Special Issue "Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions: Measurements, Models, and Model-Data Fusion"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land - Atmosphere Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Andres Schmidt

Physical Geography and Climatology, RWTH Aachen University Wuellnerstr. 5b, D-52062 Aachen, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49 241 80 96048
Fax: +49 241 80 92157

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exchange between vegetated land surface and the atmosphere covers a significant portion of the global cycle of energy, water, and greenhouse gases. Atmospheric exchange above ecosystems is an important component of the climate system from local to global scale. Since ecosystems and their respective exchange rates are influenced by varying environmental conditions, the atmospheric fluxes of carbon dioxide, water and energy, themselves, are also considered an indicator for changes of climate conditions quantified by related ecosystem responses such as alterations of net ecosystem exchange or changes in evaporation. Due to the functional interdependencies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions are not limited to ecosystem feedback but the biosphere, in return, affects the climate through changes of albedo, the energy budget, or changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by the biosphere–atmosphere exchange.

The complex interdependency of the ability of carbon uptake by vegetated areas and its drivers moved into the focus current and ongoing research. Giving its importance also in the context of climate change research, we invite papers that focus on the broad research field of biosphere-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases, energy, water, and volatile organic compounds for this Special Issue of the journal Atmosphere. This incorporates studies that focus on measurements or modeling (statistical modeling and process-based) of exchange processes, as well as studies that combine the two in data-model fusion approaches. We welcome your respective research manuscripts that are submitted by 30 April 2017.

Prof. Andres Schmidt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Land-Atmosphere Exchange
  • Carbon Cycle Modeling
  • Flux measurements
  • Process Based Biosphere Models
  • Statistical Biosphere Models
  • Micrometeorology
  • Eddy Covariance
  • Data Assimilation
  • Model-Data Fusion
  • Climate Change
  • Ecosystem Response
  • Remote Sensing of Biosphere
  • Volatile Organic Compounds

