Special Issue "Atom Interferometry"

A special issue of Atoms (ISSN 2218-2004).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. A. Kumarakrishnan

Department of Physics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
E-Mail
Interests: atom interferometry; laser cooling and trapping; precision measurements; single mode lasers
Guest Editor
Prof. Dallin S. Durfee

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
E-Mail
Interests: matterwave interferometry; ion interferometry; ECDL lasers; optical instrumentation; laser cooling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atom interferometry is a modern technique that utilizes the wave nature of matter to facilitate extremely precise measurements. It has been used to make accurate measurements of physical quantities, such as the atomic fine structure constant and gravitational acceleration, as well as for tests of relativity and the equivalence principle. It has been applied to realize devices, such as gravimeters and gradiometers, and to measure atomic properties. Furthermore, atom interferometry has been able to highlight and demonstrate aspects of quantum mechanics, such as superposition, coherence, and quantum nonlocality. Interferometry experiments have been carried out using thermal atoms, laser-cooled atoms, and Bose condensates. Many experiments, which are fundamental to our understanding of the basic laws of nature, have been carried out or are planned using this technique. This Special Issue will bring together articles on the latest advances relevant to atom interferometry (including fundamental measurements, and commercial applications) and the history and theory of this technique. Along with manuscripts describing innovative research, experts and pioneers in the field are encouraged to submit review articles on various aspects related to the development of this field.

Prof. Dallin S. Durfee
Prof. A. Kumarakrishnan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atoms is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • atom interferometry
  • matter-wave interferometry
  • precision measurements
  • fundamental constants
  • laser cooling
  • atom optics
  • quantum mechanics
  • gravity
  • gravimetry
  • relativity
  • inertial measurements
  • interference
  • atomic physics
  • metrology

