Special Issue "Design and Applications of Coordinate Measuring Machines"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kuang-Chao Fan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: precision metrology, precision machine design, machine tool accuracy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been conventionally used in industry for 3D-dimensional and form-error measurements of macro parts for many years. Ever since the first CMM, developed by Ferranti Co. in late 1950s, they have been regarded as versatile measuring equipment, yet many CMMs on the market still have inherent systematic errors due to the violation of the Abbe Principle in the design aspect. Current CMMs are suitable only for part tolerance above 10 μm. With the rapid advent of ultraprecision technology, multi-axis machining, and micro/nanotechnology in the past twenty years, new types of ultraprecision and micro/nao-CMMs are urgently needed in all aspects of society.

This Special Issue welcomes any papers revealing novel designs and applications of CMMs, including structures, probes, miniaturization, measuring paths, accuracy enhancement, error compensation, etc. Detailed design principles in sciences, and technological applications in high-tech industries, are required in submitted manuscripts.

Topics may cover, but are not limited to, the following areas:

  1. New types of CMMs, such as Abbe-free, multi-axis, cylindrical, parallel, etc.
  2. New types of probes, such as touch-trigger, scanning, hybrid, non-contact, microscopic, etc.
  3. New types of Micro/nano-CMMs.
  4. New types of measuring path strategy, such as collision avoidance, free-form surface, aspheric surface, etc.
  5. New types of error compensation strategy.

Prof. Dr. Kuang-Chao Fan,
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • coordinate measuring machine
  • structural design
  • contact or noncontact probe
  • micro/nano-CMM
  • error compensation
  • measuring path
  • free-form measurement

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Overview of 3D Micro- and Nanocoordinate Metrology at PTB
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6090257
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 12 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improved metrological capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) measurements of various complex micro- and nanoparts are increasingly in demand. This paper gives an overview of the research activities carried out by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany, to meet this demand.
[...] Read more.
Improved metrological capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) measurements of various complex micro- and nanoparts are increasingly in demand. This paper gives an overview of the research activities carried out by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany, to meet this demand. Examples of recent research advances in the development of instrumentation and calibration standards are presented. An ultra-precision nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NMM) has been upgraded with regard to its mirror corner, interferometers and angle sensors, as well as its weight compensation, its electronic controller, its vibration damping stage and its instrument chamber. Its positioning noise has been greatly reduced, e.g., from 1σ = 0.52 nm to 1σ = 0.13 nm for the z-axis. The well-known tactile-optical fibre probe has been further improved with regard to its 3D measurement capability, isotropic probing stiffness and dual-sphere probing styli. A 3D atomic force microscope (AFM) and assembled cantilever probes (ACPs) have been developed which allow full 3D measurements of smaller features with sizes from a few micrometres down to tens of nanometres. In addition, several measurement standards for force, geometry, contour and microgear measurements have been introduced. A type of geometry calibration artefact, referred to as the “3D Aztec artefact”, has been developed which applies wet-etched micro-pyramidal marks for defining reference coordinates in 3D space. Compared to conventional calibration artefacts, it has advantages such as a good surface quality, a well-defined geometry and cost-effective manufacturing. A task-specific micro-contour calibration standard has been further developed for ensuring the traceability of, e.g., high-precision optical measurements at microgeometries. A workpiece-like microgear standard embodying different gear geometries (modules ranging from 0.1 mm to 1 mm) has also been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Characteristics of the Static Tri-Switches Tactile Probing Structure for Micro-Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6070202
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the fabrication of a series of micro ball-ended stylus tips by applying micro-EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) and OPED (One Pulse Electrical Discharge) processes, followed by a manual assembly process of a static tri-switches tactile structure on a micro-CMM (Coordinate Measuring
