Special Issue "Catalysis in Steam Reforming"
A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018
Dr. Valerie Dupont
Energy Research Institute, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: gas solid catalysis; energy analysis; process and reactor simulation; chemical looping technology; high purity H2 and CH4; advanced reforming; high temperature CO2 sorption; industrial CCS
Steam reforming is the most mature and economical technology used in the production of hydrogen and uses hydrocarbons reaction with steam to generate a H2 rich stream. It has been successfully deployed in industry using natural gas or naphtha as the feedstocks for many years. For its main reaction of methane with steam, producing CO and H2 as the main products, but also CO2 from water gas shift side reaction, the process relies on packed bed catalytic reactor technology, operated at medium high pressures (30-40 bar) and temperatures in the 850-1000 °C range. The reaction is strongly equilibrium driven, and pressures above atmospheric, whilst allowing reasonably sized plants delivering large throughputs, are adverse to the conversion of the hydrocarbon fuel. Steam to carbon ratios in the reformer are also carefully chosen to avoid coking in the reactor, which would poison the catalyst. Excess of steam and endothermicity of the steam reforming reaction make this process very energy intensive. Motivated by the need to reduce carbon emissions associated with H2 production, advanced steam reforming processes have now reached various stages of technology readiness level.
This special issue of Catalysts focusses on advances in steam reforming processes with equilibrium shift enhancing features brought about by in-situ product separation. The in-situ separation process effected by the presence of a sorbent or membrane or other, and require close coupling of catalyst and separation materials, and have resulted in novel materials and reactor designs a the steam reforming and at the water gas shift stage as well as widening the range of feedstocks suitable for steam reforming including renewable fuels with coking tendencies.
Dr. Valerie Dupont
Manuscript Submission Information
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- H2 production
- steam reforming
- water gas shift
- sorption enhancement
- membrane enhancement
- equilibrium shift
- hybrid catalysts
- reactive membranes
- in situ separation
- unconventional gas
- process intensification
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Steam Reforming of Biogas and Power Generation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Type: Research Article
Authors: Huangang Shi 1,*, Wenyi Tan 1, Zongping Shao 2,3
Affiliations: 1 School of Environmental Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, No.1 Hongjing Road, Nanjing, 211167, PR China
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
3 State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No.5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing, 210009, PR China
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Biomass is a type of renewable energy source and represents a valid alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification is a thermochemical conversion of an organic material into a valuable gaseous product (biogas). The biogas produced from the biomass gasification mainly consists of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which can be used as the fuel for SOFCs. As a non-fossil fuel, biogas as energy sources for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has received more and more interest. In this work, steam reforming of biogas was carried out over the anode of solid oxide fuel cells to obtain hydrogen rich fuel, thus the performance of SOFCs was greatly improved.
Title: Hydrogen Production from Ethanol by Microwave Steam Reforming
Authors: Hideoki Fukushima
Affiliation: Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192, Japan; email@example.com
Abstract: We tried an steam reforming by the combination of bio-ethanol and microwave energy. If the microwave energy is used for the ethanol steam reforming, only a catalyst layer is selectively heated from the inside in a short time, and so it becomes possible to quickly reform with a simple setup and produce very high energy efficiencies.
4.7 mole of hydrogen from one mole of ethanol could be constantly produced within 20 seconds. Full conversion of 100%, high hydrogen concentration of 70% and high reformer efficiency of 80% were obtained at a low temperature of 500 degree C. The hydrogen production by microwave heating was more than twice compared with conventional one at high gas space velocities. Activation energies for the microwave process decreased about 30% compared to the conventional one.
The microwave radiation can activate the catalyst surfaces at lower temperatures, because water and alcohol have an extremely high absorption in microwave fields, that is, high dielectric loss factors.
Under the microwave irradiation, it seems that the particle interfaces in the catalyst layer become higher in temperature at the micro level, and so the catalytic reaction is promoted. Advantages of the microwave over conventional one became clear. This innovative microwave process will be used for on-board vehicles and contribute to CO2-free technologies.
Title: Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether over Bifunctional Catalyst Containing Cu/CeO2 and Heteropolyacid
Authors: Yanyong LIU