References

  1. Gustavson, T.L.; Bouyer, P.; Kasevich, M.A. Precision Rotation Measurements with an Atom Interferometer Gyroscope. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 78, 2046.
  2. Kasevich, M.; Chu, S. Measurement of the gravitational acceleration of an atom with a light-pulse atom interferometer. Appl. Phys. B 1992, 54, 321–332.
  3. Berman, P. Atom Interferometry. Academic Press: New York, 1997.
  4. Bordé, C.J. Atomic Interferometry with Internal State Labeling. Phys. Lett. A 1989, 140, 10–12.
  5. Barrett, B.; Geiger, R.; Dutta, I.; Meunier, M.; Canuel, B.; Gauguet, A.; Bouyer, P.; Landragin, A. The Sagnac effect: 20 years of development in matter-wave interferometry. Comptes Rendus Physique 2014, 15, 875–883.
  6. Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Prevedelli, M.; Tino, G.M. Sensitive gravity-gradiometry with atom interferometry: progress towards an improved determination of the gravitational constant. New J. Phys. 2010, 12, 095009.
  7. Cronin, A.D.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Pritchard, D.E. Optics and interferometry with atoms and molecules. Rev. Mod. Phys. 2009, 81, 1051.
  8. Jo, G.-B.; Choi, J.-H.; Christensen, C.A.; Lee, Y.-R.; Pasquini, T.A. Ketterle, W.; Pritchard, D.E. Matter-Wave Interferometry with Phase Fluctuating Bose-Einstein Condensates. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 99, 240406.
  9. Carnal, O.; Mlynek, J. Young’s double-slit experiment with atoms: a simple atom interferometer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1991, 66, 2689–2692.
  10. Keith, D.W.;  Ekstrom, C.R.; Turchette, Q.A.; Pritchard, D.E. An interferometer for atoms. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1991, 66, 2693–2696.
  11. Kasevich, M.A.; Chu, S. Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1991, 67, 181–184.
  12. Müntinga, H. et al. Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013, 110, 093602.
  13. Adams, C.S.; Sigel, M.; Mlynek, J. Atom Optics. Phys. Rep. 1994, 240, 143.
  14. Barrett, B.; Chan, I.; Mok, C.; Carew, A.; Yavin, I.; Kumarakrishnan, A. Cahn, S.B.; Sleator, T. Time Domain Interferometry With Laser Cooled Atoms. In Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics; Arimondo, E., Berman, P.R., Lin, C.C., Eds; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Volume 60, Chapter 3, Pages 119–199.
  15. Rauch, H.; Treimer, H.; Bonse, U. Test of a single crystal neutron interferometer. Phys. Lett. 1974, 47A, 369.
  16. Rauch, H.; Werner, S.A. Neutron Interferometry, 2nd Ed.; Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford, UK, 2015.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Decoherence Spectroscopy for Atom Interferometry
Atoms 2016, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/atoms4030025
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Decoherence due to photon scattering in an atom interferometer was studied as a function of laser frequency near an atomic resonance. The resulting decoherence (contrast-loss) spectra will be used to calibrate measurements of tune-out wavelengths that are made with the same apparatus. To
[...] Read more.
Decoherence due to photon scattering in an atom interferometer was studied as a function of laser frequency near an atomic resonance. The resulting decoherence (contrast-loss) spectra will be used to calibrate measurements of tune-out wavelengths that are made with the same apparatus. To support this goal, a theoretical model of decoherence spectroscopy is presented here along with experimental tests of this model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Scalar Aharonov–Bohm Phase in Ramsey Atom Interferometry under Time-Varying Potential
Atoms 2016, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/atoms4030023
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 26 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
PDF Full-text (2555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a Ramsey atom interferometer excited by two electromagnetic fields, if atoms are under a time-varying scalar potential during the interrogation time, the phase of the Ramsey fringes shifts owing to the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect. The phase shift was precisely examined using a
[...] Read more.
In a Ramsey atom interferometer excited by two electromagnetic fields, if atoms are under a time-varying scalar potential during the interrogation time, the phase of the Ramsey fringes shifts owing to the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect. The phase shift was precisely examined using a Ramsey atom interferometer with a two-photon Raman transition under the second-order Zeeman potential, and a formula for the phase shift was derived. Using the derived formula, the frequency shift due to the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect in the frequency standards utilizing the Ramsey atom interferometer was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Polarizability Measurements Made with Atom Interferometry
Atoms 2016, 4(3), 21; doi:10.3390/atoms4030021
Received: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 6 July 2016
PDF Full-text (936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present revised measurements of the static electric dipole polarizabilities of K, Rb, and Cs based on atom interferometer experiments presented in [Phys. Rev. A 2015, 92, 052513] but now re-analyzed with new calibrations for the magnitude and geometry of the applied electric
[...] Read more.
We present revised measurements of the static electric dipole polarizabilities of K, Rb, and Cs based on atom interferometer experiments presented in [Phys. Rev. A 2015, 92, 052513] but now re-analyzed with new calibrations for the magnitude and geometry of the applied electric field gradient. The resulting polarizability values did not change, but the uncertainties were significantly reduced. Then, we interpret several measurements of alkali metal atomic polarizabilities in terms of atomic oscillator strengths fik, Einstein coefficients Aik, state lifetimes τk, transition dipole matrix elements Dik, line strengths Sik, and van der Waals C6 coefficients. Finally, we combine atom interferometer measurements of polarizabilities with independent measurements of lifetimes and C6 values in order to quantify the residual contribution to polarizability due to all atomic transitions other than the principal ns-npJ transitions for alkali metal atoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Prospects for Precise Measurements with Echo Atom Interferometry
Atoms 2016, 4(3), 19; doi:10.3390/atoms4030019
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 27 June 2016
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Abstract
Echo atom interferometers have emerged as interesting alternatives to Raman interferometers for the realization of precise measurements of the gravitational acceleration g and the determination of the atomic fine structure through measurements of the atomic recoil frequency ωq. Here we review