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the fabrication of a series of micro ball-ended stylus tips by applying micro-EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) and OPED (One Pulse Electrical Discharge) processes, followed by a manual assembly process of a static tri-switches tactile structure on a micro-CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). This paper further proves that the essential performance of the proposed system meets an acceptable benchmark among peer micro-CMM systems with a low cost. The system also adjusts for ambient temperature and humidity as the ordinary lab environmental conditions. For demonstration, several experiments used a randomly selected glass stylus with the diameters of stem and sphere of 0.07 mm and 0.12 mm, respectively. By leveraging research guidelines and common practice, this paper further investigates the probing relationship between measurement accuracy and its associated critical characteristics, namely triggering scenarios and geometric feature probing validation. The experimental results show that repeated detections in the uncertainty, in vertical and horizontal directions of the same point, achieved as small as 0.11 μm and 0.29 μm, respectively. This customized tri-switches tactile probing structure was also capable of measuring geometric features of micro-components, such as the inner profile and depth of a micro-hole. Finally, extensions of the proposed approach to pursue higher accuracy measurement are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Kinematic Model of Portable Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6070181
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Portable articulated coordinate measuring machine (PACMM) is a kind of high accuracy coordinate measurement instrument and it has been widely applied in manufacturing and assembly. A number of key problems should be taken into consideration to achieve the required accuracy, such as structural
[...] Read more.
Portable articulated coordinate measuring machine (PACMM) is a kind of high accuracy coordinate measurement instrument and it has been widely applied in manufacturing and assembly. A number of key problems should be taken into consideration to achieve the required accuracy, such as structural design, mathematical measurement model and calibration method. Although the classical kinematic model of PACMM is the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model, the representation of D-H encounters the badly-conditioned problem when the consecutive joint axes are parallel or nearly parallel. In this paper, a new kinematic model of PACMM based on a generalized geometric error model which eliminates the inadequacies of D-H model has been proposed. Furthermore, the generalized geometric error parameters of PACMM are optimized by the Levenberg-Marquard (L-M) algorithm. The experimental result demonstrates that the measurement of standard deviation of PACMM based on the generalized geometric error model has been reduced from 0.0627 mm to 0.0452 mm with respect to the D-H model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Model to Determinate the Influence of Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Input Quantities in Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6070190
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
PDF Full-text (1641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method for analysing the effect of different hypotheses about the type of the input quantities distributions of a measurement model is presented here so that the developed algorithms can be simplified. As an example, a model of indirect measurements with optical coordinate
[...] Read more.
A method for analysing the effect of different hypotheses about the type of the input quantities distributions of a measurement model is presented here so that the developed algorithms can be simplified. As an example, a model of indirect measurements with optical coordinate measurement machine was employed to evaluate these different hypotheses. As a result of the different experiments, the assumption that the different variables of the model can be modelled as normal distributions is proved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Micro-Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) for Large-Scale Dimensional Measurement of Micro-Slits
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050156
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7571 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a micro-coordinate measuring machine (micro-CMM) for large-scale dimensional measurement of a micro-slit on a precision die coater by using a shear-mode micro-probe. A glass micro sphere with a nominal diameter of 52.3 μm was attached on one end of a
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a micro-coordinate measuring machine (micro-CMM) for large-scale dimensional measurement of a micro-slit on a precision die coater by using a shear-mode micro-probe. A glass micro sphere with a nominal diameter of 52.3 μm was attached on one end of a tapered glass capillary tube as a probe tip ball. The micro-slit width of a slot die coater with a nominal slit width of 85 μm was measured by the micro-CMM. The probe tip was placed in the slit for the measurement. The effective working length of the probe was confirmed experimentally to be at least 1 mm. In order to measure the gap width uniformity over the entire slot die length of 200 mm, an air-bearing linear slide with a travelling stroke of 300 mm was employed in the micro-CMM to position the probe along the length direction of the slot die. The angular alignment error and the motion error of the air-bearing linear slide as well as those of the stages for positioning the probe along the direction perpendicular to the length direction of the slot die were investigated for evaluation of the expanded uncertainty of gap width measurement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of Liquid Bridge Force for 3D Microstructure Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050153
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed an increased demand for a method for precise measurement of the microstructures of mechanical microparts, microelectromechanical systems, micromolds, optical devices, microholes, etc. This paper presents a measurement system for three-dimensional (3D) microstructures that use an optical fiber probe. This
[...] Read more.
