Special Issue "Advances in Acoustic Emission and Health Monitoring of Materials and Structures"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dimitrios G. Aggelis

Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Interests: structural health monitoring (shm); non-destructive evaluation (nde); acoustic emission (ae); ultrasonic testing (ut); scattering; dispersion; attenuation; material evaluation; concrete

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue aims to explore new trends in the field of condition monitoring of materials through Acoustic Emission (AE) and other Nondestructive Testing (NDT) techniques. The need for better control of material’s performance and processes is continuously pushing the limits of AE, with significant developments being achieved in terms of sensors, software, interpretation of signals, and characterization of materials’ condition. The focus is on all material systems, including metals, composites, rock, biological materials, and concrete. A certain number of contributions for this Special Issue will come from selected papers of IIIAE 2016 Kyoto, the first conference of International Institute of Innovative Acoustic Emission, composed of three major AE societies worldwide, namely the AE scientific committee in Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection, the Acoustic Emission Working Group, USA, and the European Working Group of Acoustic Emission. IIIAE 2016 is also known by two other names, the 8th International Conference on Acoustic Emission, AEWG, and the 23rd International Acoustic Emission Symposium, JSNDI, http://iiiae.org/iiiae2016/index.html.

Topics of interest (among others) include:

  • Signal- and parameter-based approaches for fracture monitoring
  • Identification of fracture modes
  • Innovative methodologies in AE (tomography, etc.)
  • Monitoring of innovative materials
  • AE for quality control of processes
  • Combination of AE with other monitoring techniques
  • Sensor technology and wireless systems
  • AE for structural health monitoring
  • Improvement in localization of sources
  • Wave dispersion and waveguides
  • Numerical simulations of acoustic wave propagation

Prof. Tomoki Shiotani
Prof. Dimitrios G. Aggelis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Elastic Wave Measurement Using a MEMS AE Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 737; doi:10.3390/app7070737
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, with the continuing progress of aging social infrastructures such as bridges and tunnels, there has been high demand for the assessment of deterioration of their performance and conditions. Since current inspection methods for those structures have mainly relied on human
[...] Read more.
In recent years, with the continuing progress of aging social infrastructures such as bridges and tunnels, there has been high demand for the assessment of deterioration of their performance and conditions. Since current inspection methods for those structures have mainly relied on human resources, it is important to reduce their increasing maintenance cost. One of the key methods for achieving effective maintenance without expensive human costs is to use sensors to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy conditions. In this paper, a MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) wideband frequency sensor, which is referred to as a super acoustic (SA) sensor, is evaluated through the pencil lead break (PLB) test. Due to its wideband frequency characteristics, the SA sensor is expected to be a promising alternative to the existing vibration sensors, including acoustic emission (AE) sensors. Several PLB signals were generated on an aluminum plate (5 mm thick), and propagating Lamb waves were detected by both AE and SA sensors. SA sensors were able to identify the location of PLB sources on the plate by measuring time differences between each sensor. By comparing the wave spectrums of both the AE and SA sensors analyzed by wavelet transform, the applicability of SA sensor for AE measurement is verified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Damage Assessment Using Information Entropy of Individual Acoustic Emission Waveforms during Cyclic Fatigue Loading
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 562; doi:10.3390/app7060562
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Information entropy measured from acoustic emission (AE) waveforms is shown to be an indicator of fatigue damage in a high-strength aluminum alloy. Three methods of measuring the AE information entropy, regarded as a direct measure of microstructural disorder, are proposed and compared with
[...] Read more.
Information entropy measured from acoustic emission (AE) waveforms is shown to be an indicator of fatigue damage in a high-strength aluminum alloy. Three methods of measuring the AE information entropy, regarded as a direct measure of microstructural disorder, are proposed and compared with traditional damage-related AE features. Several tension–tension fatigue experiments were performed with dogbone samples of aluminum 7075-T6, a commonly used material in aerospace structures. Unlike previous studies in which fatigue damage is measured based on visible crack growth, this work investigated fatigue damage both prior to and after crack initiation through the use of instantaneous elastic modulus degradation. Results show that one of the three entropy measurement methods appears to better assess the damage than the traditional AE features, whereas the other two entropies have unique trends that can differentiate between small and large cracks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Acoustic Emission Methods to Monitor Cement Composites during Setting and Hardening
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 451; doi:10.3390/app7050451
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cement-based composites belong among the basic building materials used in civil engineering. Their properties are given not only by their composition but also by their behaviour after mixing, as well as by the methods of curing. Monitoring the processes and phenomena during the
[...] Read more.
Cement-based composites belong among the basic building materials used in civil engineering. Their properties are given not only by their composition but also by their behaviour after mixing, as well as by the methods of curing. Monitoring the processes and phenomena during the early stages of setting is vital for determining the resulting properties and durability. The acoustic emission method is a unique non-destructive method that can detect structural changes as a cement-based composite is setting. It can also detect the onset and growth of cracks during the service life of a cement-based composite since the moment it has been mixed. The paper discusses the use of the acoustic emission method with a focus on the early stage of the lifespan of a cement-based composite including the measures necessary for its use and description of the parameters of acoustic emission signals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improved Ultrasonic Computerized Tomography Method for STS (Steel Tube Slab) Structure Based on Compressive Sampling Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 432; doi:10.3390/app7050432
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper developed a new ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) method for damage inspections of a steel tube slab (STS) structure based on compressive sampling (CS). CS is a mathematic theory providing an approximate recovery for a sparse signal with minimal reconstruction error from
[...] Read more.
This paper developed a new ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) method for damage inspections of a steel tube slab (STS) structure based on compressive sampling (CS). CS is a mathematic theory providing an approximate recovery for a sparse signal with minimal reconstruction error from under-sampled measurements. Considering the natural sparsity of the damage, CS algorithm is employed to image the defect in the concrete-filled steel tube of Shenyang Metro line 9 for reducing the work time. Thus, in the measurement stage, far fewer ultrasonic measurement paths were selected from the dense net of conventional ultrasonic CT techniques to capture the underlying damage information. Then, in the imaging stage, 1-norm minimization algorithm of CS theory is selected to recover the internal damage via fusing measurement data and solving optimization problem. The functionality of the proposed method is validated by three numerical concrete tube models with various conditions. Additionally, both the conventional ultrasonic CT technique and the proposed one are employed for ultrasonic inspection of the STS structure in Shenyang Metro line 9. Both the numerical and experimental results indicate that the proposed ultrasonic CT improved by CS has a great potential for damage detection, which provides an alternative accurate and effective way for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/E). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Acoustic Emission and Modal Frequency Variation in Concrete Specimens under Four-Point Bending
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 339; doi:10.3390/app7040339
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Dynamic Identification (DI) techniques were applied simultaneously, in an original way, to examine the stress dependent damage progress in pre-notched concrete beams tested in four-point bending. The damage mechanisms were characterized by analyzing the AE signals registered during
[...] Read more.
The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Dynamic Identification (DI) techniques were applied simultaneously, in an original way, to examine the stress dependent damage progress in pre-notched concrete beams tested in four-point bending. The damage mechanisms were characterized by analyzing the AE signals registered during the tests, conducted by increasing the specimen’s vertical deflection. In particular, the dominant fracture mode was identified, and correlations between dissipated and emitted energies were investigated. Moreover, variations in the natural bending frequencies, produced by the crack advancement under loading, were detected and put in relation with the cumulated AE energy. Two different types of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors, operating in well distinct frequency ranges, were used to measure AE and modal signals. This study may be of interest with an outlook on possible correlations between a multi-parameter structural monitoring and the solution of inverse problems by numerical models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Leak Detection in Water-Filled Small-Diameter Polyethylene Pipes by Means of Acoustic Emission Measurements
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/app7010002
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The implementation of effective strategies to manage leaks represents an essential goal for all utilities involved with drinking water supply in order to reduce water losses affecting urban distribution networks. This study concerns the early detection of leaks occurring in small-diameter customers’ connections
[...] Read more.
The implementation of effective strategies to manage leaks represents an essential goal for all utilities involved with drinking water supply in order to reduce water losses affecting urban distribution networks. This study concerns the early detection of leaks occurring in small-diameter customers’ connections to water supply networks. An experimental campaign was carried out in a test bed to investigate the sensitivity of Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring to water leaks. Damages were artificially induced on a polyethylene pipe (length 28 m, outer diameter 32 mm) at different distances from an AE transducer. Measurements were performed in both unburied and buried pipe conditions. The analysis permitted the identification of a clear correlation between three monitored parameters (namely total Hits, Cumulative Counts and Cumulative Amplitude) and the characteristics of the examined leaks. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review article
Title: Combination of acoustic and thermographic techniques for monitoring the fracture behavior in composite materials
Authors: Dimitrios A. Exarchos and Theodore E. Matikas
Affiliation: Materials Science & Engineering Department, University of
Ioannina, Greece
Abstract: This paper examines advanced methodologies for monitoring crack growth in composite materials with brittle matrix, using combined infrared thermography and acoustic techniques, such as acoustic emission and ultrasound. A combination of complementary nondestructive testing techniques allows for surface as well as for subsurface damage characterization. Materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites and cementitious materials. Observing the correlations between ultrasonic wave velocity, acoustic emission parameters, and thermal wave dissipation properties in relation to the content of damage, is of interest in order to establish reliable methodologies for monitoring the fracture behavior in these materials.

