Special Issue "Plant Derived Biomedicines"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Solomon Habtemariam

Herbal Analysis Services UK & University of Greenwich, United Kingdom
Website | E-Mail
Interests: pharmacological and chemical analysis of medicinal food and medicinal natural products; novel drugs and nutraceuticals development; targeting inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules, infection, cancer, diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.; chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of small molecular weight compounds
Guest Editor
Prof. Giovanni Lentini

Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences, University of Studies of Bari Aldo Moro, Via E. Orabona n. 4, Bari 70126, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug discovery; chirality; pharmacology; phytochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mankind might have used serendipity or luck in identifying the first few natural products (e.g., choosing one or two medicinal plants out of millions) as good sources of medicine, and also perfected the selection process via experience and knowledge transfer through thousands of generations. While serendipity could still play some role in modern drug therapy today, as exemplified by our continued use of antibiotics discovered in the 20th century, advances in chemical and biological fields have given us opportunity that could not even been dreamt of half a century ago. Our capability in analytical methodologies, for example, have allowed us to identify potential novel compounds from natural sources that exist in minute concentrations and sometimes even without the need to isolate them from their sources. On the other hand, one may get valuable information on potential drugs through in silico studies, without even stepping foot in a pharmacology laboratory. We are, however, continually challenged by new and existing complex diseases, with some cases growing to epidemic proportions. The search for novel potential therapeutic agents for such challenging diseases of the present and next generations must continue and to this end we have to double our efforts on identifying, documenting and scrutinising natural medicines. In this Special Issue (“Plant Derived Biomedicines”), we are aiming to focus on recent developments on the chemistry, pharmacology and medical implications of bioactive natural products. We therefore take the pleasure of inviting colleagues to join us in contributing their valuable work to this Special Issue in Biomedicines.

Prof. Solomon Habtemariam
Prof. Giovanni Lentini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Drugs from natural sources
  • Natural products
  • Novel pharmacology
  • Phytochemistry
  • Drug discovery

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessCommunication Bryonolic Acid Blocks Cancer Cell Clonogenicity and Invasiveness through the Inhibition of Fatty Acid: Cholesteryl Ester Formation
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010021
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bryonolic acid (BrA) is a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants used in African traditional medicine such as Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br. Here we investigated the in vitro anticancer properties of BrA. We report that BrA inhibits acyl-coA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity
[...] Read more.
Bryonolic acid (BrA) is a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants used in African traditional medicine such as Anisophyllea dichostyla R. Br. Here we investigated the in vitro anticancer properties of BrA. We report that BrA inhibits acyl-coA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner, blocking the biosynthesis of the cholesterol fatty acid ester tumour promoter. We next demonstrated that BrA inhibits ACAT in intact cancer cells with an IC50 of 12.6 ± 2.4 µM. BrA inhibited both clonogenicity and invasiveness of several cancer cell lines, establishing that BrA displays specific anticancer properties. BrA appears to be more potent than the other pentacyclic triterpenes, betulinic acid and ursolic acid studied under similar conditions. The inhibitory effect of BrA was reversed by exogenous addition of cholesteryl oleate, showing that ACAT inhibition is responsible for the anticancer effect of BrA. This report reveals new anticancer properties for BrA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Activities of Cissus adnata (Roxb.)
Biomedicines 2017, 5(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5040063
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro polyphenol content, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, anthelmintic properties, and in vivo antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of Cissus adnata leaves (EECA) in different experimental models. Polyphenol contents were investigated using spectrophotometric techniques. Antioxidant activity
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro polyphenol content, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, anthelmintic properties, and in vivo antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of Cissus adnata leaves (EECA) in different experimental models. Polyphenol contents were investigated using spectrophotometric techniques. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ferric reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity assays. Cytotoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and disc diffusion method was used for the antibacterial activity. Anthelmintic activity was studied using aquarium worm (Tubifex tubifex) whereas antinociceptive activity was evaluated in mice by acetic acid and formalin test. Phytochemical screening of EECA revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, saponins, and tannins. EECA showed strong antioxidant activity with high polyphenol contents. It was observed that EECA possessed significant antibacterial activity with a low toxicity profile. EECA also demonstrated dose-dependent and statistically significant anthelmintic and antinociceptive activities. Our study shows that ethanol extract of C. adnata leaves possess strong antioxidant, antibacterial, anthelmintic and antinociceptive activities with lower toxicity. Further studies are needed to identify bioactive phytomolecules and to understand the mechanism of such actions better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Supplementation with Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts to Pregnant and Breastfeeding Rats Induces Tissue-Specific Changes in Enzymatic Activity and Lower Neonatal Survival
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030053
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1106 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Achyrocline satureioides (AS, family Asteraceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for stomach, digestive, and gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy. Studies regarding the indiscriminate use of plant infusions during pregnancy are limited. Recent reports have shown that chronic flavonoid supplementation induces toxicity
[...] Read more.
Achyrocline satureioides (AS, family Asteraceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for stomach, digestive, and gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy. Studies regarding the indiscriminate use of plant infusions during pregnancy are limited. Recent reports have shown that chronic flavonoid supplementation induces toxicity in vivo and raises the mortality rates of healthy subjects. Therefore, we investigated whether supplementation of pregnant and lactating Wistar rats with two AS inflorescence extracts, consisting of an aqueous (AQ) extract similar to a tea (47 mg·kg−1·day) and a hydroethanolic (HA) extract (35 mg·kg−1·day−1) with a higher flavonoid content, could induce redox-related side effects. Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS), and total reduced thiol (SH) content were evaluated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were additionally quantified. Our data suggest that both AQ and HA of AS inflorescence extracts may induce symptoms of toxicity in concentrations of (47 mg·kg−1·day) and (35 mg·kg−1·day−1), respectively, in mothers regarding the delivery index and further decrease of neonatal survival. Of note, significant tissue-specific changes in maternal (liver, kidney, heart, and hippocampus) and pups (liver and kidney) biochemical oxidative parameters were observed. Our findings provide evidence that may support the need to control supplementation with the AQ of AS inflorescence extracts during gestation due to potential toxicity in vivo, which might be related, at least in part, to changes in tissue-specific redox homeostasis and enzymatic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle In Vitro Testing of Crude Natural Plant Extracts from Costa Rica for Their Ability to Boost Innate Immune Cells against Staphylococcus aureus
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030040
Received: 4 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus tremendously limits the antibiotic-based treatment options; therefore, an open discussion of alternative treatment strategies is urgently needed. The use of naturally derived materials might become a more promising concept, not only as directly
[...] Read more.
The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus tremendously limits the antibiotic-based treatment options; therefore, an open discussion of alternative treatment strategies is urgently needed. The use of naturally derived materials might become a more promising concept, not only as directly acting antimicrobials, but also for stimulation of the immune system. Costa Rican plant extracts were screened for their ability to enhance the antimicrobial activity of human blood-derived cells against S. aureus infections. We identified three plant extracts which significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus in the presence of human blood without directly acting as antibacterials: Byrsonima crassifolia acetone bark extract, Mandevilla veraguasensis acetone vine extract and Verbesina oerstediana acetone bark extract (VEOEBA). The effect of VEOEBA was studied in more detail, and revealed that VEOEBA increases the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils by enhancing the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Protective Effects of p-Coumaric Acid on Acute Liver and Kidney Damages Induced by Cisplatin
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5020018
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of p-Coumaric acid (PCA) on cisplatin (CIS)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar adult rats for 24 h compared to untreated control groups. In this experiment, 40 Wistar adult rats were utilized and divided
[...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of p-Coumaric acid (PCA) on cisplatin (CIS)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar adult rats for 24 h compared to untreated control groups. In this experiment, 40 Wistar adult rats were utilized and divided randomly into five groups. After 24 h of CIS administration, liver and kidneys were harvested and assessed by H&E staining. Also, markers for oxidative stress and antioxidants were analyzed in theses tissues. Compared to the control group, accumulation of malondialdehyde was increased in groups treated CIS, whereas superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels were distinctly diminished in this group. The study’s histopathological findings such as hydropic degeneration, vascular congestion, sinusoidal dilatation in hepatocytes and tubular necrosis in kidneys were in accordance with the results of markers for oxidative stress. PCA may prevent hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity by increased antioxidant enzymes and reduced oxidant parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Figure 1a

