Special Issue "Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. I. Francis Cheng

Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2343, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon materials; ultracapacitors; Li ion batteries; redox flow batteries; fuel cells; anodic treatment of water

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are soliciting contributions to a Special Issue of the Journal of Carbon Research. The topic will be carbon materials in batteries. Suggested topics may be include: lithium cathodes and anodes, and electrodes for redox flow batteries. Other battery-related topics will be considered with the condition that carbon materials be included as the major topic.

Prof. Dr. I. Francis Cheng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • carbon
  • electrodes
  • kinetics
  • materials
  • batteries

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials
C 2017, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/c3010001
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We welcome readers to this Special Issue of C. From the standpoint of economics of energy storage, carbon electrodes offer the practicality of large-scale applications with the promise of improved performance.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Application of GUITAR on the Negative Electrode of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery: Improved V3+/2+ Heterogeneous Electron Transfer with Reduced Hydrogen Gassing
C 2016, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/c2020013
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
GUITAR (Graphene from the University of Idaho Thermolyzed Asphalt Reaction) has the classical basal and edge plane morphology of graphites and thin layer graphenes with similar X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and IR characteristics. However previous investigations indicated GUITAR is different electrochemically from
[...] Read more.
GUITAR (Graphene from the University of Idaho Thermolyzed Asphalt Reaction) has the classical basal and edge plane morphology of graphites and thin layer graphenes with similar X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman and IR characteristics. However previous investigations indicated GUITAR is different electrochemically from graphenes and classical graphites. GUITAR has faster heterogeneous electron transfer across its basal plane and an electrochemical window that exceeds graphitic materials by 1 V. These beneficial properties are examined for application in the negative electrode of the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). Graphitic materials in this application suffer from hydrogen gassing and slow electron transfer kinetics for the V2+/3+ redox couple. Cyclic voltammetry of the V2+/3+ redox couple (0.05 M V3+ in 1 M H2SO4) on bare KFD graphite felt gives an estimated standard rate constant (k0) of 8.2 × 10−7 cm/s. The GUITAR-coated KFD graphite felt improves that quantity to 8.6 × 10−6 cm/s. The total contribution of the cyclic voltammetric currents at −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl to hydrogen evolution is 3% on GUITAR-coated KFD graphite felt. On bare KFD graphite felt, this is 22%. These results establish GUITAR as an excellent alternative material for the negative electrode in the vanadium redox flow battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Mediatorless Electroanalytical Sensing of Sulfide Utilizing Unmodified Graphitic Electrode Materials
C 2016, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/c2020014
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mediatorless electroanalytical sensing of sulfide is explored at a range of commercially available graphitic based electrodes namely, edge and basal plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPGE and BPPGE, respectively), boron-doped diamond (BDDE), glassy carbon (GCE) and screen-printed electrodes (SPE). The electrochemical performance is evaluated
[...] Read more.
The mediatorless electroanalytical sensing of sulfide is explored at a range of commercially available graphitic based electrodes namely, edge and basal plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPGE and BPPGE, respectively), boron-doped diamond (BDDE), glassy carbon (GCE) and screen-printed electrodes (SPE). The electrochemical performance is evaluated in terms of current density/analytical signal and oxidation potential, where the GCE and SPE are found to possess the optimal electrochemical responses. The electroanalytical performance of the GCE is explored towards the electrochemical sensing of sulfide and it is found that it is hampered by sulfide passivation, thus requiring pretreatment in the form of electrode polishing between each measurement. We demonstrate that SPEs provide a simple analytically comparable alternative, which, due to their scales of economy, create disposable, one-shot sensors that do not require any pretreatment of the electrode surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using mediatorless SPEs (bare/unmodified) towards the sensing of sulfide. In addition, the electroanalytical efficacy of the SPEs is also explored towards the detection of sulfide within model aqueous solutions and real drinking water samples presenting good apparent recoveries, justifying the plausibility of this graphitic mediatorless screen-printed platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Li Storage Properties of Carbon-Rich B–C–N Ceramics
