Special Issue "Superhydrophobic Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ioannis Karapanagiotis

University Ecclesiastical Academy of Thessaloniki, N. Plastira 65, 542 50 Thessaloniki, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30-2310-301784
Fax: +30-2310-300360

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The bioinspired surfaces of special wetting properties, from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity and superoleophobicity to superoleophilicity, have recently attracted considerable attention. Among these special surfaces, supehydrophobic surfaces (which can be either water-repellent or water-adhesive) can have numerous potential applications and therefore deserve, and have attracted, special attention.

Hundreds of different methods have been devised and applied to produce hierarchically structured, superhydrophobic surfaces such as, for instance, sol-gel, controlled nanoparticle embedding into polymer matrices (composites), wet chemical reaction, electrochemical deposition, plasma etching, chemical vapor deposition, lithography, electrospinning, solution immersion, emulsion, and so on.

Coatings produced using the aforementioned methods is a usual strategy to induce superhydrophobicity to various surfaces-substrates.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Anti-sticking, anti-contamination for any outdoor surface (buildings, automobiles, monuments)
  • Stain resistant clothing
  • Anti-biofouling paints (e.g., for boats)
  • Anti-icing i.e. anti-sticking of snow for aircrafts, wind generators, antennas, windows etc.
  • Self-cleaning windshields for automobiles
  • Microfluidics, i.e., droplet manipulation and controlled transport of small volumes of liquids; single-molecule spectroscopy
  • Metal refining
  • Lab-on-a-chip devices
  • Membranes, e.g., water harvesting, cleaning of water

Prof. Dr. Ioannis Karapanagiotis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Optimal Patterned Wettability for Microchannel Flow Boiling Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Coatings 2018, 8(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8080288
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Microchannel flow boiling is a cooling method studied in microscale heat-cooling, which has become an important field of research with the development of high-density integrated circuits. The change in microchannel surface characteristics affects thermal fluid behavior, and existing studies have optimized heat transfer
[...] Read more.
Microchannel flow boiling is a cooling method studied in microscale heat-cooling, which has become an important field of research with the development of high-density integrated circuits. The change in microchannel surface characteristics affects thermal fluid behavior, and existing studies have optimized heat transfer by changing surf ace wettability characteristics. However, a surface with heterogeneous wettability also has the potential to improve heat transfer. In this case, heat transfer would be optimized by applying the optimal heterogeneous wettability surface to channel flow boiling. In this study, a change in cooling efficiency was observed, by setting a hydrophobic and hydrophilic wettability pattern on the channel surface under the microchannel flow boiling condition, using a lattice Boltzmann method simulation. In the rectangular microchannel structure, the hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterned wettability was oriented perpendicular to the flow direction. The bubble nucleation and the heat transfer coefficient were observed in each case by varying the length of the pattern and the ratio of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic area. It was found that the minimum pattern length in which individual bubbles can occur, and the wettability pattern in which the bubble nucleation-departure cycle is maintained, are advantageous for increasing the efficiency of heat transfer in channel flow boiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Hot Embossing for Whole Teflon Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Coatings 2018, 8(7), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8070227
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report a simple fabrication process of whole Teflon superhydrophobic surfaces, featuring high-aspect-ratio (>20) nanowire structures, using a hot embossing process. An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is used as the embossing mold for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanowires directly
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we report a simple fabrication process of whole Teflon superhydrophobic surfaces, featuring high-aspect-ratio (>20) nanowire structures, using a hot embossing process. An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is used as the embossing mold for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanowires directly on a Teflon substrate. First, high-aspect-ratio nanowire structures of Teflon are formed by pressing a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) sheet onto a heated AAO membrane at 340 °C, which is above the melting point of FEP. Experimental results show that the heating time and aspect ratios of nanopores in the AAO mold are critical to the fidelity of the hot embossed nanowire structures. It has also been found that during the de-molding step, a large adhesive force between the AAO mold and the molded FEP greatly prolongs the length of nanowires. Contact angle measurements indicate that Teflon nanowires make the surface superhydrophobic. The reliability and robustness of superhydrophobicity is verified by a long-term (~6.5 h) underwater turbulent channel flow test. After the first step of hot-embossing the Teflon nanowires, microstructures are further superimposed by repeating the hot embossing process, but this time with microstructured silicon substrates as micromolds and at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the FEP. The results indicate that the hot embossing process is also an effective way to fabricate hierarchical micro/nanostructures of whole Teflon, which can be useful for applications of Teflon material, such as superhydrophobic surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Anti- and De-Icing Behaviors of Superhydrophobic Fabrics
Coatings 2018, 8(6), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8060198
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports the application of superhydrophobic coatings on cotton fabrics and their functionalities for anti- and de-icing efficacy. Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics with different water-repellent properties have been achieved by decorating the surface of pristine cotton fibers with ZnO structures of varying sizes
[...] Read more.