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents: Lessons from the Pharmacology of Geniposide and Its Aglycone, Genipin
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020039
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF Full-text (13983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For centuries, plants have been exploited by mankind as sources of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Good examples of anticancer compounds of clinical significance today include the taxanes (e.g., taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and the podophyllotoxin analogues that all trace their origin to higher plants.
[...] Read more.
For centuries, plants have been exploited by mankind as sources of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Good examples of anticancer compounds of clinical significance today include the taxanes (e.g., taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and the podophyllotoxin analogues that all trace their origin to higher plants. While all these drugs, along with the various other available therapeutic options, brought some relief in cancer management, a real breakthrough or cure has not yet been achieved. This critical review is a reflection on the lessons learnt from decades of research on the iridoid glycoside geniposide and its aglycone, genipin, which are currently used as gold standard reference compounds in cancer studies. Their effects on tumour development (carcinogenesis), cancer cell survival, and death, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of actions, are discussed. Particular attention is also given to mechanisms related to the dual pro-oxidant and antioxidant effects of these compounds, the mitochondrial mechanism of cancer cell killing through reactive oxygen species (ROS), including that generated through the uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), the inflammatory mechanism, and cell cycle regulation. The implications of various studies for the evaluation of glycosidic and aglycone forms of natural products in vitro and in vivo through pharmacokinetic scrutiny are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Plant Virus Expression Vectors: A Powerhouse for Global Health
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines5030044
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant-made biopharmaceuticals have long been considered a promising technology for providing inexpensive and efficacious medicines for developing countries, as well as for combating pandemic infectious diseases and for use in personalized medicine. Plant virus expression vectors produce high levels of pharmaceutical proteins within
[...] Read more.
Plant-made biopharmaceuticals have long been considered a promising technology for providing inexpensive and efficacious medicines for developing countries, as well as for combating pandemic infectious diseases and for use in personalized medicine. Plant virus expression vectors produce high levels of pharmaceutical proteins within a very short time period. Recently, plant viruses have been employed as nanoparticles for novel forms of cancer treatment. This review provides a glimpse into the development of plant virus expression systems both for pharmaceutical production as well as for immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derived Biomedicines)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top