C 2016, 2(2), 9; doi:10.3390/c2020009
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amorphous BCN ceramics were synthesized via a thermal conversion procedure of piperazine–borane and pyridine–borane. The synthesized BC2N and BC4N ceramics contained, in their final amorphous structure, 45 and 65 wt % of carbon, respectively. Elemental analysis revealed 45 and
[...] Read more.
Amorphous BCN ceramics were synthesized via a thermal conversion procedure of piperazine–borane and pyridine–borane. The synthesized BC2N and BC4N ceramics contained, in their final amorphous structure, 45 and 65 wt % of carbon, respectively. Elemental analysis revealed 45 and 65 wt % of carbon for BC2N and BC4N, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the amorphous nature of studied compounds. Lateral cluster size of carbon crystallites of 7.43 and 10.3 nm for BC2N and BC4N, respectively, was calculated from Raman spectroscopy data. This signified a higher order of the carbon phase present in BC4N. The electrochemical investigation of the low carbon BC2N composition as anodes for Li-ion batteries revealed initial capacities of 667 and 235 mAh·g−1 for lithium insertion/extraction, respectively. The material with higher carbon content, BC4N, disclosed better reversible lithium storage properties. Initial capacities of 1030 and 737 mAh·g−1 for lithium insertion and extraction were recovered for carbon-rich BC4N composition. Extended cycling with high currents up to 2 C/2 D revealed the cycling stability of BC4N electrodes. Cycling for more than 75 cycles at constant current rates showed a stable electrochemical behavior of BC4N anodes with capacities as high as 500 mAh·g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Progress in Design of Biomass-Derived Hard Carbons for Sodium Ion Batteries
C 2016, 2(4), 24; doi:10.3390/c2040024
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted lots of attention over last few years due to the abundance and wide availability of sodium resources, making SIBs the most cost-effective alternative to the currently used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Many efforts are underway to find
[...] Read more.
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted lots of attention over last few years due to the abundance and wide availability of sodium resources, making SIBs the most cost-effective alternative to the currently used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Many efforts are underway to find effective anodes for SIBs since the commercial anode for LIBs, graphite, has shown very limited capacity for SIBs. Among many different types of carbons, hard carbons—especially these derived from biomass—hold a great deal of promise for SIB technology thanks to their constantly improving performance and low cost. The main scope of this mini-review is to present current progress in preparation of negative electrodes from biomass including aspects related to precursor types used and their impact on the final carbon characteristics (structure, texture and composition). Another aspect discussed is how certain macro- and microstructure characteristics of the materials translate to their performance as anode for Na-ion batteries. In the last part, current understanding of factors governing sodium insertion into hard carbons is summarized, specifically those that could help solve existing performance bottlenecks such as irreversible capacity, initial low Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries
C 2016, 2(4), 23; doi:10.3390/c2040023
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanostructural materials have gained the spotlight as promising anode materials for energy storage; they exhibit unique physico-chemical properties such as large surface area, short Li+ ion diffusion length, and high electrical conductivity, in addition to their long-term stability. However, carbon-nanostructured materials
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructural materials have gained the spotlight as promising anode materials for energy storage; they exhibit unique physico-chemical properties such as large surface area, short Li+ ion diffusion length, and high electrical conductivity, in addition to their long-term stability. However, carbon-nanostructured materials have issues with low areal and volumetric densities for the practical applications in electric vehicles, portable electronics, and power grid systems, which demand higher energy and power densities. One approach to overcoming these issues is to design and apply a three-dimensional (3D) electrode accommodating a larger loading amount of active anode materials while facilitating Li+ ion diffusion. Furthermore, 3D nanocarbon frameworks can impart a conducting pathway and structural buffer to high-capacity non-carbon nanomaterials, which results in enhanced Li+ ion storage capacity. In this paper, we review our recent progress on the design and fabrication of 3D carbon nanostructures, their performance in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), and their implementation into large-scale, lightweight, and flexible LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Recent Advances in Carbon Materials)
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