Recent years have witnessed an increased demand for a method for precise measurement of the microstructures of mechanical microparts, microelectromechanical systems, micromolds, optical devices, microholes, etc. This paper presents a measurement system for three-dimensional (3D) microstructures that use an optical fiber probe. This probe consists of a stylus shaft with a diameter of 2.5 µm and a glass ball with a diameter of 5 µm attached to the stylus tip. In this study, the measurement system, placed in a vacuum vessel, is constructed suitably to prevent adhesion of the stylus tip to the measured surface caused by the surface force resulting from the van der Waals force, electrostatic force, and liquid bridge force. First, these surface forces are analyzed with the aim of investigating the causes of adhesion. Subsequently, the effects of pressure inside the vacuum vessel on surface forces are evaluated. As a result, it is found that the surface force is 0.13 µN when the pressure inside the vacuum vessel is 350 Pa. This effect is equivalent to a 60% reduction in the surface force in the atmosphere. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Model for Correction and Modeling of Probe Head Errors in Five-Axis Coordinate Systems
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050144
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Simulative methods are nowadays frequently used in metrology for the simulation of measurement uncertainty and the prediction of errors that may occur during measurements. In coordinate metrology, such methods are primarily used with the typical three-axis Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs), and lately, also
[...] Read more.
Simulative methods are nowadays frequently used in metrology for the simulation of measurement uncertainty and the prediction of errors that may occur during measurements. In coordinate metrology, such methods are primarily used with the typical three-axis Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs), and lately, also with mobile measuring systems. However, no similar simulative models have been developed for five-axis systems in spite of their growing popularity in recent years. This paper presents the numerical model of probe head errors for probe heads that are used in five-axis coordinate systems. The model is based on measurements of material standards (standard ring) and the use of the Monte Carlo method combined with select interpolation methods. The developed model may be used in conjunction with one of the known models of CMM kinematic errors to form a virtual model of a five-axis coordinate system. In addition, the developed methodology allows for the correction of identified probe head errors, thus improving measurement accuracy. Subsequent verification tests prove the correct functioning of the presented model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Methods of In-Process On-Machine Auto-Inspection of Dimensional Error and Auto-Compensation of Tool Wear for Precision Turning
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6040107
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 20 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (11188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is mainly to develop an information and communication technology (ICT)-based intelligent dimension inspection and tool wear compensation method for precision tuning. With the use of vibration signal processing/characteristics analysis technology combined with ICT, statistical analysis, and diagnosis algorithms,
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is mainly to develop an information and communication technology (ICT)-based intelligent dimension inspection and tool wear compensation method for precision tuning. With the use of vibration signal processing/characteristics analysis technology combined with ICT, statistical analysis, and diagnosis algorithms, the method can be used to proceed with an on-line dimension inspection and on-machine tool wear auto-compensation for the turning process. Meanwhile, the method can also monitor critical tool life to identify the appropriate time for cutter replacement to reduce machining costs and improve the production efficiency of the turning process. Compared to the traditional ways, the method offers the advantages of requiring less manpower, and having better production efficiency, high tool life, fewer scrap parts, and low costs for inspection instruments. Algorithms and diagnosis threshold values for the detection, cutter wear compensation, and cutter life monitoring were developed. In addition, a bilateral communication module utilizing FANUC Open CNC (computer numerical control) Application Programming Interface (API) Spec was developed for the on-line extraction of instant NC (numerical control) codes for monitoring and transmit commands to CNC controllers for cutter wear compensation. With use of local area networks (LAN) to deliver the detection and correction information, the proposed method was able to remotely control the on-machine monitoring process and upload the machining and inspection data to a remote central platform for further production optimization. The verification experiments were conducted on a turning production line. The results showed that the system provided 93% correction for size inspection and 100% correction for cutter wear compensation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of an Abbe Error Free Micro Coordinate Measuring Machine
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6040097
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 5 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A micro Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with the measurement volume of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and measuring accuracy of about 100 nm (2σ) has been developed. In this new micro CMM, an XYZ stage, which is driven by three
[...] Read more.
