Special Issue "Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nicholas Meskhidze

Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: measurements and modeling of ocean-atmosphere fluxes of sea spray and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC); laboratory characterization of sea spray hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties; regional and global climate modeling; application of remotely sensed data (MODIS, MISR, CALIPSO, HSRL); global scale modeling of micronutrient transport (with the emphasis on bioavailable iron) to the oceans using 3-D chemistry transport models
Guest Editor
Dr. Matthew Salter

Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sea spay aerosol; air–sea gas exchange; air–sea interaction; sea surface microlayer
Guest Editor
Dr. Karine Sellegri

Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France
E-Mail
Interests: experimental; sea–air exchanges; aerosol natural emissions; nucleation; aerosol hygroscopic properties; aerosol–cloud interactions
Guest Editor
Dr. Scott Elliott

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA
E-Mail
Interests: sea–air transfer; trace gases; dimethyl sulfide; dissolved organic carbon; marine biomacromolecules; natural surfactants; micro-layer adsorption; wave breaking and bubbles; primary organic aerosol; global surface tension and surface pressure; momentum and heat fluxes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent studies have shown that an accurate representation of natural background aerosols is critical for improved assessment of direct and indirect anthropogenic aerosol forcing. The reduction of the uncertainties over the representation of natural aerosols in climate models requires improved quantification of number, size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol in the marine boundary layer (MBL). This Special Issue invites contributions from modeling, field, laboratory, and satellite studies related to 1) production of sea-spray aerosol (SSA) and ocean-derived biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2) characterization of size-resolved chemical composition of aerosols in the MBL, and 3) assessments for the contribution of ocean-derived primary and secondary aerosols to the MBL cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particle (INP) number budget.

This Special Issue is motivated by our perceived need to provide a platform for current discussions regarding the oceanic contribution to the MBL aerosol, CCN, and INP number concentration over different parts of the oceans. Global models estimate the production of SSA using wind speed-dependent flux parameterizations, often based on a whitecap method developed under laboratory settings. Ambient studies infer effective SSA production from the ocean using micrometeorological techniques such as the eddy covariance and the gradient method that measure total sub-micron or size-selected particle fluxes in the lowest portion of the MBL. Despite its importance, to this day the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary SSA particles and its dependence on environmental variables remains poorly characterized. Likewise, oceanic emission rates of biogenic (VOCs) (e.g., dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isoprene, monoterpenes, and iodocarbons) leading to the secondary aerosol production in the MBL are not well constrained. The dependence of the emissions rates on types of phytoplankton and bacteria, as well as environmental parameters such as wind speed, light, and nutrients is not well quantified. Current models also do not fully address marine emission and their relationships with eco-physiological factors, evolutionary drivers, and global consequences. As a result, contribution of oceanic sources to the MBL aerosol, CCN, and INP number budgets remain poorly defined.

Prof. Dr. Nicholas  Meskhidze
Dr. Matthew Salter
Dr. Karine Sellegri
Dr. Scott  Elliott
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sea-spray aerosol