Type of Paper: Original research (Research article)
Title: The analysis of acoustic emission signals captured during static modulus elasticity test of selected specimens of cement composites
Authors: Libor Topolář, Luboš Pazdera, Dalibor Kocáb, Jaroslav Smutný, Karel Mikulášek, Tereza Komárková
Affiliation: Brno, University of Technology, Czech Rep.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of cement composites can be estimated by several methods both destructive and non-destructive. In this context, the crushing of the samples is the usual destructive test to determine the modulus of elasticity. The modulus of elasticity of cement composites is a key factor for estimating the deformation of the building structural elements. The static modulus of elasticity of cement composites was determined through a standard compression test. Acoustic emission method is often used to detect a failure at a very early stage of damage, long before a structure completely fails. The paper presents an experiment focused on analysing the acoustic emission signals captured in a commonly used static modulus elasticity test of specimens of cement composites.

Type of Paper: Original research (Research article)
Title: Using acoustic emission methods to monitor cement composites during setting and hardening
Authors: Libor Topolář, Luboš Pazdera, Barbara Kucharczyková, Jaroslav Smutný, Karel Mikulášek
Affiliation: Brno, University of Technology, Czech Rep.
Abstract: Cement composites are the basic building materials in civil engineering. Their properties are given not only by their composition, but also by their behaviour after the mixing of all components and by the ways of curing. Monitoring the processes and phenomena at the early stages of setting is important for determining their resulting properties. Method of acoustic emission is one of the non-destructive methods that can be employed to monitor the structural changes as a cement composite sets in. It can also detect the origin and growth of cracks during the lifetime of a cement composite immediately after the compound is mixed. The paper is concerned with the use of the acoustic emission method mainly at the initial stage of a cement composite lifetime with regard to the method’s advantages and disadvantages as well as with the measures necessary for its use.

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