[...] Read more.
Echo atom interferometers have emerged as interesting alternatives to Raman interferometers for the realization of precise measurements of the gravitational acceleration g and the determination of the atomic fine structure through measurements of the atomic recoil frequency ω q . Here we review the development of different configurations of echo interferometers that are best suited to achieve these goals. We describe experiments that utilize near-resonant excitation of laser-cooled rubidium atoms by a sequence of standing wave pulses to measure ω q with a statistical uncertainty of 37 parts per billion (ppb) on a time scale of ∼50 ms and g with a statistical precision of 75 ppb. Related coherent transient techniques that have achieved the most statistically precise measurements of atomic g-factor ratios are also outlined. We discuss the reduction of prominent systematic effects in these experiments using off-resonant excitation by low-cost, high-power lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Wigner Function Approach to Coherence in a Talbot-Lau Interferometer
Atoms 2016, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/atoms4020018
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract
Using a thermal gas, we model the signal of a trapped interferometer. This interferometer uses two short laser pulses, separated by time T, which act as a phase grating for the matter waves. Near time 2T, there is an echo
[...] Read more.
Using a thermal gas, we model the signal of a trapped interferometer. This interferometer uses two short laser pulses, separated by time T, which act as a phase grating for the matter waves. Near time 2 T , there is an echo in the cloud’s density due to the Talbot-Lau effect. Our model uses the Wigner function approach and includes a weak residual harmonic trap. The analysis shows that the residual potential limits the interferometer’s visibility, shifts the echo time of the interferometer, and alters its time dependence. Loss of visibility can be mitigated by optimizing the initial trap frequency just before the interferometer cycle begins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Atom Interferometry in the Presence of an External Test Mass
Atoms 2016, 4(2), 14; doi:10.3390/atoms4020014
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The influence of an external test mass on the phase of the signal of an atom interferometer is studied theoretically. Using traditional techniques in atom optics based on the density matrix equations in the Wigner representation, we are able to extract the various
[...] Read more.
The influence of an external test mass on the phase of the signal of an atom interferometer is studied theoretically. Using traditional techniques in atom optics based on the density matrix equations in the Wigner representation, we are able to extract the various contributions to the phase of the signal associated with the classical motion of the atoms, the quantum correction to this motion resulting from atomic recoil that is produced when the atoms interact with Raman field pulses and quantum corrections to the atomic motion that occur in the time between the Raman field pulses. By increasing the effective wave vector associated with the Raman field pulses using modified field parameters, we can increase the sensitivity of the signal to the point where such quantum corrections can be measured. The expressions that are derived can be evaluated numerically to isolate the contribution to the signal from an external test mass. The regions of validity of the exact and approximate expressions are determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Open AccessArticle Obtaining Atomic Matrix Elements from Vector Tune-Out Wavelengths Using Atom Interferometry
Atoms 2016, 4(2), 12; doi:10.3390/atoms4020012
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate values for atomic dipole matrix elements are useful in many areas of physics, and in particular for interpreting experiments such as atomic parity violation. Obtaining accurate matrix element values is a challenge for both experiment and theory. A new technique that can
[...] Read more.
Accurate values for atomic dipole matrix elements are useful in many areas of physics, and in particular for interpreting experiments such as atomic parity violation. Obtaining accurate matrix element values is a challenge for both experiment and theory. A new technique that can be applied to this problem is tune-out spectroscopy, which is the measurement of light wavelengths where the electric polarizability of an atom has a zero. Using atom interferometry methods, tune-out wavelengths can be measured very accurately. Their values depend on the ratios of various dipole matrix elements and are thus useful for constraining theory and broadening the application of experimental values. To date, tune-out wavelength measurements have focused on zeros of the scalar polarizability, but in general the vector polarizability also contributes. We show here that combined measurements of the vector and scalar polarizabilities can provide more detailed information about the matrix element ratios, and in particular can distinguish small contributions from the atomic core and the valence tail states. These small contributions are the leading error sources in current parity violation calculations for cesium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fundamental Features of Quantum Dynamics Studied in Matter-Wave Interferometry—Spin Weak Values and the Quantum Cheshire-Cat
Atoms 2016, 4(1), 11; doi:10.3390/atoms4010011
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The validity of quantum-mechanical predictions has been confirmed with a high degree of accuracy in a wide range of experiments. Although the statistics of the outcomes of a measuring apparatus have been studied intensively, little has been explored and is known regarding the
[...] Read more.
The validity of quantum-mechanical predictions has been confirmed with a high degree of accuracy in a wide range of experiments. Although the statistics of the outcomes of a measuring apparatus have been studied intensively, little has been explored and is known regarding the accessibility of quantum dynamics. For these sorts of fundamental studies of quantum mechanics, interferometry using neutron matter-waves in particular, provides almost ideal experimental circumstances. In this device quantum interference between spatially separated beams occurs on a macroscopic scale. Recently, the full determination of weak-values of neutrons 1 2 - spin adds a new aspect to the study of quantum dynamics. Moreover, a new counter-intuitive phenomenon, called quantum Cheshire Cat, is observed in an interference experiment. In this article, we present an overview of these experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atom Interferometry)
Figures