This paper reports the application of superhydrophobic coatings on cotton fabrics and their functionalities for anti- and de-icing efficacy. Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics with different water-repellent properties have been achieved by decorating the surface of pristine cotton fibers with ZnO structures of varying sizes and shapes through an in situ solution growth process, followed by the treatment of the surface with low-surface-energy coating such as Teflon. The surface morphology of the treated cotton fabrics was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface wettability of the treated fabrics was evaluated through the measurement of static contact angle (SCA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH), and sliding angle (SA) of a water droplet. The anti- and de-icing behaviors of the treated fabrics were evaluated through both static (sessile droplet) and dynamic (spraying) tests. The results show that the superhydrophobic fabric with a higher SCA and the lower CAH/SA has superior anti- and de-icing behaviors in both the static and dynamic conditions. Compared to hard substrates, the soft, flexible, and porous (air-permeable) superhydrophobic fabrics can lead to broader applicability of textile-based materials for the design and fabrication of anti- and de-icing materials. Furthermore, the multi-scale surface structures of fabrics (fibers, yarns, and weaving constructions) combining with the hierarchical micro-nanostructures of the ZnO coating provides an ideal platform for anti-icing studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Superhydrophobic Bilayer Coating Based on Annealed Electrospun Ultrathin Poly(ε-caprolactone) Fibers and Electrosprayed Nanostructured Silica Microparticles for Easy Emptying Packaging Applications
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8050173
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
A coating rendering superhydrophobic properties to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films used in packaging applications was herein generated by means of the electrohydrodynamic processing (EHDP) technique. To this end, electrospun ultrathin poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers, followed by electrosprayed nanostructured silica (SiO2) microparticles, were
[...] Read more.
A coating rendering superhydrophobic properties to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films used in packaging applications was herein generated by means of the electrohydrodynamic processing (EHDP) technique. To this end, electrospun ultrathin poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers, followed by electrosprayed nanostructured silica (SiO2) microparticles, were deposited on top of the LDPE film. Various electrospinning and electrospraying times were tested and optimized followed by a thermal post-treatment to provide physical adhesion between the bilayer coating and the LDPE substrate. The morphology, hydrophobicity, permeance to limonene, and thermal stability of the resultant nanostructured coatings were characterized. It was observed that by controlling both the deposition time of the electrospun ultrathin PCL fibers and the electrosprayed SiO2 microparticles, as well as the conditions of the thermal post-treatment, effective superhydrophobic coatings were developed onto the LDPE films. The resultant multilayer presented a hierarchical micro/nanostructured surface with an apparent contact angle of 157° and a sliding angle of 8°. The addition of silica reduced, to some extent, the limonene (aroma) barrier, likely due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio, which allowed permeant sorption to occur but improved the thermal stability of the LDPE/PCL film. As a result, the developed multilayer system of LDPE/PCL/SiO2 has significant potential for use in easy-to-empty packaging applications of high water activity products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Icing Performance of Hydrophobic Silicone–Acrylate Resin Coatings on Wind Blades
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040151
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The icing of wind blades poses a serious threat to the operation of wind turbines. The application of superhydrophobic coatings on wind blades can serve as a potential anti-icing method. This study presents the findings of simulations of the icing environment of wind
[...] Read more.
The icing of wind blades poses a serious threat to the operation of wind turbines. The application of superhydrophobic coatings on wind blades can serve as a potential anti-icing method. This study presents the findings of simulations of the icing environment of wind blades coated with hydrophobic silicone–acrylate resin in an artificial climate chamber. Artificial icing tests were performed on NACA7715 wind blades with four different silicone–acrylate resin coatings and on uncoated wind blades, with test performed at five different wind speeds and three different angles of attack. Results show that wind blade surfaces with higher hydrophobicity yield better anti-icing performance, and that the ice mass of the wind blades decreases with increasing wind speeds and angles of attack. In addition, variations in ice mass, shape, and distribution on different wind blades indicate that increased hydrophobicity can help limit the areas that are subject to freezing. Hydrophobicity can affect the air cavities of the ice deposited on the wind blades, and surfaces with increased hydrophobicity can lead to lower ice mass and less ice adhesion. In brief, surfaces with higher hydrophobicity demonstrate better anti-icing performance and benefit from active de-icing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Self-healing Superhydrophobic Surfaces from Water-Soluble Polymer Suspensions Free of Inorganic Particles through Polymer Thermal Reconstruction
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8040144
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by casting and drying water-soluble amphiphilic polymer suspensions at room temperature through thermal reconstruction. When compared with previous methods, this approach exploits modified natural hierarchical microstructures from wood instead of artificially constructing them for superhydrophobic morphology, which
[...] Read more.