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Stomatal and Non-Stomatal Turbulent Deposition Flux of Ozone to a Managed Peatland
Atmosphere 2017, 8(9), 175; doi:10.3390/atmos8090175
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux
[...] Read more.
Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux to the earth’s surface. The deposition process itself is rather complex: The interactions between co-varying drivers such as the tropospheric ozone concentration, turbulence, and chemical reactions are not well understood. In the case of ozone deposition to vegetation, another aspect that must be studied is the role of stomatal regulation for a wide range of conditions. Therefore, we measured turbulent deposition fluxes of ozone with the eddy covariance technique during the peak of the growing season in 2014 over a managed, rewetted peatland in NW Germany. The deposition flux was large during the day (up to −15 nmol m−2 s−1) and relatively small during the night (between −1 and −2 nmol m−2 s−1). Flux partitioning by applying the surface resistance analogy and further analysis showed that the stomatal uptake was smaller than non-stomatal deposition. The correction of stomatal conductance with the gross primary production (GPP) improved the estimation of day- and nighttime stomatal deposition fluxes. Statistical analysis confirmed that the friction velocity (u*) was the single most important driver of non-stomatal ozone deposition and that relationships with other environmental drivers are not linear and highly variable. Further research is needed to develop a better process understanding of non-stomatal ozone deposition, to quantify the role of surface deposition to the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer, and to estimate uncertainties associated with the partitioning of ozone deposition into stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Variations of Energy Fluxes and Ecosystem Evapotranspiration in a Young Secondary Dry Dipterocarp Forest in Western Thailand
Atmosphere 2017, 8(8), 152; doi:10.3390/atmos8080152
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Deforestation, followed by abandonment and forest regeneration, has become one of the dominant types of land cover changes in the tropics. This study applied the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify the energy budget and evapotranspiration in a regenerated secondary dry dipterocarp forest
[...] Read more.
Deforestation, followed by abandonment and forest regeneration, has become one of the dominant types of land cover changes in the tropics. This study applied the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify the energy budget and evapotranspiration in a regenerated secondary dry dipterocarp forest in Western Thailand. The mean annual net radiation was 126.69, 129.61, and 125.65 W m−2 day−1 in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. On average, fluxes of this energy were disaggregated into latent heat (61%), sensible heat (27%), and soil heat flux (1%). While the number of energy exchanges was not significantly different between these years, there were distinct seasonal patterns within a year. In the wet season, more than 79% of energy fluxes were in the form of latent heat, while during the dry season, this was in the form of sensible heat. The energy closure in this forest ecosystem was 86% and 85% in 2010 and 2011, respectively, and varied between 84–87% in the dry season and 83–84% in the wet season. The seasonality of these energy fluxes and energy closure can be explained by rainfall, soil moisture, and water vapor deficit. The rates of evapotranspiration also significantly varied between the wet (average 6.40 mm day−1) and dry seasons (3.26 mm day−1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Common Land Model (CoLM) from the Perspective of Water and Energy Budget Simulation: Towards Inclusion in CMIP6
Atmosphere 2017, 8(8), 141; doi:10.3390/atmos8080141
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
Land surface models (LSMs) are important tools for simulating energy, water and momentum transfer across the land–atmosphere interface. Many LSMs have been developed over the past 50 years, including the Common Land Model (CoLM), a LSM that has primarily been developed and maintained
[...] Read more.
Land surface models (LSMs) are important tools for simulating energy, water and momentum transfer across the land–atmosphere interface. Many LSMs have been developed over the past 50 years, including the Common Land Model (CoLM), a LSM that has primarily been developed and maintained by Chinese researchers. CoLM has been adopted by several Chinese Earth System Models (GCMs) that will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In this study, we evaluate the performance of CoLM with respect to simulating the water and energy budgets. We compare simulations using the latest version of CoLM (CoLM2014), the previous version of CoLM (CoLM2005) that was used in the Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-GCM) for CMIP5, and the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) against global diagnostic data and observations. Our results demonstrate that CLM4.5 outperforms CoLM2005 and CoLM2014 in simulating runoff (R), although all three models overestimate runoff in northern Europe and underestimate runoff in North America and East Asia. Simulations of runoff and snow depth (SNDP) are substantially improved in CoLM2014 relative to CoLM2005, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The simulated global energy budget is also substantially improved in CoLM2014 relative to CoLM2005. Simulations of sensible heat (SH) based on CoLM2014 compare favorably to those based on CLM4.5, while root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in net surface radiation indicate that CoLM2014 (RMSE = 16.02 W m−2) outperforms both CoLM2005 (17.41 W m−2) and CLM4.5 (23.73 W m−2). Comparisons at regional scales show that all three models perform poorly in the Amazon region but perform relatively well over the central United States, Siberia and the Tibetan Plateau. Overall, CoLM2014 is improved relative to CoLM2005, and is comparable to CLM4.5 with respect to many aspects of the energy and water budgets. Our evaluation confirms CoLM2014 is suitable for inclusion in Chinese GCMs, which will increase the diversity of LSMs considered during CMIP6. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parameterization of Evapotranspiration Estimation for Two Typical East Asian Crops
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 111; doi:10.3390/atmos8060111
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP) model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance,
[...] Read more.
Estimation of evapotranspiration plays an important role in understanding the water cycle on the earth, especially the water budget in agricultural ecosystems. The parameterization approach of the Penman-Monteith-Katerji-Perrier (PM-KP) model, accounting for the influence of meteorological variables and aerodynamic resistance on surface resistance, was proposed in the literature, but it has not been applied to Asian croplands, and its error and sensitivity have not been reported yet. In this study, the estimation of evapotranspiration on half-hourly scale was carried out for two typical East Asian cropland research sites, and evaluated by using eddy-covariance measurements corrected with the energy-balance-closure concept. Sensitivity coefficients as well as systematic bias and random errors of the PM-KP approach were used to evaluate the model performance. Different distributions of the calibration coefficients between different crops were reported for the first time, indicating that the calibration of this model was more stable for the rice field than for the potato field. The commonly-used parameterization approach suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was used as reference and was site-specifically optimized. The results suggest that the PM-KP approach would be a better alternative than the PM-FAO approach for estimating evapotranspiration for the flooded rice field, and an acceptable alternative for rain-fed croplands when the soil is well watered and the air is humid during the summer monsoon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Partitioning of the Available Energy over the Semi-Arid Areas of the Loess Plateau, China
Atmosphere 2017, 8(5), 87; doi:10.3390/atmos8050087
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
To investigate the mechanism of available energy partitioning to sensible and latent heat fluxes over semi-arid regions, data from the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) were analyzed to assess the effects of soil moisture, net radiation, and vapor pressure
[...] Read more.
To investigate the mechanism of available energy partitioning to sensible and latent heat fluxes over semi-arid regions, data from the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) were analyzed to assess the effects of soil moisture, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on available energy partitioning, as quantified by Bowen ratio. It was found that the Bowen ratio decreased rapidly with increasing soil moisture when soil was dry but was insensitive to the change in soil moisture when soil became wet. Net radiation and VPD affected the sensitivity of the Bowen ratio to soil moisture under dry conditions and the soil moisture threshold above which the Bowen ratio became insensitive to soil moisture. The Bowen ratio increases with net radiation at a high level of VPD, while the Bowen ratio first increases and then decreases with net radiation at a low level of VPD. Reduced soil moisture enhanced the effects of the net radiation and VPD on available energy partitioning. The effects of the VPD on Bowen ratio depended on the relative strength of the positive and negative impacts of VPD on the latent heat flux under different soil and net radiation conditions. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type: Article
Tentative Title: Chemical Tracers of Secondary Organic Aerosols from Biomass Burning
Author: Yury Desyaterik
Affiliation: Atmospheric Science Department, Colorado State University, 1371 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Abstract: Ambient aerosol samples collected at three different locations in the U.S., representing urban and rural environments, showed a strong correlation between nitrocatechol concentrations and concentrations of levoglucosan, a known marker of biomass burning. Although nitrocatechols are found in diesel- and gasoline-powered engine exhaust, even in an urban environment the nitrocatechol concentration correlates strongly with the levoglucosan concentration, suggesting that the engine source is comparatively small. Analyses of aged biomass smoke samples show that nitrocatechols are tracers of secondary organic aerosols produced during atmospheric aging of biomass burning emissions. Analyses of freshly emitted smoke from combusted biomass reveal that primary emissions cannot account for concentrations of nitrocatechols found in the atmosphere. Although nitrocatechols are often analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometric detection, HPLC with UV/Vis absorption detection can provide a more routine, quantitative method for analysis of PM2.5 samples. The sensitivity of detection is sufficient for measuring nitrocatechol concentrations in 1-3 day samples (flow rate 17 L/min through the filter area used for extraction) without sample preconcentration.