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Fundamental Features of Quantum Dynamics Studied in Matter-Wave Interferometer---Quantum Cheshire-Cat
Author: Stephan Sponar and Yuji Hasegawa
Abstract: The validity of quantum-mechanical predictions has been confirmed with a high degree of accuracy in a wide range of experiments. Although the statistics of the outcomes of a measuring apparatus have been studied intensively, little has been explored and is known regarding the accessibility of quantum dynamics. For this sort of fundamental studies of quantum mechanics, interferometry using neutron matter-waves, in particular, provides almost ideal experimental circumstances. In this device quantum interference between spatially separated beams is explicitly exhibited on a macroscopic scale. Recently, a new counter-intuitive phenomenon, called quantum Cheshire-cat, is observed in an interference experiment. Moreover, full determination of weak-values of neutron’s ½-spin gives a new flavor to the study of quantum dynamics. In this article, we present an overview of these experiments.

Title: Atom Interferometry in the Presence of an External Test Mass
Authors: Boris Dubetsky, Miro Shverdin, Stephen B. Libby and Paul R. Berman
Abstract: The influence of an external test mass on the phase of the signal of an atom interferometer is studied theoretically. Using traditional techniques in atom optics based on the density matrix equations in the Wigner representation, we are able to extract the various contributions to the phase of the signal associated with the classical motion of the atoms, the quantum correction to this motion resulting from atomic recoil that is produced when the atoms interact with Raman field pulses, and quantum corrections to the atomic motion that occur in the time between the Raman field pulses. By increasing the effective wave vector associated with the Raman field pulses using modified field parameters, we can increase the sensitivity of the signal to the point where such quantum corrections can be measured. The expressions that are derived can be evaluated numerically to isolate the contribution to the signal from an external test mass. The regions of validity of the exact and approximate expressions are determined.

Title: Scalar Aharonov-Bohm Phase in Ramsey Atom Interferometry under Time-Varying Potential
Authors: Atsuo Morinaga * , Motoyuki Murakami , Keisuke Nakamura , Hiromitsu Imai
Abstract: In a Ramsey atom interferometer excited by two electromagnetic fields, if atoms are under a time-varying potential during the interrogation time, the phase of the Ramsey fringes shifts owing to the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect. The phase shift was precisely examined using a Ramsey atom interferometer with a two-photon Raman transition under the second-order Zeeman potential, and a formula for the phase shift was derived. Using the empirical formula, the frequency shift due to the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect in the frequency standards utilizing the Ramsey atom interferometer is discussed.

Title: Decoherence Spectroscopy for Atom Interferometry
Authors: Raisa Trubko * , Alexander Cronin *
Abstract: Atom interferometer contrast loss as a function of laser frequency is theoretically modeled and experimentally studied. The resulting decoherence spectra are explored as a method to improve precision measurements of tune-out wavelengths. The theoretical model of decoherence spectroscopy is tested by comparing to measurements made with an atom beam interferometer under a variety of conditions.

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