Self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by casting and drying water-soluble amphiphilic polymer suspensions at room temperature through thermal reconstruction. When compared with previous methods, this approach exploits modified natural hierarchical microstructures from wood instead of artificially constructing them for superhydrophobic morphology, which involves neither organic solvent nor inorganic particles nor complex procedures. The obtained superhydrophobic surface has acceptable resistance to abrasion. The surface can recover superhydrophobicity spontaneously at room temperature upon damage, which can be accelerated at a higher temperature. After depleting healing agents, the polymer suspension can be sprayed or cast onto wood surfaces to replenish healing agents and to restore self-healing ability. The superhydrophobic surface greatly increases the mold inhibition and water resistance of wood, which would prolong the service life of wood based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Antimicrobial Coatings for the Protection of Silk Textiles
Coatings 2018, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8030101
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A method to produce multifunctional coatings for the protection of silk is developed. Aqueous dispersion, free of any organic solvent, containing alkoxy silanes, organic fluoropolymer, silane quaternary ammonium salt, and silica nanoparticles (7 nm in mean diameter) is sprayed onto silk which obtains
[...] Read more.
A method to produce multifunctional coatings for the protection of silk is developed. Aqueous dispersion, free of any organic solvent, containing alkoxy silanes, organic fluoropolymer, silane quaternary ammonium salt, and silica nanoparticles (7 nm in mean diameter) is sprayed onto silk which obtains (i) superhydrophobic and superoleophobic properties, as evidenced by the high contact angles (>150°) of water and oil drops and (ii) antimicrobial properties. Potato dextrose agar is used as culture medium for the growth of microorganisms. The protective coating hinders the microbial growth on coated silk which remains almost free of contamination after extensive exposure to the microorganisms. Furthermore, the multifunctional coating induces a moderate reduction in vapor permeability of the treated silk, it shows very good durability against abrasion and has a minor visual effect on the aesthetic appearance of silk. The distinctive roles of the silica nanoparticles and the antimicrobial agent on the aforementioned properties of the coating are investigated. Silica nanoparticles induce surface structures at the micro/nano-meter scale and are therefore responsible for the achieved extreme wetting properties that promote the antimicrobial activity. The latter is further enhanced by adding the silane quaternary ammonium salt in the composition of the protective coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Resistance and Durability of Superhydrophobic Copper Surface in Corrosive NaCl Aqueous Solution
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Artificial superhydrophobic copper surfaces play an important role in modern applications such as self-cleaning and dropwise condensation; however, corrosion resistance and durability often present as major concerns in such applications. In this study, the anti-corrosion properties and mechanical durability of superhydrophobic copper surface
[...] Read more.
Artificial superhydrophobic copper surfaces play an important role in modern applications such as self-cleaning and dropwise condensation; however, corrosion resistance and durability often present as major concerns in such applications. In this study, the anti-corrosion properties and mechanical durability of superhydrophobic copper surface have been investigated. The superhydrophobic copper surfaces were achieved with wet chemical etching and an immersion method to reduce the complexity of the fabrication process. The surface structures and materials were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the superhydrophobic copper surface were characterized after immersing surfaces in a 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. The chemical stability of the superhydrophobic copper surface in the NaCl solution for a short period of time was also evaluated. An abrasion test and an ultrasound oscillation were conducted to confirm that the copper surface contained durable superhydrophobic properties. In addition, an atomic force microscope was employed to study the surface mechanical property in the corrosion conditions. The present study shows that the resulting superhydrophobic copper surface exhibit enhanced corrosion resistance and durability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle New Electrospun Polystyrene/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Superhydrophobic Coatings; Synthesis, Characterization, and Application
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
The effect of electrospinning operational parameters on the morphology, surface roughness, and wettability of different compositions of electrospun polystyrene (PS)–aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanocomposite coatings was investigated using different techniques. For example, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with an
[...] Read more.
