substrates.
  • Integration of 2D materials with conventional semiconductors for electronics/optoelectronics.
  • 2D materials based devices (lateral and vertical architectures) and their applications: RF analogue, digital, sensing, etc.
  • Advanced characterisation of electronic, optical and mechanical properties.
  • Modelling of properties and devices based on 2D materials and heterostructures.

Dr. Filippo Giannazzo
Dr. Jens Erikkson
Dr. Samuel Lara Avila
Dr. Sushant Sonde
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 2D materials
  • synthesis
  • advanced characterization
  • integration
  • electronics/optoelectronics applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Graphene Coated Nanoprobes: A Review
Crystals 2017, 7(9), 269; doi:10.3390/cryst7090269
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Nanoprobes are one of the most important components in several fields of nanoscience to study materials, molecules and particles. In scanning probe microscopes, the nanoprobes consist on silicon tips coated with thin metallic films to provide additional properties, such as conductivity. However, if
[...] Read more.
Nanoprobes are one of the most important components in several fields of nanoscience to study materials, molecules and particles. In scanning probe microscopes, the nanoprobes consist on silicon tips coated with thin metallic films to provide additional properties, such as conductivity. However, if the experiments involve high currents or lateral frictions, the initial properties of the tips can wear out very fast. One possible solution is the use of hard coatings, such as diamond, or making the entire tip out of a precious material (platinum or diamond). However, this strategy is more expensive and the diamond coatings can damage the samples. In this context, the use of graphene as a protective coating for nanoprobes has attracted considerable interest. Here we review the main literature in this field, and discuss the fabrication, performance and scalability of nanoprobes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications)
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Open AccessReview A Review on Metal Nanoparticles Nucleation and Growth on/in Graphene
Crystals 2017, 7(7), 219; doi:10.3390/cryst7070219
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
In this review, the fundamental aspects (with particular focus to the microscopic thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms) concerning the fabrication of graphene-metal nanoparticles composites are discussed. In particular, the attention is devoted to those fabrication methods involving vapor-phase depositions of metals on/in graphene-based materials.
[...] Read more.
In this review, the fundamental aspects (with particular focus to the microscopic thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms) concerning the fabrication of graphene-metal nanoparticles composites are discussed. In particular, the attention is devoted to those fabrication methods involving vapor-phase depositions of metals on/in graphene-based materials. Graphene-metal nanoparticles composites are, nowadays, widely investigated both from a basic scientific and from several technological point of views. In fact, these graphene-based systems present wide-range tunable and functional electrical, optical, and mechanical properties which can be exploited for the design and production of innovative and high-efficiency devices. This research field is, so, a wide and multidisciplinary section in the nanotechnology field of study. So, this review aims to discuss, in a synthetic and systematic framework, the basic microscopic mechanisms and processes involved in metal nanoparticles formation on graphene sheets by physical vapor deposition methods and on their evolution by post-deposition processes. This is made by putting at the basis of the discussions some specific examples to draw insights on the common general physical and chemical properties and parameters involved in the synergistic interaction processes between graphene and metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications)
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Open AccessReview Advanced Scanning Probe Microscopy of Graphene and Other 2D Materials
Crystals 2017, 7(7), 216; doi:10.3390/cryst7070216
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and metal dichalcogenides, are an emerging class of materials, which hold the promise to enable next-generation electronics. Features such as average flake size, shape, concentration, and density of defects are among the most significant properties affecting these
[...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and metal dichalcogenides, are an emerging class of materials, which hold the promise to enable next-generation electronics. Features such as average flake size, shape, concentration, and density of defects are among the most significant properties affecting these materials’ functions. Because of the nanoscopic nature of these features, a tool performing morphological and functional characterization on this scale is required. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) techniques offer the possibility to correlate morphology and structure with other significant properties, such as opto-electronic and mechanical properties, in a multilevel characterization at atomic- and nanoscale. This review gives an overview of the different SPM techniques used for the characterization of 2D materials. A basic introduction of the working principles of these methods is provided along with some of the most significant examples reported in the literature. Particular attention is given to those techniques where the scanning probe is not used as a simple imaging tool, but rather as a force sensor with very high sensitivity and resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications)
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Open AccessReview Synthesis Methods of Two-Dimensional MoS2: A Brief Review
Crystals 2017, 7(7), 198; doi:10.3390/cryst7070198
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the most important two-dimensional materials after graphene. Monolayer MoS2 has a direct bandgap (1.9 eV) and is potentially suitable for post-silicon electronics. Among all atomically thin semiconductors, MoS2’s synthesis techniques are more
[...] Read more.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the most important two-dimensional materials after graphene. Monolayer MoS2 has a direct bandgap (1.9 eV) and is potentially suitable for post-silicon electronics. Among all atomically thin semiconductors, MoS2’s synthesis techniques are more developed. Here, we review the recent developments in the synthesis of hexagonal MoS2, where they are categorized into top-down and bottom-up approaches. Micromechanical exfoliation is convenient for beginners and basic research. Liquid phase exfoliation and solutions for chemical processes are cheap and suitable for large-scale production; yielding materials mostly in powders with different shapes, sizes and layer numbers. MoS2 films on a substrate targeting high-end nanoelectronic applications can be produced by chemical vapor deposition, compatible with the semiconductor industry. Usually, metal catalysts are unnecessary. Unlike graphene, the transfer of atomic layers is omitted. We especially emphasize the recent advances in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition, where gaseous precursors are used. These processes grow MoS2 with the smallest building-blocks, naturally promising higher quality and controllability. Most likely, this will be an important direction in the field. Nevertheless, today none of those methods reproducibly produces MoS2 with competitive quality. There is a long way to go for MoS2 in real-life electronic device applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications)
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Open AccessReview Role of the Potential Barrier in the Electrical Performance of the Graphene/SiC Interface
Crystals 2017, 7(6), 162; doi:10.3390/cryst7060162
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
In spite of the great expectations for epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide (SiC) to be used as a next-generation high-performance component in high-power nano- and micro-electronics, there are still many technological challenges and fundamental problems that hinder the full potential of EG/SiC
[...] Read more.
In spite of the great expectations for epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide (SiC) to be used as a next-generation high-performance component in high-power nano- and micro-electronics, there are still many technological challenges and fundamental problems that hinder the full potential of EG/SiC structures and that must be overcome. Among the existing problems, the quality of the graphene/SiC interface is one of the most critical factors that determines the electroactive behavior of this heterostructure. This paper reviews the relevant studies on the carrier transport through the graphene/SiC, discusses qualitatively the possibility of controllable tuning the potential barrier height at the heterointerface and analyses how the buffer layer formation affects the electronic properties of the combined EG/SiC system. The correlation between the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio at the interface and the barrier height is discussed. We expect that the barrier height modulation will allow realizing a monolithic electronic platform comprising different graphene interfaces including ohmic contact, Schottky contact, gate dielectric, the electrically-active counterpart in p-n junctions and quantum wells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications)
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