Special Issue "Water Quality in the City"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Challenges (ISSN 2078-1547).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Andy James (Website)

University of Washington Tacoma, Center for Urban Waters, 326 East D Street, Tacoma, WA 98421, USA
Phone: +1 253 254 7030
Interests: fate and transport of contaminants of emerging concern; fate and transport of anthropogenic nitrogen; anthropogenic eutrophication; phytoremediation; low impact development; stormwater treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A disproportionate fraction of growth has been centered around cities with projections that urban populations will increase to 5 billion by 2030, increasing urban land cover by 1.2 million km2 (Seto et al, PNAS, 2012). Urban landscapes present unique environmental opportunities and challenges, including those related to water resources and water quality. Historically, urbanization has lead to increased runoff, decreased infiltration, and decreased water quality, adversely impacting streams (i.e., the urban stream syndrome), rivers, and embayments. Developing countries are often faced with inadequate water and wastewater infrastructure, presenting an additional layer of challenges for water resource and water quality management.

Non-point source pollution is recognized as a fundamental challenge of urban water management. Traditional engineering approaches are increasingly being replaced by distributed, low impact approaches to restore runoff hydrographs, improve water quality, and minimize combined sewer overflows. Although promising, the effectiveness of such approaches with regard to specific contaminants, and on the watershed scale, remains uncertain. It is unclear, for example, whether distributed systems can effectively address nutrient runoff to sensitive receiving water. An evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of LID (and other) remedial systems against specific problems on local and watershed scales is needed.

Dr. Andy James
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Challenges is an international peer-reviewed Open Access biannual journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • stormwater
  • green infrastructure
  • low impact development
  • combined sewer overflow
  • water reuse
  • non-point pollution

Published Papers (2 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-2
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Changes in Acid Herbicide Concentrations in Urban Streams after a Cosmetic Pesticides Ban
Challenges 2014, 5(1), 138-151; doi:10.3390/challe5010138
Received: 3 October 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Surface water concentrations of the acid herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba and mecoprop were measured in ten urban Ontario streams before (2003–2008) and after (2009–2012) a ban on the sale and use of pesticides for cosmetic (non-essential) purposes. Frequencies of detection (2003–2012) were 98%, [...] Read more.
Surface water concentrations of the acid herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba and mecoprop were measured in ten urban Ontario streams before (2003–2008) and after (2009–2012) a ban on the sale and use of pesticides for cosmetic (non-essential) purposes. Frequencies of detection (2003–2012) were 98%, 96% and nearly 100%, respectively for 2,4-D, dicamba and mecoprop. Concentrations were typically in the ng L−1 range, although periodic spikes in the µg L−1 range were observed. Concentrations in a majority of the study streams decreased significantly following the cosmetic pesticides ban. Concentrations decreased from 16% to 92% depending on the stream and herbicide. The presence of these herbicides in urban streams was likely a result of urban applications. Concentrations were significantly related to population density or urban land cover, and the relative proportion of the three herbicides observed in urban stream water approximated the ratios found in pesticide products formulated for urban use. Longer-term trends indicate that decreases in stream water herbicide concentrations may have preceded the ban and may be related to increased public awareness of pesticide issues and voluntary reductions in urban pesticide use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in the City)
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test
Challenges 2014, 5(1), 75-97; doi:10.3390/challe5010075
Received: 25 October 2013 / Revised: 18 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos was adapted to serve as an [...] Read more.
This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS) endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in the City)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Challenges Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
challenges@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Challenges
Back to Top