The effect of electrospinning operational parameters on the morphology, surface roughness, and wettability of different compositions of electrospun polystyrene (PS)–aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanocomposite coatings was investigated using different techniques. For example, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, an atomic force microscope (AFM), and water contact angle (WCA), and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) measurements using the sessile droplet method, were used. The latter used 4 µL of distilled water at room temperature. PS/Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings exhibited different morphologies, such as beaded fibers and microfibers, depending on the concentration ratio between the PS and Al2O3 nanoparticles and the operational parameters of the electrospinning process. The optimum conditions to produce a nanocomposite coating with the highest roughness and superhydrophobic properties (155° ± 1.9° for WCA and 3° ± 4.2° for CAH) are 2.5 and 0.25 wt % of PS and Al2O3, respectively, 25 kV for the applied potential and 1.5 mL·h−1 for the solution flow rate at 35 °C. The corrosion resistance of the as-prepared coatings was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results have revealed that the highly porous superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings (SHCs) possess a superior corrosion resistance that is higher than the uncoated Al alloy by three orders of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of an Anisotropic Superhydrophobic Polymer Surface Using Compression Molding and Dip Coating
Coatings 2017, 7(11), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings7110194
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a
[...] Read more.
Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a single crystal diamond tool, was used to fabricate a mold with microscale directional patterns of triangular cross-sectional shape for good moldability, and the patterns were duplicated on a flat thermoplastic polymer plate by compression molding for the mass production of an anisotropic wetting polymer surface. Anisotropic wetting was observed only with microscale patterns, but the sliding of water could not be achieved because of the pinning effect of the micro-structure. Therefore, an additional dip coating process with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecythricholosilanes, and TiO2 nanoparticles was applied for a small sliding angle with nanoscale patterns and a low surface energy. The anisotropic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and the surface morphology and anisotropic wetting behaviors were investigated. The suggested fabrication method can be used to mass produce an anisotropic superhydrophobic polymer surface, demonstrating the feasibility of liquid shape control and transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Progress in Preparation and Anti-Icing Applications of Superhydrophobic Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(6), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8060208
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Aircraft icing refers to ice formation and accumulation on the windward surface of aircrafts. It is mainly caused by the striking of unstable supercooled water droplets suspended in clouds onto a solid surface. Aircraft icing poses an increasing threat to the safety of
[...] Read more.
Aircraft icing refers to ice formation and accumulation on the windward surface of aircrafts. It is mainly caused by the striking of unstable supercooled water droplets suspended in clouds onto a solid surface. Aircraft icing poses an increasing threat to the safety of flight due to the damage of aerodynamic shape. This review article provides a comprehensive understanding of the preparation and anti-icing applications of the superhydrophobic coatings applied on the surface of aircrafts. The first section introduces the hazards of aircraft icing and the underlying formation mechanisms of ice on the surface of aircrafts. Although some current anti-icing and de-icing strategies have been confirmed to be effective, they consume higher energy and lead to some fatigue damages to the substrate materials. Considering the icing process, the functional coatings similar to lotus leaf with extreme water repellency and unusual self-cleaning properties have been proposed and are expected to reduce the relied degree on traditional de-icing approaches and even to replace them in near future. The following sections mainly discuss the current research progress on the wetting theories of superhydrophobicity and main methods to prepare superhydrophobic coatings. Furthermore, based on the bouncing capacity of impact droplets, the dynamic water repellency of superhydrophobic coatings is discussed as the third evaluated parameter. It is crucial to anti-icing applications because it describes the ability of droplets to rapidly bounce off before freezing. Subsequently, current studies on the application of anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings including the anti-icing mechanisms and application status are introduced in detail. Finally, some limitations and issues related to the anti-icing applications are proposed to provide a future outlook on investigations of the superhydrophobic anti-icing coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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Open AccessReview Chemical and Physical Pathways for Fabricating Flexible Superamphiphobic Surfaces with High Transparency
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Since the discovery of the self-cleaning properties of the lotus effect, the wetting of surfaces were intensively investigated due to their potential application in many industrial sectors. The transparency of flexible liquid repellent coatings are a major industrial problem and their economic consequences
[...] Read more.
Since the discovery of the self-cleaning properties of the lotus effect, the wetting of surfaces were intensively investigated due to their potential application in many industrial sectors. The transparency of flexible liquid repellent coatings are a major industrial problem and their economic consequences are widely known. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the developments of flexible and transparent superamphiphobic surfaces is required in a number of technological and industrial situations. In this review, we aim to discuss the progress in the design, synthesis, fabrication techniques, and applications of flexible and transparent superamphiphobic surfaces. We start with an introduction, exploring the contact angles and wetting states for superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, and superoleophobic surfaces, and continue with a review of the wetting transition of such surfaces. Then, we highlight the fabrication techniques involved for the preparation of flexible and transparent superamphiphobic surfaces. This review also discusses the key issues in the fabrication process and surfaces, and their features in improving durability characteristics and self-repellent performance. Then we suggest various recommendations for the improvement of mechanical durability along with potential future directions towards more systematic methods that will also be acceptable for industry. Finally, we conclude with some challenges and potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superhydrophobic Coatings)
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