  • cloud condensation nuclei

  • ice nucleating particles

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Does Marine Surface Tension Have Global Biogeography? Addition for the OCEANFILMS Package
Atmosphere 2018, 9(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9060216
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
We apply principles of Gibbs phase plane chemistry across the entire ocean-atmosphere interface to investigate aerosol generation and geophysical transfer issues. Marine surface tension differences comprise a tangential pressure field controlling trace gas fluxes, primary organic inputs, and sea spray salt injections, in
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We apply principles of Gibbs phase plane chemistry across the entire ocean-atmosphere interface to investigate aerosol generation and geophysical transfer issues. Marine surface tension differences comprise a tangential pressure field controlling trace gas fluxes, primary organic inputs, and sea spray salt injections, in addition to heat and momentum fluxes. Mapping follows from the organic microlayer composition, now represented in ocean system models. Organic functional variations drive the microforcing, leading to (1) reduced turbulence and (by extension) laminar gas-energy diffusion; plus (2) altered bubble film mass emission into the boundary layer. Interfacial chemical behaviors are, therefore, closely reviewed as the background. We focus on phase transitions among two dimensional “solid, liquid, and gaseous” states serving as elasticity indicators. From the pool of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) only proteins and lipids appear to occupy significant atmospheric interfacial areas. The literature suggests albumin and stearic acid as the best proxies, and we distribute them through ecodynamic simulation. Consensus bulk distributions are obtained to control their adsorptive equilibria. We devise parameterizations for both the planar free energy and equation of state, relating excess coverage to the surface pressure and its modulus. Constant settings for the molecular surrogates are drawn from laboratory study and successfully reproduce surfactant solid-to-gas occurrence in compression experiments. Since DOC functionality measurements are rare, we group them into super-ecological province tables to verify aqueous concentration estimates. Outputs are then fed into a coverage, tension, elasticity code. The resulting two dimensional pressure contours cross a critical range for the regulation of precursor piston velocity, bubble breakage, and primary aerosol sources plus ripple damping. Concepts extend the water-air adsorption theory currently embodied in our OCEANFILMS aerosol emissions package, and the two approaches could be inserted into Earth System Models together. Uncertainties in the logic include kinetic and thermochemical factors operating at multiple scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Uncertainties in Marine Biogeochemical Models: Benchmarking Aerosol Precursors
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050184
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
The effort to accurately estimate global radiative forcing has long been hampered by a degree of uncertainty in the tropospheric aerosol contribution. Reducing uncertainty in natural aerosol processes, the baseline of the aerosol budget, thus becomes a fundamental task. The appropriate representation of
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The effort to accurately estimate global radiative forcing has long been hampered by a degree of uncertainty in the tropospheric aerosol contribution. Reducing uncertainty in natural aerosol processes, the baseline of the aerosol budget, thus becomes a fundamental task. The appropriate representation of aerosols in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is essential to reduce uncertainty and provide reliable information on offsets to global warming. We developed an International Ocean Model Benchmarking package to assess marine biogeochemical process representations in Earth System Models (ESMs), and the package was employed to evaluate surface ocean concentrations and the sea–air fluxes of dimethylsulfide (DMS). Model performances were scored based on how well they captured the distribution and variability contained in high-quality observational datasets. Results show that model-data biases increased as DMS enters the MBL, but unfortunately over three-quarters of the models participating in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) did not have a dynamic representation of DMS. When it is present, models tend to over-predict sea surface concentrations in the productive region of the eastern tropical Pacific by almost a factor of two, and the sea–air fluxes by a factor of three. Systematic model-data benchmarking as described here will help to identify such deficiencies and subsequently lead to improved subgrid-scale parameterizations and ESM development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Change Impacts on Natural Sulfur Production: Ocean Acidification and Community Shifts
Atmosphere 2018, 9(5), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9050167
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
Utilizing the reduced-complexity model Hector, a regional scale analysis was conducted quantifying the possible effects climate change may have on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions within the oceans. The investigation began with a review of the sulfur cycle in modern Earth system models. We
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Utilizing the reduced-complexity model Hector, a regional scale analysis was conducted quantifying the possible effects climate change may have on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions within the oceans. The investigation began with a review of the sulfur cycle in modern Earth system models. We then expanded the biogeochemical representation within Hector to include a natural ocean component while accounting for acidification and planktonic community shifts. The report presents results from both a latitudinal and a global perspective. This new approach highlights disparate outcomes which have been inadequately characterized via planetary averages in past publications. Our findings suggest that natural sulfur emissions (ESN) may exert a forcing up to 4 times that of the CO2 marine feedback, 0.62 and 0.15 Wm−2, respectively, and reverse the radiative forcing sign in low latitudes. Additionally, sensitivity tests were conducted to demonstrate the need for further examination of the DMS loop. Ultimately, the present work attempts to include dynamic ESN within reduced-complexity simulations of the sulfur cycle, illustrating its impact on the global radiative budget. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Wind Speed on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth over the North Pacific
Atmosphere 2018, 9(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9020060
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
The surface-wind speed influences on aerosol optical depth (AOD), derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daily observations over the central North Pacific during the period 2003–2016, have been investigated in this study. The cloud coverage is relatively low over the
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The surface-wind speed influences on aerosol optical depth (AOD), derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daily observations over the central North Pacific during the period 2003–2016, have been investigated in this study. The cloud coverage is relatively low over the present investigation area compared to other marine areas, which favors AOD derived from passive remote sensing from space. In this study, we have combined MODIS AOD with 2 m wind speed (U2m) on a satellite-pixel basis, which has been interpolated from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis. In addition, daily averaged AOD derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements in the free-troposphere at the Mauna Loa Observatory (3397 m above sea level), Hawaii, was subtracted from the MODIS column AOD values. The latter was to reduce the contribution of aerosols above the planetary boundary layer. This study shows relatively strong power-law relationships between MODIS mean AOD and surface-wind speed for marine background conditions in summer, fall and winter of the current period. However, previous established relationships between AOD and surface-wind speed deviate substantially. Even so, for similar marine conditions the present relationship agrees reasonable well with a power-law relationship derived for north-east Atlantic conditions. The present MODIS retrievals of AOD in the marine atmosphere agree reasonably well with ground-based remote sensing of AOD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note Web Strategy to Convey Marine Biogeochemical Feedback Concepts to the Policy Community: Aerosol and Sea Ice
Atmosphere 2018, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9010022
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited understanding of the climate system imposes upon policy makers an intimate reliance on results from Earth System Models (ESMs). However, climate simulations are necessarily incomplete since many strong channels through planetary scale biology and geochemistry remain too complex or poorly comprehended to
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Limited understanding of the climate system imposes upon policy makers an intimate reliance on results from Earth System Models (ESMs). However, climate simulations are necessarily incomplete since many strong channels through planetary scale biology and geochemistry remain too complex or poorly comprehended to include. This paper presents and describes an interactive, public domain website detailing the role of two marine biogeochemical (mBGC) feedback loops currently excluded from many ESMs (www.marinefeedbacks.com). Every page on the website includes images or videos to foster engagement with its technically challenging content. Simultaneously, fundamentals of the natural science involved are reinforced. The site includes subsections of the following nature; background information, executive summaries for each feedback type, detailed descriptions of the chemical mechanisms, climate change impact, and recommendations for future research. The information provided is firmly grounded in the technical literature but is designed specifically for accessibility to non-scientists. Particular targets for the material are the next-generation of decision makers and those framing the international climate agenda. It is hoped that a site with tailored pedagogical value may contribute to well informed policy formulation and legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Contributions to the Marine Boundary Layer Aerosol Budget)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

 

 

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