Special Issue "Carbon-Based Catalyst"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manuel Fernando Ribeiro Pereira

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon materials; catalysis; environment and energy; chemical reaction engineering; functional materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon materials present several advantages when used in catalysis, either as supports or as catalysts on their own. In addition to their high stability in acid and alkaline media, their versatility and easy tailoring of their properties (textural and surface chemistry) to specific needs make them promising materials to fit different catalytic applications, from fine chemicals synthesis to environmental and energy processes. More recently, the generalized access to new forms of carbons like carbon xerogels, carbon nanotubes and graphene and the fine tuning of the surface chemistry, with hetero-atoms doping (e.g., N, S, B, P), opened up new horizons for their use in catalysis, namely for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and biomass conversion. 

In this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research, we invite authors to submit original communications, articles, and reviews on the application of carbon materials (in all its forms, from activated carbon to graphene) in catalysis.

Prof. Dr. Manuel Fernando Ribeiro Pereira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Carbon catalyst
  • Carbon supported catalyst
  • Carbocatalysis
  • Carbon-based
  • Metal-free catalysis
  • Catalysis
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Electrocatalysis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Catalytic Performances of Au–Pt Nanoparticles on Phosphorous Functionalized Carbon Nanofibers towards HMF Oxidation
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
Herein, we reported the utilization of pre-formed Au–Pt nanoparticles deposited on phosphorus functionalized carbons as effective catalysts for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). Au–Pt nanoparticles have been prepared by a two-step methodology using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as protective agent
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Herein, we reported the utilization of pre-formed Au–Pt nanoparticles deposited on phosphorus functionalized carbons as effective catalysts for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). Au–Pt nanoparticles have been prepared by a two-step methodology using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as protective agent and a combination of NaBH4 and H2 as reducing agents. Three carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different graphitization degrees have been functionalized through treatment with an H3PO4–HNO3 mixture at 150 °C, in order to incorporate P groups on carbon surface. Surface and structural properties of the synthesized functionalized materials have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The structural and surface properties of carbon nanofibers determine the amount of P-functionalities, which is a key parameter affecting the catalytic performances of Au–Pt. Indeed, the highest activity and stability has been achieved for Au–Pt deposited on the sample, which showed the largest amount of P-groups on the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Operando DRIFTS-MS Study of WGS and rWGS Reaction on Biochar-Based Pt Catalysts: The Promotional Effect of Na
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Biochar-based Pt catalysts, unpromoted and Na-promoted, were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterised by Inductively coupled plasma mass spoectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that a sodium promoter modifies
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Biochar-based Pt catalysts, unpromoted and Na-promoted, were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation method and characterised by Inductively coupled plasma mass spoectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that a sodium promoter modifies the acid-base properties of the support, altering the Pt-support interaction. An operando Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy-mass spectrometry (DRIFTS-MS) study was performed to gain insights into the reaction pathways and the mechanism of the Water-Gass-Shift (WGS) and the Reverse Water-Gass-Shift (rWGS) reactions. It was demonstrated that the addition of Na enhances the catalytic performance due to the changes induced by the alkali in the electronic structure of the Pt active sites. This effect favours the activation of H2O molecules during the WGS reaction and the dissociation of CO2 during the rWGS reaction, although it may also favour the consecutive CO methanation pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Photoelectrochemical Response of WO3/Nanoporous Carbon Anodes for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
This work demonstrates the ability of nanoporous carbons to boost the photoelectrochemical activity of hexagonal and monoclinic WO3 towards water oxidation under irradiation. The impact of the carbonaceous phase was strongly dependent on the crystalline structure and morphology of the semiconductor, substantially
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This work demonstrates the ability of nanoporous carbons to boost the photoelectrochemical activity of hexagonal and monoclinic WO3 towards water oxidation under irradiation. The impact of the carbonaceous phase was strongly dependent on the crystalline structure and morphology of the semiconductor, substantially increasing the activity of WO3 rods with hexagonal phase. The incorporation of increasing amounts of a nanoporous carbon of low functionalization to the WO3 electrodes improved the quantum yield of the reaction and also affected the dynamics of the charge transport, creating a percolation path for the majority carriers. The nanoporous carbon promotes the delocalization of the charge carriers through the graphitic layers. We discuss the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as an interesting strategy for improving the photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrodes featuring hindered carrier transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon/Nitrogen/Iron Based Nanoparticles by Laser Pyrolysis as Non-Noble Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports original results on the synthesis of Carbon/Nitrogen/Iron-based Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts by CO2 laser pyrolysis. Precursors consisted of two different liquid mixtures containing FeOOH nanoparticles or iron III acetylacetonate as iron precursors, being fed to the reactor as
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This paper reports original results on the synthesis of Carbon/Nitrogen/Iron-based Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts by CO2 laser pyrolysis. Precursors consisted of two different liquid mixtures containing FeOOH nanoparticles or iron III acetylacetonate as iron precursors, being fed to the reactor as an aerosol of liquid droplets. Carbon and nitrogen were brought by pyridine or a mixture of pyridine and ethanol depending on the iron precursor involved. The use of ammonia as laser energy transfer agent also provided a potential nitrogen source. For each liquid precursor mixture, several syntheses were conducted through the step-by-step modification of NH3 flow volume fraction, so-called R parameter. We found that various feature such as the synthesis production yield or the nanomaterial iron and carbon content, showed identical trends as a function of R for each liquid precursor mixture. The obtained nanomaterials consisted in composite nanostructures in which iron based nanoparticles are, to varying degrees, encapsulated by a presumably nitrogen doped carbon shell. Combining X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy with acid leaching treatment and extensive XPS surface analysis allowed the difficult question of the nature of the formed iron phases to be addressed. Besides metal and carbide iron phases, data suggest the formation of iron nitride phase at high R values. Interestingly, electrochemical measurements reveal that the higher R the higher the onset potential for the ORR, what suggests the need of iron-nitride phase existence for the formation of active sites towards the ORR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Catalytic Performance of Pd/CNFs for Hydrogen Evolution from Additive-Free Formic Acid Decomposition
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In recent years, research efforts have focused on the development of safe and efficient H2 generation/storage materials toward a fuel-cell-based H2 economy as a long-term solution in the near future. Herein, we report the development of Pd nanoparticles supported on carbon
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In recent years, research efforts have focused on the development of safe and efficient H2 generation/storage materials toward a fuel-cell-based H2 economy as a long-term solution in the near future. Herein, we report the development of Pd nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) via sol-immobilisation and impregnation techniques. Thorough characterisation has been carried out by means of XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, TEM, and BET. The catalysts have been evaluated for the catalytic decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH), which has been identified as a safe and convenient H2 carrier under mild conditions. The influence of preparation method was investigated and catalysts prepared by the sol-immobilisation method showed higher catalytic performance (PdSI/CNF) than their analogues prepared by the impregnation method (PdIMP/CNF). A high turnover frequency (TOF) of 979 h−1 for PdSI/CNF and high selectivity (>99.99%) was obtained at 30 °C for the additive-free formic acid decomposition. Comparison with a Pd/AC (activated charcoal) catalyst synthesised with sol-immobilisation method using as a support activated charcoal (AC) showed an increase of catalytic activity by a factor of four, demonstrating the improved performance by choosing CNFs as the preferred choice of support for the deposition of preformed colloidal Pd nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Catalyst)
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