Type of Paper: Article
Tentative Title: Multi-temporal linkage patterns of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with the climatic and ecohydrological drivers in a Florida Everglades freshwater marsh
Authors: Omar I. Abdul-Aziz
Affiliations: Ecological Engineering, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, U.S.A.
Abstract: The multi-temporal linkages of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with the climatic and ecohydrological variables were investigated for a Florida Everglades freshwater wetland. Hourly observations during 2008-12 were gathered from the AmeriFlux network, and averaged to the four time-scales of 1-day, 8-day, 15-day, and 30-day. Principle component and factor analyses were employed to investigate the interrelation and grouping patterns of the climatic, ecological and hydrological variables at each time-scale. Partial least squares regressions were used to appropriately resolving multicollinearity among predictors and reliably estimate the relative linkages of NEE and the climatic/ecohydrological variables. The data-analytics indicated a robust interrelation and grouping patterns of NEE and the drivers among the four time-scales. Four biophysical components adequately described the data variance at each time-scale. “Radiation-energy” component was most strongly linked with NEE, followed by the “temperature-hydrology”, “aerodynamic”, and the “ambient atmospheric CO2” components. The relative linkage of radiation-energy and NEE appeared constant at different time-scales.

Type of Paper: Article
Tentative Title: Importance of Fast Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of a Closed-Path Gas Analyzer with Short Intake Tube
Authors: James Kathilankal, Gerardo Fratini and George Burba
Affiliations: Li-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, United States
Abstract: Gas analyzers traditionally used in Eddy covariance methodology traditionally measure gas density and when fluxes are calculated, corrections are applied to account for the changes in density of the gas due to changes in temperature (expansion) and changes in water vapor (Dilution effect). The new generation of gas analyzers with fast temperature and pressure measurement in the measurement cell enables the calculation of dry mole fraction thus simplifying the flux processing as the WPL density terms accounting for the air density fluctuations are no longer required. This should also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the density terms resulting from the eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes.
Traditional closed path instruments with long intake tubes can effectively dampen the fast temperature fluctuations in the sampling tube, before it reaches the measurement cell, thus eliminating the need for an expansion correction while estimating fluxes. But in instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction requires high-speed, precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. Fast pressure and water vapor content of the sampled air should also be measured in the sampling cell, and carefully aligned in time with gas and temperature measurements.
In this study we examine the impact of fast precise temperature measurements on the estimation of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes at different time scales from three different ecosystems. The fast cell temperature data is filtered mathematically to obtain slower response cell temperature time series, which is used in the calculation of fluxes. This exercise is intended to simulate the use of thicker slower response thermocouples instead of fast response fine wire thermocouples for estimating cell temperature.

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