A micro Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with the measurement volume of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and measuring accuracy of about 100 nm (2σ) has been developed. In this new micro CMM, an XYZ stage, which is driven by three piezo-motors in X, Y and Z directions, can achieve the drive resolution of about 1 nm and the stroke of more than 50 mm. In order to reduce the crosstalk among X-, Y- and Z-stages, a special mechanical structure, which is called co-planar stage, is introduced. The movement of the stage in each direction is detected by a laser interferometer. A contact type of probe is adopted for measurement. The center of the probe ball coincides with the intersection point of the measuring axes of the three laser interferometers. Therefore, the metrological system of the CMM obeys the Abbe principle in three directions and is free from Abbe error. The CMM is placed in an anti-vibration and thermostatic chamber for avoiding the influence of vibration and temperature fluctuation. A series of experimental results show that the measurement uncertainty within 40 mm among X, Y and Z directions is about 100 nm (2σ). The flatness of measuring face of the gauge block is also measured and verified the performance of the developed micro CMM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a High-Precision Touch-Trigger Probe Using a Single Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6030086
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To measure various components with nano-scale precision, a new high-precision touch-trigger probe using a single low-cost sensor for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is presented in this paper. The sensor is composed of a laser diode, a plane mirror, a focusing lens, and
[...] Read more.
To measure various components with nano-scale precision, a new high-precision touch-trigger probe using a single low-cost sensor for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is presented in this paper. The sensor is composed of a laser diode, a plane mirror, a focusing lens, and a quadrant photo detector (QPD). The laser beam from the laser diode with an incident angle is reflected by the plane mirror and then projected onto the quadrant photo detector (QPD) via the focusing lens. The plane mirror is adhered to the upper surface of the floating plate supported by an elastic mechanism, which can transfer the displacement of the stylus’s ball tip in 3D to the plane mirror’s vertical and tilt movement. Both motions of the plane mirror can be detected by respective QPDs. The probe mechanism was analyzed, and its structural parameters that conform to the principle of uniform sensitivity and uniform stiffness were obtained. The simulation result showed that the stiffness was equal in 3D and less than 1 mN/µm. Some experiments were performed to investigate the probe’s characteristics. It was found that the probe could detect the trigger point with uniform sensitivity, a resolution of less than 5 nm, and a repeatability of less than 4 nm. It can be used as a touch-trigger probe on a micro/nano-CMM. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview State of the Art of Tactile Micro Coordinate Metrology
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6050150
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micro parts are increasingly found in a number of industrial products. They often have complex geometrical features in the millimeter to micrometer range which are not accessible or difficult to measure by conventional coordinate measuring machines or by optical microscopy techniques. In the
[...] Read more.
Micro parts are increasingly found in a number of industrial products. They often have complex geometrical features in the millimeter to micrometer range which are not accessible or difficult to measure by conventional coordinate measuring machines or by optical microscopy techniques. In the last years, several concepts of tactile micro coordinate measuring machines have been developed in research laboratories and were partly commercialized by industry. The major challenges were related to the development of innovative micro probes, to the requirements for traceability and to the performance assessment at reduced measurement uncertainty. This paper presents a review on state of the art developments of micro coordinate measuring machines and 3D micro probes in the last 20 years, as far as these were qualified in a comparable way, with a special emphasis on research conducted by the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS in this field. It outlines the accuracy limitations for the probe head including the probing element and for the geometrical errors of the machine axes. Finally, the achieved performances are summarized and the challenges for further research are addressed. Full article
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